Why are flowers brightly colored?

Attracting pollinators

Flowering plants need to get pollen from one flower to another, either within a plant for self-pollination or between plants of the same species for cross-pollination to occur. However, pollen can’t move on its own, so animals or the wind (and water in rare cases) move the pollen for plants.

Animal pollinators

Most New Zealand native flowering plants are animal pollinated – most by insects, but some by birds or even bats. Plants provide nectar and pollen as edible rewards to the animals for visiting a flower. As an animal reaches into a flower for its reward, it brushes against an anther, and some of the pollen sticks to its body. When the animal visits another flower, some of this pollen comes off onto the stigma – pollination has occurred. The pollen of animal-pollinated plants has a rough surface to help it stick to a pollinator

Attracting insects

Many flowers use colours to attract insects, sometimes helped by coloured guiding marks. Some have ultraviolet marks that can be seen by insects but are invisible to human eyes. Flowers are often shaped to provide a landing platform for visiting insects or to force them to brush against anthers and stigmas. The pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) uses colour in a different way. It only has very small petals but big bright red clusters of stamens.

Some flowers have scent to attract insects. Many of these scents are pleasing to humans too, but not all – some flowers attract flies with a smell of rotting meat. Colours can’t be seen in the dark, so scent is important for flowers that are pollinated by night-flying insects such as moths.

Attracting birds

Bird-pollinated flowers tend to be large and colourful, so birds can see them easily against a background of leaves. Kōwhai (Sophora species), flax (Phormium tenax harakeke) and kākā beak (Clianthus puniceus, kōwhai ngutu-kākā) are examples of bird-pollinated native plants. Some flowers even change colour to tell birds when to visit. The flowers of the tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata, kōtukutuku) are greenish when ready for bird visitors, but after they have been pollinated, they turn red to tell birds to stop coming.

Most bird-pollinated flowers have lots of nectar, often at the bottom of a tube of petals. Birds need to brush against anthers and stigmas when reaching for the sugary reward with their long beaks. Some birds, such as tūī, stitchbirds and bellbirds, have special brush-like tips to their tongues to help them soak up the nectar.

Bat-pollinated flowers

Short-tailed bats can play an important role in the pollination of pōhutukawa, rewarewa (Knightia excelsa, New Zealand honeysuckle) and a hebe (Veronica macrocarpa). David Pattemore of Plant & Food Research found this out in recent studies on Little Barrier Island near Auckland.

Another plant pollinated by short-tailed bats is dactylanthus (Dactylanthus taylorii). This strange plant lives underground as a parasite on the roots of forest trees, with only the flowers poking up above the surface. The flowers have little colour but lots of nectar and a strong scent to attract the bats.

Wind pollination

Grasses are wind pollinated, as are some of our native trees and shrubs, such as beech (Nothofagus species), kawakawa (Macropiper excelsum, pepper tree) and many Coprosma species. Pollination by the wind is very hit and miss. The wind may pick up pollen from a grass flower and scatter it all over the place. Only by chance will a little pollen land on another flower of the same species. To make up for this waste, wind-pollinated flowers produce a huge amount of pollen, as hay fever sufferers will know.

Wind-pollinated flowers tend to have small dull-coloured petals or, in the case of grasses, no petals at all. They don’t need petals, colour, nectar or scent to attract animals. The pollen grains are not sticky like those of animal-pollinated flowers, which reduces the chance of them sticking to leaves and other obstacles. The stigmas of receiving flowers are sticky in order to hold on to pollen carried by passing breezes.

Pollination

What does the word “pollination” mean?
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a stamen to a pistil. Pollination starts the production of seeds. What about plants that don’t have flowers?
Some plants don’t have flowers. Plants such as mosses and ferns reproduce by spores. Cone-bearing plants, like pine or spruce trees for example, reproduce by means of pollen that is produced by a male cone and travels by wind to a female cone of the same species. The seeds then develop in the female cone. Find out more about pollinators!

Sing a Pollination Song!

Teachers—download lesson plans to use in your classroom!

Pollination is very important. It leads to the creation of new seeds that grow into new plants.

But how does pollination work? Well, it all begins in the flower. Flowering plants have several different parts that are important in pollination. Flowers have male parts called stamens that produce a sticky powder called pollen. Flowers also have a female part called the pistil. The top of the pistil is called the stigma, and is often sticky. Seeds are made at the base of the pistil, in the ovule.

To be pollinated, pollen must be moved from a stamen to the stigma. When pollen from a plant’s stamen is transferred to that same plant’s stigma, it is called self-pollination. When pollen from a plant’s stamen is transferred to a different plant’s stigma, it is called cross-pollination. Cross-pollination produces stronger plants. The plants must be of the same species. For example, only pollen from a daisy can pollinate another daisy. Pollen from a rose or an apple tree would not work.

