White spots on papaya fruit

Black Spot Of Papaya Trees: How To Recognize Papaya Black Spot Symptoms

Black spot of a papaya is a fungal disease that is now found worldwide where papaya trees can be grown. Usually papaya with black spots is a fairly minor problem but if the tree becomes heavily infected, the growth of the tree can be affected, hence fruit yields so treating papaya black spot before the disease progresses too far is of paramount importance.

Papaya Black Spot Symptoms

Black spot of papaya is caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae, previously referred to as Cercospora caricae. This disease is most severe during rainy periods.

Both the foliage and fruit of papaya may be infected with black spots. Initial symptoms appear as small water-soaked lesions on the upper side of leaves. As the disease progresses, small black spots (spores) can be seen on the underside of leaves. If leaves are severely infected, they turn brown and die. When leaves die off extensively, overall tree growth is affected which lowers the fruit yield.

Brown, slightly sunken, spots may also appear on fruit. With fruit, the issue is primarily cosmetic and it can still be eaten, although in the case of commercial growers, is unfit for sale. The spores, black spots on the papaya leaves, are spread in wind and wind-driven rains from tree to tree. Also, when infected fruit is sold at markets, it spreads exponentially.

Treating Papaya Black Spot

There are papaya varieties that are resistant to black spot, so control will be either cultural or chemical or both. To manage black spot of papaya, remove any infected leaves and fruit at the first sign of infection. Burn infected foliage or fruit, if possible, to help prevent the spread of the disease.

Protectant fungicides that contain copper, mancozeb, or chlorothalonil can also be used to manage papaya black spot. When using fungicides, be sure to spray the undersides of the leaves where the spores are produced.

Papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae (Speg.) Maubl.) occurs on leaves and fruits, depreciating their commercial value. To prevent the damage caused by this pathogen, farmers have adopted several control measures. Some recommended measures are the removal of leaves and fruits showing symptoms from the orchard to reduce the initial inoculum (7), and the application of protective or systemic fungicides when the first symptoms appear (7).

This crop is still dependent on fungicide application to ensure a profitable production, and although there are 30 commercial products registered to combat the disease in papaya (1), its control is not total yet. Allied to this is the increasing worldwide demand for less toxic inputs, reinforcing and justifying the search for alternatives to fungicides in the control of black spot. Among these alternatives stand out cultivation in a protected environment (5), biological control (9), use of alternative products (6) and study of genetic resistance with evaluation of genotypes (3, 8). However, there is not an alternative and effective method to control A. caricae; therefore, the use of fungicides is still a reality for the papaya crop and a challenge to be overcome.

As an alternative to fungicides, induced resistance has great potential for the use in plant disease control. This type of resistance has considerable effects against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and fungi, activated by biotic or abiotic inducers. Papaya plants sprayed with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) have shown reduced disease severity on the leaves by inducing partial resistance (6). These results show the possibility of using these products, particularly ASM, as an alternative to control papaya black spot; however, Oliveira & Nishijima (6) evaluated the effect of ASM in one genotype and found that it is not possible to extrapolate results beyond the genetic material on which it was tested.

ASM has been used in other pathosystems, which shows the potential of this and other products to be used as an alternative to control black spot in papaya. For example, Furtado et al. (4) reported the use of Ecolife® and ASM for banana anthracnose control in the post-harvest. The use of Bordeaux mixture has also been reported as an alternative for the disease control and is accepted by the organic agriculture.

We believed that the results obtained in a previous study on disease control using these products could be extended to black spot, resulting in a new possibility to control this disease in papaya as an alternative to fungicide spraying. For these reasons, we delineated this study to evaluate in different papaya genotypes the effect of alternative products with potential to control papaya black spot.

