Zone 7 planting calendar

Planting peas.

It’s such a simple act, yet it’s become complicated for lots of gardeners. You’ve probably heard the sayings: Plant your peas on St. Patrick’s Day. Plant your peas on Ash Wednesday. If you don’t plant your peas by Easter (March 31 this year), you won’t have peas for the Fourth of July.

If I follow these bits of wisdom and plant my peas on any of the dates mentioned, I’m going to have to use some heavy equipment. First, I’ll need a snow plow. There’s still a layer of crusty snow over most of the garden. When the snow plowing is done, I’ll be needing one of those flame throwers blueberry growers use to burn their fields. This might or might not thaw the soil enough to plant peas. Then I’ll put up low tunnels to finish warming the soil.

This is getting complicated, but there’s an easier way.

Forget the date. I’ll still have snow and frozen ground on Easter, but I will have peas by the Fourth of July. Fresh peas and salmon are a Fourth of July tradition here.

Forget USDA Hardiness Zones. One of the questions I’m frequently asked is, “When do I plant peas in Zone 5?” Don’t choose your planting date by your zone. It’s as unreliable as planting peas on St Patrick’s Day in Maine.

When the soil is 45 degrees, is well drained, doesn’t drip water or form a clump when squeezed into a ball, and the likelihood of overnight temperatures being in the teens is small, it’s time to plant peas. Snow isn’t a big worry. Snow melts on 45-degree soil. A few days under a blanket of snow shouldn’t hurt the young plants.

It’s easy to test soil temperature. I use a $7 meat thermometer, jabbed three or four inches into the soil.

Amend the soil with compost/composted manure, but skip fertilizer unless you already know your soil is missing something important. Plant peas one inch deep and two inches apart. There’s no need to be exact. Peas that are a little deeper will come up a day later. Better a little too deep than not deep enough.

When peas are too shallow they’ll push up out of the soil or the soil will wash away during rain or watering. Be sure to check the rows in a day or two and cover the seeds peeking out.

Vines that are 24 inches tall or shorter aren’t worth my time for staking. They’re easy to move while picking, and if they fall over, they don’t have far to go. I stake anything taller than 24 inches.

Over the years I’ve learned to place the stakes and wrap the twine the day I plant. I’m prone to “tomorrow.” You’ll save yourself a lot of time if you get your stakes and twine or trellis up before the seeds germinate. Trying to play catch up to wind vines into their support when they’re growing is like keeping a toddler still it doesn’t happen easily.

You’ll have a better chance of having fresh peas on a certain date if you choose your varieties by Days to Maturity. Early peas are a treat even if they’re not the best tasting variety you’ll grow each year.

The second round of peas is planted around July 1. The summer heat hasn’t bothered the plants, and it’s usually over when the plants blossom and start producing.

If everything comes together as I hope, I pull the spinach that’s just starting to bolt to make room for peas. The spinach is planted as soon as the soil temperature is 40 degrees, so it’s ahead of the peas and just about done by late June.

The soil temperature in July is much warmer than 45 degrees, so the peas germinate quickly. You can soak the peas in water overnight to aid germination if the soil is dry.

Robin Follette and her husband, Steve, operate Seasons Eatings Farm in Talmadge, Maine.

Growing Snap Peas – How To Grow Snap Peas

Sugar snap (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) peas are a cool season, frost hardy vegetable. When growing snap peas, they are meant to be harvested and eaten with both pods and peas. Snap peas are great in salads while raw, or cooked in stir fries with other vegetables.

How to Grow Snap Peas

Growing sugar snap peas is best when the temperature is 45 F. (7 C.) or higher, so wait until you’re sure chance of frost is past. The soil should also be dry enough to till without the dirt clumping up and sticking to your garden tools. After the early spring rains is definitely best.

Sow your snap peas planting seeds 1 to 1 1/2 inches

(2.5 to 3.8 cm.) deep and 1 inch (2.5 cm.) apart, with 18 to 24 inches (46-60 cm.) between pairs of plants or rows. Early on when growing sugar snap peas, cultivate and hoe shallowly so you don’t injure the plants.

When growing sugar snap peas, mulch around the plants, which will prevent the soil from getting too hot in summer afternoon sun. It also prevents too much moisture from building up around the roots. Too much sunshine can burn the plants, and too much water can rot the roots.