But how does pollen from one plant get moved to another?

How Do Plants Get Pollinated?

Pollination occurs in several ways. People can transfer pollen from one flower to another, but most plants are pollinated without any help from people. Usually plants rely on animals or the wind to pollinate them.

When animals such as bees, butterflies, moths, flies, and hummingbirds pollinate plants, it’s accidental. They are not trying to pollinate the plant. Usually they are at the plant to get food, the sticky pollen or a sweet nectar made at the base of the petals. When feeding, the animals accidentally rub against the stamens and get pollen stuck all over themselves. When they move to another flower to feed, some of the pollen can rub off onto this new plant’s stigma.

Plants that are pollinated by animals often are brightly colored and have a strong smell to attract the animal pollinators.

Another way plants are pollinated is by the wind. The wind picks up pollen from one plant and blows it onto another.

Plants that are pollinated by wind often have long stamens and pistils. Since they do not need to attract animal pollinators, they can be dully colored, unscented, and with small or no petals since no insect needs to land on them.

Disclaimer/Credits Copyright © 2009 Missouri Botanical Garden

Natalia Dudareva, an associate professor in the department of horticulture and landscape architecture at Purdue University, explains.

Flowers of many plant species produce a scent. This scent is typically a complex mixture of low molecular weight compounds emitted by flowers into the atmosphere and its structure, color and odor are critical factors in attracting pollinators. Although flowers can be identical in their color or shape, there are no two floral scents that are exactly the same because of the large diversity of volatile compounds and their relative abundances and interactions. Thus, scent is a signal that directs pollinators to a particular flower whose nectar and/or pollen is the reward. Volatiles emitted from flowers function as both long- and short-distance attractants and play a prominent role in the localization and selection of flowers by insects, especially moth-pollinated flowers, which are detected and visited at night. Species pollinated by bees and flies have sweet scents, whereas those pollinated by beetles have strong musty, spicy, or fruity odors.

To date, little is known about how insects respond to individual components found within floral scents, but it is clear that they are capable of distinguishing among complex scent mixtures. In addition to attracting insects to flowers and guiding them to food resources within the flower, floral volatiles are essential in allowing insects to discriminate among plant species and even among individual flowers of a single species. For example, closely related plant species that rely on different types of insects for pollination produce different odors, reflecting the olfactory sensitivities or preferences of the pollinators. By providing species-specific signals, flower fragrances facilitate an insect’s ability to learn particular food sources, thereby increasing its foraging efficiency. At the same time, successful pollen transfer (and thus, sexual reproduction) is ensured, which is beneficial to plants.

Plants tend to have their scent output at maximal levels only when the flowers are ready for pollination and when its potential pollinators are active as well. Plants that maximize their output during the day are primarily pollinated by bees or butterflies, whereas those that release their fragrance mostly at night are pollinated by moth and bats. During flower development, newly opened and young flowers, which are not ready to function as pollen donors, produce fewer odors and are less attractive to pollinators than are older flowers. Once a flower has been sufficiently pollinated, quantitative and/or qualitative changes to the floral bouquets lead to a lower attractiveness of these flowers and help to direct pollinators to unpollinated flowers instead, thereby maximizing the reproductive success of the plant.

Pollination by Insects

Figure 1. Insects, such as bees, are important agents of pollination. (credit: modification of work by Jon Sullivan)

Bees are perhaps the most important pollinator of many garden plants and most commercial fruit trees (Figure 1). The most common species of bees are bumblebees and honeybees. Since bees cannot see the color red, bee-pollinated flowers usually have shades of blue, yellow, or other colors. Bees collect energy-rich pollen or nectar for their survival and energy needs. They visit flowers that are open during the day, are brightly colored, have a strong aroma or scent, and have a tubular shape, typically with the presence of a nectar guide. A nectar guide includes regions on the flower petals that are visible only to bees, and not to humans; it helps to guide bees to the center of the flower, thus making the pollination process more efficient. The pollen sticks to the bees’ fuzzy hair, and when the bee visits another flower, some of the pollen is transferred to the second flower. Recently, there have been many reports about the declining population of honeybees. Many flowers will remain unpollinated and not bear seed if honeybees disappear. The impact on commercial fruit growers could be devastating.

Many flies are attracted to flowers that have a decaying smell or an odor of rotting flesh. These flowers, which produce nectar, usually have dull colors, such as brown or purple. They are found on the corpse flower or voodoo lily (Amorphophallus), dragon arum (Dracunculus), and carrion flower (Stapleia, Rafflesia). The nectar provides energy, whereas the pollen provides protein. Wasps are also important insect pollinators, and pollinate many species of figs.