The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using the randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of 5×6, three replicates, and experimental unit of one plant per pot, totaling 36 treatments. Six genotypes were tested (‘Sunrise Solo PT’, ‘STZ 03’, ‘Golden’, ‘Tailândia’, ‘Maradol’ and ‘UENF/CALIMAN 01’) with four alternative products: acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion®, Syngenta), 0.025g a.i./L; foliar fertilizer (Ecolife®, Quinabra), 1mL c.p./L; foliar fertilizer based on copper 25% and calcium 10% (Bordasul®, RCN agro), 1g c.p.//L; and Bordeaux mixture, containing 0.4g/L of CuSO4 and 0.15g/L of hydrated lime. The products were diluted in 4 L of water at pH around 6.5 and biweekly sprayed with a backpack sprayer, totaling 5 sprayings. The control treatment was sprayed only with water.

Inoculation was natural since in the surrounding of the greenhouse there were several adult papaya plants with symptoms of the disease. Evaluations started at 2 months after planting. The incidence and the severity of black spot on the leaves were weekly evaluated (five evaluations). The incidence of black spot symptoms (BSI) on the leaves was obtained based on the ratio between the number of symptomatic leaves and the total number of leaves. Black spot severity (BSS) was estimated for the fifth leaf according to the diagrammatic scale adopted by Vivas et al. (8). In addition, we estimated the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) based on the disease severity assessed for a previously marked leaf (second fully expanded leaf without symptoms), as established by Campbell & Madden (2).

AUDPC values and BSI and BSS mean values were used to conduct the analysis of variance, and when the effect of genotype x products was significant, ramifications of changing sources were carried out. The treatment means were compared according to Tukey’s test at 5% probability.

For BSS, there was a significant interaction effect, and data will be presented and discussed separately. On the other hand, for BSI and AUDPC, there was no effect of the genotype inducing interaction; thus, the analyses were conducted by using the joint analysis data.

As observed in the analysis of variance, for the test mean, there was also a significant effect of the genotype on the three studied variables (Figure 1; Table 1). For BSS, the genotype ‘Tailândia’ showed the highest levels, while the genotypes ‘Maradol’ and ‘STZ 03’ had the lowest levels (Table 1). ‘Maradol’ also had the lowest AUDPC and BSI means (Figure 1), confirming its potential as a source of resistance, as observed by Vivas et al. (8). In addition to ‘Maradol’, ‘UENF/CALIMAN 01’ also had the lowest AUDPC and BSI means (Figure 1). On the other hand, the genotypes ‘Golden’ and ‘Tailândia’ presented the highest values of BSI and AUDPC (Figure 1). Dianese et al. (3) and Vivas et al. (8) highlighted ‘Golden’ as the genotype most susceptible to this disease. Dianese et al. (3) also observed higher BSS means for ‘Sunrise Solo’ and ‘Tailândia’.

Table 1 Means of Black Spot Severity (BSS) in different papaya genotypes biweekly sprayed with alternative products.

*Means followed by the same lowercase letters in the column and the same capital letters on the line, for the same year, do not differ according to Tukey’s test at 0.05 probability level.

Figure 1 Means of area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and Black Spot (Asperisporium caricae) Incidence (BSI) in different papayagenotypes (C and D), and the effect of alternative products (A and B).

For BSS, we observed a significant effect of genotype x inducing interaction; in this sense, it is convenient to select the best products according to each genotype. For ‘STZ 03’, although the mean ranged from 0.23 (plants sprayed with water) to 0.01 (plants sprayed with Bion®), there was not a significant difference among the tested products. The same was observed for ‘Sunrise Solo PT’ and ‘Maradol’ genotypes (Table 1). Black spot severity for ‘Golden and ‘UENF/CALIMAN 01’ sprayed with Bion® and Bordasul® showed a reduction by up to 45%, compared to control, which indicates the potential of these products to control black spot. The genotype ‘Tailândia’, considered the most susceptible genotype in this study, when sprayed with Bordasul® and Bordeaux mixture, showed a reduction in the disease severity, evidencing that the interaction in the control may be associated with the genotype and the product.