A little weeding is required, but growing snap peas don’t require a lot of fuss and muss. Minimal fertilization is necessary and soil prep in the beginning consists of simple raking and hoeing.

When to Pick Sugar Snap Peas

Knowing when to pick sugar snap peas means paying attention to the pods and pick once they are swollen. The best way to know when your snap peas are ripe enough is to pick a couple each day until you find them suitable to your liking. Don’t wait too long, though, because the peas can become tough and unusable.

Snap peas planting isn’t difficult and the peas pretty much take care of themselves. Just plant the seeds and watch them grow. It takes very little time before you are enjoying your sugar snap peas.

How to Grow Sugar Snap Peas

Days to germination: 10 to 12 days
Days to harvest: 60 to 100 days
Light requirements: Full sun to light shading
Water requirements: Regular watering
Soil: Added inoculant can help (see below)
Container: Bush varieties work best


Of all the pea varieties out there, the sugar snap pea is quickly becoming one of the most popular type because you don’t need to shell the peas out of their pods. You still can of course, but the sweet edible pods mean a less time-consuming crop since you can just eat the peas and pod together.

These shouldn’t be confused with snow peas either. Snow peas are grown for their flat (and somewhat empty) pods, but sugar snap peas do have full-sized peas within the pods.

There are varieties that will require a trellis or support, but some are the bush-type that should stand fine on their own. Maturity dates come in a wide range, so you can choose peas that are ready to eat in just 2 months, or those that will take more than 3.

Sugar snap peas are delicious either raw or cooked, and they provide a good source of folic acid and vitamins B1, K and C.

Starting from Seed

Peas of all types have delicate root systems, so it’s not recommended that you try to start seedlings for later transplant. Since peas are already planted very early in the season, there is usually little need to get a head-start for your plants.

You can put your pea seed out as soon as your weather has warmed the soil enough to thaw. If you can dig, then you can plant. This will usually be 4 to 6 weeks before your expected final frost date. The only downside to such early planting is that the seeds can be prone to rotting. Most pea seed is sold treated with fungicide to counteract this, but you can buy untreated seed if you prefer. If you do so, you should sow heavily because more of your seed will rot before sprouting.

Prepare your soil with a thorough digging (particularly if you are in an area where the ground freezes solid over the winter). One addition you may want to make is inoculant. You can buy it at any garden store, and it’s a natural additive that helps with peas’ natural ability to take up nitrogen from the soil. It’s not necessary, but pea plants can grow much better with a sprinkling of inoculant added at planting.

Vining peas can be planted closer together than bushing peas, so plan your space out accordingly. Bush peas will need about a foot of space between each plant, but vining peas can really just be sown along a row without worrying about the exact space. They can tolerate being very close to each as long as they have room to grow upwards. Either way, the seeds need to be about an inch under the soil.

Growing Instructions

Don’t let your plants totally dry out, but peas are generally fine with regular rainfall. Give them a good drink once a week if it hasn’t been raining.

If you are growing peas that vine, you’ll want a trellis or some other kind of support to hold up the vines. It’s best to have this in place soon after planting so you don’t damage the plants later on.

Peas grow quickly and can usually outpace the weeds, but keep your pea patch fairly weed-free as the summer progresses. Roots are shallow and tender, so don’t dig too deeply with a hoe around the plants.


Sugar snap peas can be grown fine in containers, but you’ll have the best success with bush variety. Peas that are naturally more dwarf are even better. Sugar Ann is particularly excellent for containers, and it matures very quickly too (less than 60 days).

Pots should be at least 12″ across and 12″ deep for each pea plant. Even potted plants will benefit from the same inoculant mentioned above. Just add some to the soil as per the package directions.

Potted peas have the added bonus that you can move them during the hotter months into a shadier location, extending the life (and productivity) of your plants.

Pests and Diseases

Pea moths are the biggest insect pest for peas, though it’s actually their caterpillar larvae that do the damage not the moths themselves. Moths lay their eggs on your pea plants, just in time for the grubs to eat your developing peas. Insect sprays can help, but you can also plant early maturing peas as well. They usually grow their peas before the pea moth is out.