Figure 2. A corn earworm sips nectar from a night-blooming Gaura plant. (credit: Juan Lopez, USDA ARS)

Butterflies, such as the monarch, pollinate many garden flowers and wildflowers, which usually occur in clusters. These flowers are brightly colored, have a strong fragrance, are open during the day, and have nectar guides to make access to nectar easier. The pollen is picked up and carried on the butterfly’s limbs. Moths, on the other hand, pollinate flowers during the late afternoon and night. The flowers pollinated by moths are pale or white and are flat, enabling the moths to land. One well-studied example of a moth-pollinated plant is the yucca plant, which is pollinated by the yucca moth. The shape of the flower and moth have adapted in such a way as to allow successful pollination. The moth deposits pollen on the sticky stigma for fertilization to occur later. The female moth also deposits eggs into the ovary. As the eggs develop into larvae, they obtain food from the flower and developing seeds. Thus, both the insect and flower benefit from each other in this symbiotic relationship. The corn earworm moth and Gaura plant have a similar relationship (Figure 2).

Pollination by Bats

In the tropics and deserts, bats are often the pollinators of nocturnal flowers such as agave, guava, and morning glory. The flowers are usually large and white or pale-colored; thus, they can be distinguished from the dark surroundings at night. The flowers have a strong, fruity, or musky fragrance and produce large amounts of nectar. They are naturally large and wide-mouthed to accommodate the head of the bat. As the bats seek the nectar, their faces and heads become covered with pollen, which is then transferred to the next flower.

Pollination by Birds

Figure 3. Hummingbirds have adaptations that allow them to reach the nectar of certain tubular flowers. (credit: Lori Branham)

Many species of small birds, such as the hummingbird (Figure 3) and sun birds, are pollinators for plants such as orchids and other wildflowers. Flowers visited by birds are usually sturdy and are oriented in such a way as to allow the birds to stay near the flower without getting their wings entangled in the nearby flowers. The flower typically has a curved, tubular shape, which allows access for the bird’s beak. Brightly colored, odorless flowers that are open during the day are pollinated by birds. As a bird seeks energy-rich nectar, pollen is deposited on the bird’s head and neck and is then transferred to the next flower it visits. Botanists have been known to determine the range of extinct plants by collecting and identifying pollen from 200-year-old bird specimens from the same site.

Pollination by Wind

Figure 4. A person knocks pollen from a pine tree.

Most species of conifers, and many angiosperms, such as grasses, maples and oaks, are pollinated by wind. Pine cones are brown and unscented, while the flowers of wind-pollinated angiosperm species are usually green, small, may have small or no petals, and produce large amounts of pollen. Unlike the typical insect-pollinated flowers, flowers adapted to pollination by wind do not produce nectar or scent. In wind-pollinated species, the microsporangia hang out of the flower, and, as the wind blows, the lightweight pollen is carried with it (Figure 4).

The flowers usually emerge early in the spring, before the leaves, so that the leaves do not block the movement of the wind. The pollen is deposited on the exposed feathery stigma of the flower (Figure 5).

Figure 5. These male (a) and female (b) catkins are from the goat willow tree (Salix caprea). Note how both structures are light and feathery to better disperse and catch the wind-blown pollen.

Pollination by Water

Some weeds, such as Australian sea grass and pond weeds, are pollinated by water. The pollen floats on water, and when it comes into contact with the flower, it is deposited inside the flower.

Pollination by Deception

Figure 6. Certain orchids use food deception or sexual deception to attract pollinators. Shown here is a bee orchid (Ophrys apifera). (credit: David Evans)

Orchids are highly valued flowers, with many rare varieties (Figure 6). They grow in a range of specific habitats, mainly in the tropics of Asia, South America, and Central America. At least 25,000 species of orchids have been identified.

Flowers often attract pollinators with food rewards, in the form of nectar. However, some species of orchid are an exception to this standard: they have evolved different ways to attract the desired pollinators. They use a method known as food deception, in which bright colors and perfumes are offered, but no food. Anacamptis morio, commonly known as the green-winged orchid, bears bright purple flowers and emits a strong scent. The bumblebee, its main pollinator, is attracted to the flower because of the strong scent—which usually indicates food for a bee—and in the process, picks up the pollen to be transported to another flower.

Other orchids use sexual deception. Chiloglottis trapeziformis emits a compound that smells the same as the pheromone emitted by a female wasp to attract male wasps. The male wasp is attracted to the scent, lands on the orchid flower, and in the process, transfers pollen. Some orchids, like the Australian hammer orchid, use scent as well as visual trickery in yet another sexual deception strategy to attract wasps. The flower of this orchid mimics the appearance of a female wasp and emits a pheromone. The male wasp tries to mate with what appears to be a female wasp, and in the process, picks up pollen, which it then transfers to the next counterfeit mate.