On the other hand, for AUDPC and BSI, there was no interaction between genotype and product, i.e., independent of the tested genotype, the product had the same effect. Thus, plants sprayed with Bion® had the lowest AUDPC means, followed by plants sprayed with Bordasul® (Figure 1), and both can be used to reduce the disease severity in papaya. Some studies have reported ASM as a potential inducer of resistance to black spot in papaya (6), but there are no reports of the potential of Bordasul® for this culture, which gives originality to the present study. However, treatment with Bordasul®, 1 g c.p./L, caused phytotoxicity in the plants. Reducing the dose of this product may reduce the phytotoxic effect on the leaves.

We did not observe phytotoxic effect in plants treated with Bion®. In addition, this product reduced the BSI mean on the leaves (Figure 1); this fact indicates that it is a resistance inducer product (6), which works in the plant as a whole, triggering pre-existing defense reactions and thus protecting it completely.

Our results suggest that, for the protection of the studied papaya genotypes, there was a synergistic effect of the genotype with the products tested for black spot control, especially for the most resistant genotypes sprayed with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM/ Bion®).

By Azman Zakaria
Photo by Marina Ismail

SERDANG, August 19 – Papaya, banana and mango planters often face the problem of post-harvest diseases – ringspot or Anthracnose – where black spots on the fruits will grow bigger, causing the fruits to turn bad.

Ringspots which are triggered by virus attacks –Colletotrichum gloeosporioides – will reduce up to 80 per cent of harvesting output of ripe fruits.

This problem will soon be a thing of the past. An innovative research by Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) has succeeded to find a solution to hinder the growth of fungus on fruits.

Researcher of UPM’s Department of Plant Protection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Associate Prof. Dr. Kamaruzaman Sijam and a former PhD student, Dr. Farah Farhanah Haron,succeeded to find a formula to make fruit skins, stronger and durable against fungus attacks. Dr. Farah Farhanah was still completing her doctorate when they came up with the formula.

According to Dr. Kamaruzaman, through the innovation, the fruits could last for as long as 10 days (room temperature) and 30 days (cold storage), thus enabling the fruits to be marketed and exported easily.

He said the formula was found through the use of Allamanda leave extracts, also known as Bunga Loceng tree.

Of the five varieties of Allamanda trees, including Allamanda cathartica, Allamanda blanchettii, and Allamanda oenotheraefolia, the most durable is Allamanda cathartica variety ‘Jamaican Sunset’ as its anti-fungus elements are the most active. It is also easy to get and plant.

He said the research conducted at a laboratory commenced three years ago by Dr Farah Farhanah, and it started to show positive results two years later.

Allamanda leaves were dried before they were blended to become powder. The powdered form was then extracted and formulated, turning it into a liquid formula via nanoemulsion, said Dr Kamaruzaman.

“It was then dissolved into the water. The fruits were then dipped into the water or sprayed with the formula, making them stronger against fungus attacks,” he said.

Meanwhile, Dr. Farah Farhanah said the anti-fungus solution from Allamanda leave extracts could control ringspots not only on papayas but also other fruits such as bananas and mangos.

“The application of the solution on the fruit surface as a coating element does not only serve to control Anthracnose disease specifically, but it also helps in maintaining the freshness of the fruits and delaying the ripening process without affecting the sweetness or quality of the fruits,” she said.

The product, therefore, could help to increase the nation’s export revenue as it is environmental-friendly and free from chemicals, thus posing no danger to the people and the environment.

She also said plans were afoot for the product to be manufactured on an industrial-scale production while discussions were being carried out with interested local entrepreneurs for the production and marketing of the product.

The research innovation has won two gold awards for innovation at the Malaysian Agricultural Innovation Challenge (MAgIC) 2014 and the International Invention & Innovation Exhibition (ITEX) 2015.

Dr.Kamaruzaman, meanwhile, said the idea to use Allamanda leaves as anti-fungus agent for fruits came about while he was attending the 2nd Asian Conference on Plant Pathology in Singapore in 2005 when a working paper presented discussed about the tree which was processed into pellets which were then used to control and fight soil-borne diseases. – UPM.