Because the pods are less tough than regular green peas, they are more vulnerable to chewing insect pests such as slugs and even cucumber beetles. Pick off these bugs when you see them, and spray your plants with natural pyrethrin insecticides to keep them away.

Harvest and Storage

It’s at harvest time that sugar snap peas are different from traditional shelling peas. Once the pods start to develop, you don’t necessarily have to wait until the peas inside have grown. You can start to pick your sugar snap peas whenever you wish, though you’ll get more of a crop if you wait until the peas have started to fill out the pod.

Hot weather will kill your plants, so as the temperature goes up, you’ll find your plants will stop producing new pea pods. If you can give your plants some shade, they will keep producing for a longer period. Yield can widely vary depending on the plant type, but in general you will get more peas from vines than bushes.

Fresh, they can be stored in the fridge for about 2 weeks before they start to go limp. For longer storage you can can or freeze them. They can be frozen intact or you can just freeze the shelled peas if you prefer. Either way, you will need to blanche them in boiling water for a minute or two before freezing so they retain their color and texture.

  1. Tom Armstrong Says:
    May 31st, 2011 at 9:44 am

    Do rabbits, deer, and/or or woodchucks / ground hogs eat the plants or pods while they;re growing?

  2. B Moore Says:
    October 10th, 2011 at 10:24 am

    They are the closest thing to ice cream for deer…I use electric fencing to grow them commercially…

  3. Marlee Nicholas Says:
    December 9th, 2011 at 12:06 pm

    We planted sugar snap peas (North Florida). They came up great but disappeared. Same thing happened with the snow peas–what is taking them and what do I do?

  4. Kate Says:
    May 20th, 2012 at 7:46 am

    Our sugar snap pea vines are drying out…not huge producers..either.
    Getting plenty water
    We are in the south east, Bluffton, near Hilton Head Island.
    Our soil is sand but this past year we ammended it w lots of horse manure.We have replanted.

  5. Jennifer Says:
    June 4th, 2012 at 6:53 pm

    My peas are in a container, full sun. They’ve been doing great, flowers and pods all coming in but all of a sudden the leaves are yellowing. What’s the best way to check what might be wrong? I appreciate any suggestions.

    Jennifer from Denver

  6. Dave Says:
    July 23rd, 2012 at 3:05 pm

    My first year with snap peas, having great success. Live in Anchorage so temps are mostly cool, each plant having 15-20 flowers already.

  7. Summer Carrion Says:
    March 28th, 2013 at 7:29 am

    Hi, I’ve had wonderful luck with peas here in Indiana. Yellow leaves probably means too much water or too small pots. To keep animals from eating your pods you can plant garlic, cilantro (which grows fast and spreads easily between plants) or hot peppers right in with your pea crop. The strong smells help hide the sweet smell of the pea. You can also spray the leaves with a mixture of organic soap (just enough to make the mix sticky) and chili powder. Animals really don’t like that but you have to remember to rinse them before you eat them yourself! And for the one with the sand , try building a box out of 1×8 boards then filling with an organic potting soil. be careful not to get sstarting mix ad this has little to no nutrient value. then mulch lightly over the seeds before they sprout. This should help retain moisture and give much needed nutrient to your young plants. Good luck all!

  8. Judy Says:
    April 13th, 2013 at 2:59 pm

    We get a lot of rain in the spring here. After planting my pea seeds I run a wire down the length of the row, about 2 to 3 feet off of the ground & tent plastic over the row until the plants have sprouted. This prevents the seed from rotting in too wet soil. Also, I have planted bush peas & discovered that if they have no strings or trellis to climb they just make a tangled up mess all over the ground. I do the wires high & low with string zigzagged between & the bush type usually grow 4 feet or more up the twine.

  9. chris mckittrick Says:
    April 16th, 2013 at 5:04 pm

    Enjoyed article about sugar snap peas. Ive been telling my husband that we need to plant them earlier than the rest of the garden. We’ll try this year!! We’ll let you know!!

  10. Carla Says:
    April 20th, 2013 at 6:26 pm

    Can I plant snap peas in late summer to harvest a fall crop?

  11. Kim Says:
    April 28th, 2013 at 6:49 am

    Do the plants die completely when it starts to get hot, or do they just stop producing pea pods? If they do not die completely, will they start to produce again in the fall?