Wind and Water Pollination

Most conifers and about 12% of the world’s flowering plants are wind-pollinated. Wind pollinated plants include grasses and their cultivated cousins, the cereal crops, many trees, the infamous allergenic ragweeds, and others. All release billions of pollen grains into the air so that a lucky few will hit their targets.

Wind-pollinated flowers are typically:

  • No bright colors, special odors, or nectar
  • Small
  • Most have no petals
  • Stamens and stigmas exposed to air currents
  • Large amount of pollen
  • Pollen smooth, light, easily airborne
  • Stigma feathery to catch pollen from wind
  • May have staminate and pistillate flowers, may be monoecious or dioecious
  • Usually single-seeded fruits, such as oak, grass, birch, poplar, hazel, dock, cat-tail, plantain, and papyrus

Water Pollination

Water pollinated plants are aquatic. Pollen floats on the water’s surface drifting until it contacts flowers. This is called surface hydrophily, but is relatively rare (only 2% of pollination is hydrophily). This water-aided pollination occurs in waterweeds and pondweeds. In a very few cases, pollen travels underwater. Most aquatic plants are insect-pollinated, with flowers that emerge from the water into the air.

Many of the water-pollinated plants have become invasive throughout the United States. To learn more, visit these invasive species websites:

  • U.S. Forest Service Invasive Species
  • National Invasive Species Information Center

Why Plants Have Bright Colored Flowers – Flower Color Significance

Bright colored flowers make our gardens bright and beautiful. But why do plants have bright colored flowers? What is the flower color significance? A lot of it has to do with the process of flower pollination.

Flower Pollination

Pollination is an important part of a plant’s life cycle. Before flowers can produce, they must be pollinated. Without flower pollination, most plants could not produce fruit or set seeds. Bees are the best-known pollinators, making their presence in the garden extremely important.

Honeybees carry out more pollination than any other insect, which includes ants, beetles, butterflies, and moths. Nearly eighty percent of all crop pollination comes from honeybees.

Birds, especially hummingbirds, are also responsible for flower pollination as are small mammals, such as bats.

The Process of Flower Pollination

Roughly seventy-five percent of all flowering plants require the help of pollinators to move pollen from

plant to plant. This process occurs when pollen, produced in the plant’s male reproductive organ (stamen), is exposed to the pistil found within the female’s reproductive part. Once pollination takes place, seeds begin to develop.

The process of flower pollination begins when an insect, such as a bee, in search for food settles on a flower. The bee on a flower sips nectar from it while pollen sticks to its body. As the bee flies off in search for more food, it settles on a new flower, and in the process, pollen from the last flower rubs off onto the new one. With each landing of a bee on a flower, pollination occurs.

Flower Color Significance

Plants have a number of different means to attract pollinators, with bright, showy colors being one of the most common ways to maximize their visual effect. Flowers, in essence, are attention getters. They are like advertisement signs for pollinators. In order for plants to entice pollinators, they must first offer their favorite foods: nectar and protein. Since most pollinators fly, the colors of a flower must attract them; therefore, the brighter the flower, the more likely it will be visited.

Flower color significance also depends on the specific pollinator. For instance, bees are attracted to bright blue and violet colors. Hummingbirds prefer red, pink, fuchsia or purple flowers. Butterflies enjoy bright colors such as yellow, orange, pink and red.

Night-blooming flowers take advantage of pollinators active at night, like moths and bats. Since they don’t see colors, these flowers are not as colorful. Instead, the flower’s fragrance attracts these pollinators.

If you’ve ever pondered the question of why flowers have bright-colored flowers, it’s simply a means of attracting much needed pollinators for flower pollination to occur.

The Let’s Play Archive

Part 66: 7/7-7/8: Flower Power

Part 65: 7/7-7/8: Flower Power

Music: Beneath the Mask (Instrumental Version)

Kaneshiro’s deadline is drawing near. We did all we could. I hope we can avoid problems now…

Of course I am. Palaces, changing hearts… It’s hard to tell what’s reality anymore… Still, the only thing I can do now is believe.
Music: So Boring

Not like that means I’ll put up bamboo decorations and write my wish on a piece of paper though. I’m not feeling it this year. Oh, but there’s a traditional food associated with Tanabata, just as chocolate is to Valentine’s Day. OK, Hamiru-kun! What’s the traditional food of Tanabata?