Date of Input: | Updated: | hairul_nizam

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Papayas are colorful, brightly flavored tropical fruits that have their origin in southern Mexico and Central America. No matter where you live, they can be a delicious, healthy and exotic addition to your regular intake of fruit, from adding it to your smoothies or salads to simply eating it cubed with lime juice or honey.

Because papayas are not as common or familiar as fruits like apples or bananas, you might not know exactly how a papaya should look, how it should taste and whether it is perfectly ripe to eat. Also, because papayas are often shipped in from far-away, warmer climates, the papayas you see in the grocery store may be underripe, overripe, damaged or suffering from fungus or mold. Learn how to tell if a papaya is bad, how to cut a papaya and the best way to consume a papaya.

What’s a Papaya?

Hefty, plump and oblong, the average papaya fruit is an average of 7 inches long (though it can be up to 20 inches long) and weighs about a pound. While there are several varieties of papaya, the one you’ll likely see in your grocery store is the red papaya, which has juicy, melon-like pink/orange flesh and a sweet, slightly musky taste.

Also like melons, papayas have a center filled with seeds. Unlike melons, the seeds are black with a gelatinous outer casing and are edible, though their bitter, peppery taste means that they are often discarded.

How to Tell if a Papaya Is Ripe

Unripe papayas are solidly green in color and very firm to the touch. As they ripen, they will turn yellow, sometimes with a slightly pink hue, and the fruit will soften so that it gives slightly under pressure.

An overripe papaya will be all yellow, deep orange and then brown. Its skin will easily collapse under pressure, and it may suffer from bruising, rotten spots and shriveling.

An unripe papaya will have no smell, while a ripe papaya will smell slightly sweet. An overripe papaya will have a too-sweet smell and then a rotten smell. It may be easier to smell the ripeness of a papaya by holding its stem to your nose.

How to Cut a Papaya

The best way to tell if your papaya is ripe and edible is to cut it open to inspect its flesh and smell.

First, cut off the stem. Then, slice the fruit open lengthwise. Scoop out the seeds and either discard them or reserve them for another recipe. From here, you can either scoop out the flesh with a spoon, or you can cut off the skin layer with a knife (much like you would a cantaloupe) and then slice and dice the remaining fruit as you wish.

Papaya flesh is delicate when ripe, so handle your fruit gingerly both while transporting it and while preparing it to eat in order to avoid bruising.

Why Does My Papaya Smell Bad?

Papayas aren’t for everyone. They have a sweet, musky odor that makes it a unique, complex fruit with a tropical, exotic taste. It’s beloved in many cultures for its one-of-a-kind, strong flavor, but it’s also not as mainstream as, say, oranges because its taste isn’t always a crowd pleaser, especially if you didn’t grow up eating them.

So, what happens if you cut open a papaya and it smells bad (some people even say they smell like vomit)? Well, if the smell isn’t overpowering but only sweet and musky, it’s likely ripe and ready to eat. However, if the musk is overwhelming and sharp, you might have an overripe papaya on your hands that won’t be very enjoyable to consume. Of course, it could just be that you don’t like the taste of papaya.

Shelf Life of a Papaya

The shelf life of a papaya depends on a number of different factors, including their variety, when they are picked, how they were transported and how they are stored. However, you can still make some generalizations about how long a papaya will be edible after you buy it.

A whole, uncut papaya that is green/unripe when you purchase it will last an estimated four to six days if you keep it in a cool, dry place at room temperature, such as your kitchen countertop. It will last six to nine days before becoming overripe if you store it in the crisper in your refrigerator.

Once you cut a papaya open, it will keep for just a few hours at room temperature before turning mushy and unappealing. However, a cut papaya stored in a closed container in the fridge will stay good for two or three days.

Mold on Papaya: Can You Still Eat It?