  12. C.j. Says:
    May 13th, 2013 at 6:24 pm

    My sugar snap pea plants are over 2 ft tall with no blossoms. Its been about 3 months since planting.

  13. Margie Says:
    June 17th, 2013 at 9:34 am

    What is the growing season for sugar snap peas? The first ones I grew did well in the spring. This last bunch is turning brown much earlier, so I assume it’s the heat since it is hotter.

  14. John Says:
    September 5th, 2013 at 2:36 pm

    Is it wise to soak pea seed in water before planting?

  15. Mary Gerrity Says:
    July 17th, 2014 at 2:03 pm

    Can I plant snap peas in late summer to harvest a fall crop?

  16. kathy in California Says:
    March 5th, 2015 at 11:58 am

    I started snow peas from seed and they started growing nicely. After getting about an inch and a half long most of them just stop growing. They are green and I have placed a glass panel in front of some to protect from birds and the sudden rain storms that have come through. Check them every day and talk to the garden. Strange i know but if I am positive and happy with them I like to think that will be happy nutritious plants.

  17. dan Says:
    July 10th, 2015 at 8:31 am

    Just made my first harvest of Sugar Snaps. There are no new flower buds at this time. Will the bush continue to produce or is it done.

  18. Kathy Barnett Says:
    July 29th, 2015 at 12:43 am

    Can i plant fresh pea pods i just picked or do i have to let them dry? I want ti start a new batch.

  19. john njuguna Says:
    August 31st, 2016 at 1:45 am

    i need to know the correct time to grow the pea.

  20. John Says:
    August 11th, 2017 at 7:15 am

    This is my first time planting a garden. We live near Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, in the summer we get a lot of rain and sun. I really help they grow! Thank you for some great help!

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Top of page…

April is the month of promise, especially for the vegetable gardener. This is when the weather is finally warm enough to transplant the mighty tomatoes out of doors and to seed the legumes and other tender vegetables and herbs that make up the bounty of summer. In Zone 7, our last frost date is around April 15. You should already have tilled your beds and applied lime and other amendments. But it’s not too late to break ground if you are just getting started. Plants are quite forgiving, so even if you do a few things backward, they’ll still grow and you’ll still have fruits and flowers aplenty. (Find your zone using the map on the right; click to enlarge.)


Sow annuals in prepared beds. Set out transplants. For a longer blooming season, set out some now, some in two weeks and so on until June. Keep them deadheaded after flowering starts and you’ll have blossoms until frost.

Arrange containers for the patio and make sure the annuals you planted earlier, such as pansies, are kept dead-headed. Pansies will last into May but will probably wilt in the heat after that. Plan to replace them with other colorful warm-weather annuals, such as zinnias or marigolds.


Plant new roses now, fertilize older ones late in the month.

Plant caladiums and dahlias after mid month.

Plant summer flowering bulbs, such as gladioli, snapdragons, dahlias, ismenes, tuberoses and so on. Plant these in groups every two weeks for a longer blooming season.

Perennial clumps can still be divided if they are just starting to put out new growth.

Vegetables and herbs

Some vegetables, berries and herbs do better as transplants and others do well when sown directly in the garden as seeds. Some can be done either way.

Transplants: Tomatoes, eggplant, collards, cabbage, cucumbers, dill, basil, lettuces, peppers, strawberries.

Make sure to mulch tomatoes and peppers deeply to prevent soil from splashing on the leaves. That’s how soil-borne diseases are spread. In fact, pruning off the lower branches of tomato plants to keep all foliage off the ground is a good idea throughout the summer. Using plenty of lime (because it’s loaded with calcium) is another good way to prevent tomato diseases. A generous handful dug in around new transplants will make for happier tomatoes.

You may also set out perennial herbs at this time, such as oregano, thyme, chives and rosemary. Make sure they are planted in an area where it won’t be necessary to disturb their roots as you dig in other crops later on. Many herbs will do well in containers on your deck, right next to the kitchen door.

You can still seed plant potatoes this month, but do it as early as possible. They don’t like the midsummer heat and will not make a good crop if seeded too late.

Remember a few rules to keep your crops happy:

• Plant tall crops such as okra, pole beans, tomatoes (if staked) and corn on the north side of other vegetables to avoid shading.

• Plant four or more rows of corn for better pollination. Planting in blocks instead of rows helps if you are short of space.