Obviously.
Right. Wow. I’m kind of surprised. You actually care about seasonal holidays and stuff? Originally, in China they ate a baked good that we call sakubei in Japanese to appease demons. Over time, that pronunciation went from sakubei, to sakumen, to soumen—a wholly different food.
Maaku gains Knowledge +1.
Going with the theme of calming demons, soumen on Tanabata is sometimes called “demon guts.”
Alright, I’m way more interested now.
Go restore your strength with some seasonal food and get ready for your exams.
Oh yeah, it’s almost finals time… They start on the 13th, right? There’s less than a week left. Are you gonna be ready?
Music: Tokyo Daylight
It feels like I just don’t know anything anymore… Um, let’s talk more inside.
Music: Alright (Elp Version)
The truth is… recently I’ve started questioning the entire point of my education. What do I stand to gain from getting good grades and living up to the high expectations my sister has set for me? I spoke to Eiko about this matter as well, but the answer hasn’t become any clearer…
You don’t remember? Eiko Takao. We asked her about the job she has at the “salon” in Shinjuku.
That was like three days ago. Are you okay, Maaku? You feeling all right?
Anyway, we’ve been calling each other every so often since we exchanged contact information. Because of those calls, we’ve actually grown somewhat close. When I voiced my concerns to her, she asked me how I would benefit from going to a top university. But… I couldn’t come up with a good answer. As for Eiko, her grades are… not the best, but she claims she doesn’t even think about that stuff. Apparently her parents can use their connections to find her a job… But isn’t that a little irresponsible? It’s nice she can rely on her parents, but this is her life, not theirs. …I guess that’s just a different way of approaching things. Even at that, her vision of the future is still clearer than mine.
…I used to think doing what others expected of me was the best way forward. I was going to major in law, just like my sister did. And after that, I would simply have headed down whatever path society had made for me…
I’ve realized now there are more important things in life than being a prim and proper honor student. Honestly, I would have looked down on Eiko’s line of thinking in the past… but I know better now.
Lately, Eiko’s been telling me whenever she buys makeup or finds a cute new outfit. That reminds me, she asked me the other day what hand cream I use. I sent her a picture… and it’s apparently the same brand they use in the nurse’s office at school.

My father used to use it all the time. …Did I ever tell you he was a police officer? He detested the corruption in our society, and worked tirelessly to bring it to justice… But despite the rough exterior, he was extremely gentle deep down. When I was little, I told him I wanted to grow up to be a police officer, just like he was.
Are we gonna have a problem, Makoto?
He was glad to hear me say that, but quick to point out that he didn’t want me doing something so dangerous. I had completely forgotten that dream, to be honest…
…if you’re a fuckin’ snitch. Jesus christ, a whole family of pigs. I shoulda known better!
Either way, after everything that happened… I have no intention of working with the police.
Good. Let’s keep it that way.
Besides, they’re trying to stop the Phantom Thieves. What am I supposed to do, arrest myself? Hm… I think I need to reexamine what my goals for the future are, outside of just plain studying. You know, it feels like I remembered something important today thanks to you. I guess you could say my viewpoint has been broadened yet again.
I can sense a quiet resolve from Makoto…
I only just learned recently that a chemise is now called a camisole, and a button-down sweater is a cardigan…
That’s a little esoteric, but whatever.
Why does the same thing have to have multiple names…? I guess in the end, I’m just becoming more aware of how little I really know. So… please, help me keep fighting back against that ignorance. Thank you again for today. See you later.
Music: Beneath the Mask
On these irregularly broadcast specials, we share limited-edition items that are all the rage! Today we’ll be talking about Melon Pan, which is made by using lots of fresh seasonal melons! Apparently they’re the pride of Yon-Germain, the bakery over in Shibuya Station.
Oh, that looks like quite a luxurious snack. I’d love to try one next time I’m in Shibuya.
Can’t wait to take my girlfriend down there for a delicious sandwich.
Music: Crossroads
Time to reacquaint ourselves with our second favorite alcoholic.
But I guess that doesn’t have anything to do with you… Have you heard any good gossip? My deadline’s coming up, and I’m all out of material. Sit down. I’ll treat ya.
>Hang out with her
For real? From the look of it, you must have good info, huh? Give me the details about the Kamoshida incident.
So the calling card they used for Kamoshida was different… Now that’s a scoop. That kind of information usually doesn’t see the light of day. …You have any photos or videos of it?
Sorry, Mishima!
*chuckle* But seriously, the “Phantom Thieves of Hearts”? They sound like kids on a playground, not valiant fighters for society… I mean, they act all high and mighty, but I’m not sure they’re really worth very much in the end.
Hah, that’s hilarious! You think they’re actually virtuous? In my line of work, there’s no clearer sign of deception than goodwill. You know, like the shady actions of a charitable organization, or the actual criteria of a peace prize. Same goes for the Phantom Thieves. You just have to learn to take some things with a grain of salt.