You should use your own discretion when deciding whether or not to eat a papaya that has spots of mold on its skin. If the moldy areas are easily removable, and the rest of the fruit’s flesh is firm, bright orange and smells sweet, the remaining fruit is very likely fine to eat. If the moldy areas permeate the fruit, and the rest of the papaya is soft, discolored or smells fermented, it’s better to toss the fruit.

What About White Spots Inside the Papaya?

White spots inside a papaya are likely mold growing on the fruit and not the skin of the fruit. This usually begins in the stem area and spreads. In some cases, you can cut off the area of the papaya that is affected as long as the rest of the flesh is firm, healthy and sweet smelling, but if you want to be on the safe side, you may want to head back to the store for a healthy fruit.

What Happens if I Eat a Bad Papaya?

If you do happen to eat some moldy papaya, don’t worry. The vast majority of people who eat mold on papaya have no symptoms (though moldy fruit doesn’t taste good). A small number of people may have an adverse reaction to moldy fruit. If you have ongoing symptoms such as a rash or stomach pain, go see a doctor.

If you have already cut the papaya open and sliced the fruit, and the fruit itself becomes moldy, don’t take any chances, and throw it away. Mold on papaya is not going to taste good, and there’s a chance it could cause health issues and make you feel ill.

What About Papaya Fungus?

During rainy or wet periods, papaya trees may become infected by Asperisporium caricae, a type of fungus. In these cases, the papaya tree leaves as well as the fruit itself may become infected with black spots of fungus.

A papaya infected with fungus is easy to spot: its skin is covered with black spots. You can easily remove the papaya fungus by peeling off the skin, and the fruit itself is safe to eat. However, the vast majority of papayas infected with this fungus are not shipped or sold. You’ll be more likely to encounter this problem if you’re eating a papaya locally or if you have a papaya tree.

Health Benefits of Papaya

If your papaya is ripe and free of mold and fungus, it’s a great addition to your diet and is absolutely good for your health. An excellent source of Vitamin C and anti-oxidants, papaya can help boost your immune system, fight inflammation and protect you from diseases like cancer and heart disease. One study found that eating papaya lowered the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Papaya is also high in fiber like many other fruits. This means that eating papaya can aid in digestion and weight loss while fighting against colon cancer.

I am completely and totally awe-struck by the amount of beautiful, delicious, antioxidant packed fruit in Thailand. I mean seriously, how can the fruit be so beautiful?!

Half of the fruit here is new to me, while the other half I’ve barely explored. My first reaction? Let’s go to a fruit stand and turn these natural beauties into my own natural beauty.

Since drinking your beauty will be one of the biggest trends in 2016, we’ve made an edible face mask. You can save the rest for later, or drink it up today.

First of all let me say that whether it’s dark spots, acne spots, sun damage or wrinkles—we’ve all got something that needs a little help. Think you don’t have sun damage? Think again.

I’m 24. I’ve very fair-skinned, but I wear SPF 50 sun screen every day and re-apply. I haven’t had a burn in YEARS. I know I still have sun damage. Sun damage is going on underneath the skin. If you can’t see it yet, you will when you get older.

I used one of the functions called “structure” on instagram to predict the sun damage that’s already happened under the skin.

Ouch. Can you say uneven?

The good news is that you can undo some of the damage, with a natural acid treatment. We’re going to dive into the why, what and how below:

Pineapple & Papaya Mask Recipe

For banishing dark spots, acne spots and sun damage

Ingredients:

  • 1 pineapple
  • 1 papaya

Tools:

  • Blender
  • Knife
  • Spoon
  • Bowl or cup

Wow, it’s really that simple. Why?

Pineapple and Papaya contains four important things: Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Enzymes and Fiber.

If you’re drinking this recipe: great. The enzymes will help you break down and digest your food, fiber will help push it through your system to reduce bloat, and the antioxidant vitamin C will accept free electrons to de-radicalize free radicals in your body (which helps prevent signs of aging and protects you from cancer).