• Be sure to plant enough vegetables for canning and freezing, and for hungry neighbors. Try to have a plan for preserving the harvest before it overwhelms you. Canning and freezing are good options, as is dehydration.

• Cultivate to control weeds and grass, to break crusty soil and to provide aeration.

• Maintain mulch (straw is a good bet in vegetable gardens) between rows to combat weeds and keep moisture consistent.

• Vegetables need about an inch of water a week. Irrigate if rain doesn’t provide.

• Make a second planting within two to three weeks of the first planting of snap beans, corn and squash to extend the harvesting season.


Lime may be applied now at 40 pounds per 1,000 square feet.

Mow frequently starting now and during the summer. Mowing more frequently and cutting off less in each mowing results in a healthier lawn.

De-thatch zoysia, centipede and Bermuda grass lawns. These are warm-season grasses which can also be fertilized or planted this month after last frost.

Trees and Shrubs

Prune flowering shrubs after bloom if buds set on new wood.

Prune broadleaf shrubs very lightly as necessary for shaping and removing dead or damaged wood.

Feed azaleas and rhododendrons after bloom.

Feed magnolia grandiflora and other summer-flowering trees and shrubs with well-rotted manure.

Make sure to keep seedlings planted in the past year well watered through their first growing season.

Planting Calendar for Vegetables, Flowers, Herbs, and Fruit

How it works


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Browse through over 150 vegetables, herbs, flowers & fruits


Explore your calendar

Learn which plants to grow in your zone & when to plant them

Start here!

Two of the most important aspects of gardening are knowing when to plant and what to plant in your vegetable or flower garden. However, it can be difficult to know the exact time to begin planting in order for a garden to fully flourish throughout the growing season. If your plant or garden fails to thrive, simply adjusting your planting time frame might make a big difference. A planting calendar takes the guesswork out of the process.

The Gilmour planting guide is an ultimate guide on when to plant what, based on planting zones and frost dates. Read on to learn more about:

  • What is a planting calendar?
  • What is a frost date?
  • How to calculate planting dates?
  • When should you transplant seedlings?
  • Common questions about planting calendars

What is a planting calendar?

A planting calendar is a simple guide that tells when the optimal time to plant any type of vegetable, flower or plant is.

How does it work?

Planting calendars are designed to calculate the best time to start seeds and plant a garden. Timing for all planting is based on first and last frost dates. For example, if planting in hardiness zone 5, the last frost date is generally between April 1st – April 15th, and the first frost date typically falls between October 16th – October 31st. These dates will in part dictate when the best time to plant is.

From specific plants and vegetables that thrive in one particular zone, to when to plant, to how much water they need, to when to harvest, the Gilmour Planting Calendar provides everything you need to know to grow a bountiful garden.

What is a frost date?

A frost date is the first and last average day or range of days a frost is usually experienced in a zone. These are important to know, as some plants will not tolerate extreme cold from a frost. Keep frost dates in mind when deciding when to plant to ensure you have a garden that grows and produces as much as possible.

When to plant vegetables?

If you are wondering when the best time to plant vegetables in a specific area is, or what types tend to do better where you live, a planting and growing calendar is the first place you should look.

In zones where vegetables do very well as long as there isn’t an unusually late frost soon after planting (when a plant is still young and vulnerable). Even though you can plant and enjoy almost any vegetable here, we are still very cognizant of when to actually put something in the ground. For instance, broccoli and kale are planted in March – April, whereas corn and tomatoes won’t go in the ground until May – June. A planting calendar helps you decide exactly when to plant every type of vegetable.

When to plant flowers?

Determining when to plant flowers is easy once you learn the first and last frost date in your zone. Zones can be divided even amongst themselves, and this can slightly vary suggested planting dates by a week or two. Always look at the type of flower to see if it will tolerate your zone and frost dates. Hardy flowers like pansies and alyssum will survive light frosts, whereas tender flowers like dahlias and nasturtium need warm soil to grow properly. So, it is the type of flower combined with frost dates that will be the ultimate guide in creating a garden calendar that will result in the most beautiful blooms and bounty.

When to plant herbs?

Most herbs can be started from seed indoors or outdoors. Young starter plants can be put directly in the ground. All three options will often yield a great result. When to actually start or plant an herb greatly depends on zone and the type of herb you want to grow. Some herbs like chives can be started indoors 8 – 10 weeks, or outside 3 – 4 weeks, before the last frost.