Man, Ohya, you’re really kind of a drag.
C’mon, don’t be such a downer…
Why? It’s the truth.
There you go again… You used to be so positive.
…Gimme some sushi.
We’re all out. …Hey, why don’t you go back to covering politics?
No can do. I’ve been permanently reassigned to the culture and entertainment department.
*sigh* What a crappy company… I mean, it’s already been over a year since the incident.
Oh, by the incident, I mean–
Don’t say another word. That has nothing to do with my source.
Right, sorry…
Urgh, dammit! I’m already sobering up. Gimme a refill, Lala-chan!
…Geez, you’re such a child sometimes.
Anyway, why are you coming to a bar if you can’t even drink alcohol?
You’re a true believer in the Phantom Thieves. Well, at least now I know you’re gonna be pretty useful. I’m not all that interested in the Phantom Thieves myself, but keep the info coming, all right?
I feel like my bond with Ohya is growing deeper…
…What’s taking so long, Lala-chan!?
We’re all out of booze… A certain sloshed reporter drank it all.
Man, Lala should really have her own portraits.
Can’t you just go buy more? I’ll wait for you… forever. ♥ Just kidding! Ahaha!
I feel like my Charm has increased…
Maaku gains Charm +3.
See ya later… Don’t forget to bring me more juicy info, ‘kay?
Music: Beneath the Mask (Instrumental Version)
Music: Everyday Days
Cleaning as a way to speak to your heart… I’ve never thought of it that way… Reading this book must have taught you how to contemplate and think more efficiently, huh?
Maaku gains Proficiency +3.
And he ranks up!
Music: So Boring
This must be global warming. We are all destined to fade away like the ice at the South Pole.
This is a little fuckin’ morbid for a high school science class.
Speaking of ice, shaved ice is one of the symbols of summer.
That was certainly a segue.
Usually sold at festivals, they come in many varieties such as melon and strawberry. Hamiru-kun. Let me ask you a question. What is a common trait of almost all shaved-ice syrups on the market?
Correct. The truth is, almost all kinds of syrup have the same flavor. The ingredients used are corn syrup, fragrance, food coloring… it’s essentially sugar water. Try closing your eyes, plugging your nose, and tasting shaved ice with just your tongue. You’ll likely be unable to tell what flavor it is. That cold, sweet strawberry flavor is just a deception of summer produced by color and smell…
Maaku gains Knowledge +1.
But before you can enjoy the sweet illusions of summer, you have very real exams waiting for you. They start next week on the 13th. Well, good luck.
Less than a week, huh? Have you been studying?
You’ve been with me the whole time, cat.
Music: Tokyo Emergency
Let’s head back to the flower shop.
Music: Break it Down
Oh right, I didn’t explain things to you last time. We’ll occasionally get orders for bouquets, in which case I’d like you to pick out the flowers. I’ll vary your pay based on how pleased the customers are with what you chose… Oh, and if you get stuck, I suggest you study up with the Flowerpedia. You can do it!
The customer is looking for large, brightly-colored flowers. Pick three that fit the description.
Music: Everyday Days
This request is for large, brightly-colored flowers. I bet light colors or white would even work too. Which flower will you pick first?
Every other time you go to work at the flower shop, you’ll be asked to make a bouquet. This is why we read the Flowerpedia earlier, even if we technically didn’t need to. The Flowerpedia, for the record, shows us additional details about the flowers, like what they represent and their aromas. I don’t think the first request requires it, asking you to pick from easily identifiable traits of the flowers. If we succeed, we get a considerable pay boost and an extra point of Kindness, so we definitely want to get this right.
Okay, so Morgana says that you can pick light colors or white to fulfill this request. This is technically accurate, in that you can make that compromise once. Picking two that aren’t bright colors (like, say, light pink and white) will give you a “satisfactory” result and you won’t get the extra pay or Kindness boost.
OK, pick the second flower now.
On to the third and final flower.
There are other flowers that would have worked, but these three are fine.
The order was for large, brightly-colored flowers. Is this OK?
I hope the customer likes it…
Music: Break it Down
Well, here’s your pay for today! I gave you a little bonus because of how well you did!
Good work, Maaku-kun. Come back again when you have the time.
Living surrounded by flowers might be your true calling… and you were good with the customers too.
Maaku gains Kindness +3.
All right, we should head home.
Music: Beneath the Mask
The pictures are gone. He has no avenue to threaten us anymore. That is, if we’re able to trust what Kaneshiro said.
Don’t say such scary stuff.
We can’t relax just yet. He may still end up released from police custody…
True, there does seem to be some movement. Sis actually sent me a message saying she won’t be home tonight. There’s a chance that the police have found their breakthrough.
Ooooh, does that mean it happened!?
The timing is perfect. I guess let’s just hope for the best?
I’m gonna stay up all night watching the news to find out!
Many claim the government’s response is inadequate—this will likely affect approval ratings.
I guess that means we’re the only ones who can fight back against someone like Kaneshiro.
Time to feed the plant.
Maaku gains Kindness +3.
Music: Crossroads
>Hang out with her
Seriously, where do you get this stuff from? True believers are scary… Hey, you want a drink?
I didn’t know it was so popular with high school kids. I haven’t been paying much attention to it. But if it’s newsworthy, I guess I should keep tabs on it. The Phantom Thieves must be really bored if they’re going after small-time criminals now. I have a theory that they’re all minors, and their leader is some simpleton dying from boredom…
Plus if it only takes a second to change a person’s heart, they totally wouldn’t be bored. Well, I’m not really interested in writing entertainment articles about whatever fad’s caught on.

But they do really well, right? Some journalists who were in here seemed frustrated about that.
Journalists…? Oh, you mean Nakao and the others?
People at work call them paparazzi behind their backs… but me? I’m a real journalist!
Hey, I wasn’t looking for some kid to butt in! Entertainment articles are all about selling copies… The truth doesn’t even matter. Nobody wants to read real news…
…Never.
But at this rate, you…
If I quit now, it’d be the same as declaring my partner guilty.
That’s why I can’t quit… and why I’ll never give up.
…I mean, never mind! Hahaha! But… thanks to you, I’ve had more time to focus on my own investigation. I’m going to write an article that you’ll really enjoy! Think of it as a sign of my appreciation! I can see it now! “Exclusive: Behind the Incredible Phantom Thieves! Dial 911 for justice!” …How’s that sound? Haha, don’t worry! I’ll take it seriously. After all… that’s what I promised you.
My deal with Ohya seems to be progressing smoothly…
I can talk with him? Really? OK, I’ll be right there. Work? Nah, I’m already off the clock. Sorry, I have some urgent business I need to attend to. Just put this one on my tab, Lala-chan. (to Maaku) See ya!
Anyway, shouldn’t you be getting home too?
I was able to pique Ohya’s interest with stories of the Phantom Thieves… I feel like my Charm has increased…
Maaku gains Charm +3.
Looks like they’re searching the premises…
Another psychotic breakdown? I can’t handle this…
Does it have something to do with those posters we saw?
Did they arrest the Phantom Thieves?
What’s going on? Are we in trouble? Join us next time to resolve the least effective cliffhanger in history!

Persona 5 Guide

July 11th

You will have another question in class, with the correct answer being “Luciferin,” netting you another point in Knowledge. Before you do the daytime activity, head on over to Shinjuku and get another reading from Chihaya, once again for Kindness. Once you do that, travel to the Underground Mall and locate the flower shop, as you will be working there again today. The catch is that this time, you’ll have to put together a bouquet for a customer, who asks for large, brightly-colored flowers. Pick the following ones (Scarlet Rose, Gold Gerbera, and Gecko Orchid) to receive 4,300 yen and three points in Kindness.

Return to Shinjuku in the evening and hang out with Mishima. This is a quick reminder that it doesn’t matter which choices you pick for Mishima, as the Confidant will rank up no matter what.

July 12th

Today is the last day before your exams and you’ll have another question during class, with the correct answer being “Ishikawa Goemon,” earning you a point in Knowledge. Check your IMs after school to see one from Mishima, so look at it to receive a new request called One Who Bullies Bullies . However, there’s a catch, as you don’t know the culprit’s name, so you’ll need to do a little detective work. Travel to the School Gate and go east on the map until you spot two students on the southern side talking. Listen to them and you’ll find out the name of the culprit. Next, travel to the Underground Walkway and speak with Yusuke to hang out with him.

Confidant: Answer “Why are we in a boat?” for the first response, then “Love comes in all forms” for the second one.

Look at your IMs when you get home in the evening to find one from Chihaya. Respond to it to go hang out with her.

Confidant: Pick “Follow his heart” for the first answer, “Theives may steal her away” for the second, then whatever you want for the final one.

July 13th-16th

Your exams will take place on the following days and uses the same format as last time. You won’t be able to do anything and on the first three days, you will have to answer some questions correctly. On the final day of the exams, you will receive a Knowledge check, which will determine how you will do overall on the exams.

Once the exams are over on the final day (the 16th), go and call Kawakami. Late at night, while you’re sleeping, Ann will text you and ask you to go to the movies with her tomorrow. Go ahead and accept her invitation.

Confidant: Pick “Don’t pay them” for your first response, “Think this through more” for your second and whatever for the third.