When to plant fruits?

Planting fruit trees in early spring or late winter is typically fine if planting them in the ground. Container trees tend to do well if planted any time from September to May. However, if deep in the heart of winter, wait for a milder spell before planting. Other fruit such as strawberries can go in the ground as early as 6 weeks prior to the last average frost date in an area. The best time to plant fruit depends on what you want to plant and where you live.

How to calculate planting dates?

Calculating planting dates is different for each plant. It’s based on growing zone, frost dates and a plant’s maturity date and needs. A planting schedule can be created by determining the first frost date and then working backwards. This will help figure out the best planting date for whatever you are growing. The goal is to ensure a plant has enough time to mature before the first frost of the year. Once armed with this information, check the growing and maturity times for each individual plant or vegetable you will plant.

Why start planting seeds indoors?

Many people wonder about when to start planting seeds. There are many reasons why gardeners may choose to start plants from seed. Some do so simply to get a jump start on the gardening season, since the process can be started even while still cold out. For others, it’s the cost-factor that’s so attractive, as a pack of seeds is cheaper and will produce much more yield than a starter plant. And still others like to know exactly how their plants are raised – this is especially true for gardeners who are concerned with organic practices. But the biggest reason to start seeds indoors can be to protect seedlings from harsh weather conditions.

Which seeds should start indoors?

Some plants are better suited to be planted outdoors from the start. However, many varieties will do exceptionally well when started from seed indoors. Of course, it’s always important to keep in mind there are other factors to note besides just the type of plant. When to plant, and how well a plant will do indoors versus outdoors, will vary from plant to plant. Growing zone also needs to be taken into consideration.

Plants that you can start indoors from seed include:

  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Eggplant
  • Lettuce
  • Peppers
  • Pumpkins
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomatoes
  • Watermelon

When should you transplant seedlings?

One of the most important components to starting plants from seeds is timing. Knowing when to move seedlings outside is critical to a plant’s success. Wait too long and you risk a root bound plant and transplanting too soon means your plant may not be strong enough to survive the elements and shock from being moved to a new environment.

Surprisingly, size is not always a steadfast indicator of a plant being ready to move outdoors. Some seedlings will grow quickly but may not be ready to move outside. A better way than size to tell if a plant is mature enough to be transplanted is by the number of true leaves it has. If a seedling has between 3 and 4 true leaves, it is likely ready. Note that the very first leaves to grow are not what you’re looking for. Those initial leaves are cotyledons and store food for growing plants. True leaves emerge after the cotyledons.

Of course, temperature and frost play a big factor on when to transplant seedlings. Knowing the last frost date and a plant’s standard frost guidelines is important.

Common questions about planting calendars

Can there be more than one planting season?

Some zones offer succession planting, or “second plantings.” Warmer climates, such as zones 7 – 10, will often provide two opportunities to plant some of your favorite veggies. For example, in Florida, you can plant peppers and tomatoes in February to enjoy a summer harvest, and then again in early fall for a winter harvest.

How to tell how much to water your garden?

A good rule of thumb is to water your garden about 2 inches each week. Use this guide very loosely, though, as specific plants, zones and planting areas will all dictate how much water is actually needed. The water needs of one plant versus another can vary tremendously.

When is the best time to plant a garden?

There really isn’t any one, good answer to this question. Just like water, soil, light and other growing conditions, plants can have very different needs for the best time to be planted. The only way to know for sure is to use a gardening calendar that calculates the first expected and last average last frost date in a specific zone – this will help determine planting timing for each plant.

What can I plant before winter?

Just because the weather is cooling off doesn’t mean the growing season has to be over. Cooler fall temperatures are the perfect time to plant many delicious vegetables such as garlic, asparagus, peas and onions and shallots.

When should I stop watering before harvesting?

For most plants, stop watering about 1 -3 days prior to harvest. Ideally, soil should be relatively dry, but plants should not be so thirsty they wilt or droop.

Planning a gardening calendar is exciting – and a planting calendar takes some of the guesswork out of the process, so it can also be fun and rewarding. With careful thought, the end result is an entire garden of gorgeous plants that will produce all season long.

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