July 17th

You will be heading to the movies with Ann today, where you will receive three points in Charm from watching it. After it’s over, respond to Ann with “I get you” to get some points towards the Lovers Confidant. In the evening, head on over to the Underground Walkway to purchase the drink (it is Sunday) to get a one point boost to Knowledge. Your last activity for the day will be to go hang out with Chihaya (respond to her text), despite you not ranking up.

July 18th-19th

Nothing of note happens on the 18th, as it will be pretty much all cutscenes, with some hacktivist group does declare war on the Phantom Thieves. When you gain control at night, just go to bed. The following day, you will receive your grades from the exams, with your results being a little higher than the average score, netting you two points in Charm. After school, you will have an important decision to make, regarding one of your Confidants. The Lovers Confidant will be reaching rank 9, which is a point where you can either begin dating them or not.

Note: There are no real consequences to dating more than one girl in a playthrough, other than a scene that has no real impact on the ending or anything. Also, if dating more than one girl, it is possible to run into one if out with the other, where you will need to be a little careful in choosing a response.

Confidant: Choose whatever you want for the first three responses, as well as the fifth. For the fourth one, pick “You got me” to start a relationship with Ann, or choose “You have the others” to remain friends.

At night, respond to the text from Chihaya to go hang out with her.

Confidant: Choose whatever for the first response, “Trust in yourself” for the second, then anything you want for the other two.

How do flowers get their colors? Why are roses red and violets blue? People always admire the beautiful colors of flowers in bloom but rarely does anyone know the perfect science that goes into the color production of one of the earth’s greatest natural beauties. The reason a flower has color is the same reason a person may be born with brown or blond hair, possess blue or green eyes, dress in colorful clothing or wear red lipstick.

Color, when you boil it down to the simplest terms, exists solely to reproduce and procreate – in plants and in humans. The Color Making Process The color of flowers, such as the red in roses and yellow in marigolds, are found in pigments that are decided upon in the hereditary genome of the plant. Flower colors of red, pink, blue and purple come mainly from the pigments called anthocyanins, which are in the class of chemicals called flavanoids (what gives plants their color). Other pigments are carotenoids, found in tomatoes and carrots, that provide yellow, red and orange in the plastids. Chlorophyll is the most well known pigment, providing all that green you see in leaves and foliage. All these scientific terms really mean that, similar to people, plants carry certain pigments in their genes that decide before they are “born” what color they will be.

Why Flowers Have Color

Let’s talk about the birds and the bees… literally. Flowers that are bright in color are meant to attract birds, bees and other insects in order to help the plants reproduce. Bright colors or dull colors are fixed in the genetics of a flower. If a plant needs to reproduce with the help of the birds and the bees – the genetics will make the flowers have bright colors to attract the animals (think putting on makeup and doing hair to attract a mate). In addition, if the pollination and reproduction are made this way, the fruits of the plant will be sweet and pleasant tasting. If reproduction through pollination is done by way of wind and air – the pigments of the plant will be inconspicuous and dull with bad tasting fruit. If the plant calls for pollination, the bright flower and sweet pollen will coax birds, bees and insects to land on it. As these animals eat the sugar or honey, some of the pollen with stick to their feet. When they land on another flower some of that pollen will spread and voila! Pollination occurs. If a flower’s anthocyanins did not position the genetic groundwork for brightly colored plants then none of this would be possible.

Playing with the Genetics of Flowers – Is it Possible?

One might ponder the question, if you know what pigments and chemicals create the colors in flowers, can you alter the pigments to create new colors? The answer is yes but it may be hard for just anyone to do this. Just ask Robert Griesbach, a research plant geneticist at the ARS Floral and Nursery Plants Unit, located in Beltsville, Maryland. He has figured out a way to turn roses a bright blue. The trick is extracting just the right amount of one pigment and implanting it in another to create a recipe for an entirely new color. The change of red roses to blue roses is just the beginning. By extracting certain genes from plants, the future of plant color could be a wide variety of fabulous colors. Another way to change the color of a flower petal on a much smaller scale is to change the PH level of the anthocyanins An easy experiment you can conduct yourself is to crush a red rose petal on a white plate with the back of a spoon or spatula and add either vinegar or baking soda and note the color change.

Conclusion

Imagine getting a bouquet of royal blue roses or growing green sunflowers in your yard. Possible? Yes. Plausible for the public to pursue? Perhaps it’s best to leave that up to the scientists. Whether you are adamant about enjoying the natural colors of flowers or can’t wait to see what blooms science has to offer, next time you venture out into the garden or pick up a bouquet of fresh blossoms, think about the perfection that goes into making these sweet smelling beauties. Perhaps you will have a better understanding of how similar we are to everything else that grows on this earth.

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