If you’re applying it to your face, the enzyme bromelain in pineapple will speed up the process of keratin breakdown on your skin, resulting in smoother skin and reducing wrinkles and dark spots. The vitamin C will also work as an antioxidant and help to brighten skin.

As for papaya, it contains natural alpha-hydroxy acid (ever heard of an acid peel), known to light dark spots and high levels of the enzyme papain, which works just like pineapple’s bromelain. The vitamin A will also work as a skin brightener and antioxidant, protecting against the sun damage and other oxidative damage to the skin.

Let’s just be real: whether your drinking this or using it for your face, it rocks.

Disclaimers: the natural acid content in this mix is high. You should only use it twice/week. Be sure to moisturize after, and apply sunscreen before going outside.

Instructions:

I recommend applying this mask before you get in the shower. It is messy and almost impossible to keep from getting on hair and clothes.

Step 1: Seed the papaya, skin it, and cut into chunks

Step 2: Skin the pineapple & cut into chunks

Step 3: Blend together, to a fine pulp

Step 4: Apply to areas you wish to reduce dark spots.

Face, neck, décolletage, back of hands and any other areas you wish to reduce dark spots and signs of aging. You can apply with a cotton ball or your hands. Avoid the eye area.

Step 5: Wait 15 minutes – And do not itch!

It will tingle, sting or burn a little. That’s the AHAs working.

Step 6: Gently rinse off with water

Step 7: Moisturize with a natural oil. If you’re going outside, apply sunscreen!

That’s it!

From my own personal experience, I will say that I absolutely loved it. It did itch a little during, and I had to sit very still because the mix didn’t want to stay stuck on my skin. Afterwards I felt radiant and my skin was smoother. I couldn’t see any reduction of sun spots yet, but I will continue using a mask like this weekly. I am prone to sun damage, so I will do anything I can do get ahead of it!

I’m definitely curious to figure out if my skin was so radiant picked up a little of the yellow or orange pigment from the fruit, much like a turmeric mask (not to give away what’s coming..)

I’m tempted to use the mask again today, but I already drank the rest yesterday (oops).

Isn’t that awesome?

Pawpaw is a fruit that comes with immense health and skincare benefits and works on all types of skin especially the red ones called papaya that have been adapted into skincare regimes. (Paw paw are those with yellow flesh and tends to be larger compared to Papaya that comes in orange to red flesh and usually a smaller sized fruit).

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Papaya is used in a lot of skincare products including soaps, facial toners, masks and so on so it comes highly recommended and works amazing on all skintypes without side effects.

There are ways to use papaya to fade dark spots on different skin types:

1. Dry skin

Use Papaya and soaked almonds (soaked overnight)

Mix papaya and almonds together to form a smooth paste. Add unprocessed milk and mix all together thoroughly.

Wash the face making sure it’s properly cleansed and apply the paste all over the face. Leave this on for 30minutes and wash.

2. Oily skin

For oily skin, papaya is best used with fresh lemon juice.

Mix lemon juice with papaya, mashing together to form a paste. Apply this to cleansed face and leave it on for about 20-30 minutes.

ALSO READ:Here’s the trick to achieving a seamless foundation coverage

3. Sensitive skin

For sensitive skin, papaya is best combined with honey and aloe vera.

Mash the papaya and mix with honey and aloe vera, mixing thoroughly to form a paste. Apply this on cleansed face for about 20 to 30mins then rinse off.

Papaya (pawpaw)

Description

Papaya, Carica papaya, is an herbaceous perennial in the family Caricaceae grown for its edible fruit. The papaya plant is tree-like,usually unbranched and has hollow stems and petioles. The leaves are palmately lobed, spirally arranged and clustered at the growing tip of the trunk. Papaya trees can be male, female or hermaphrodite and the type of inflorescence produced is reflective of this. Male trees produce many flowers on long, pendulous panicles while female trees produce either solitary flowers of clusters of a few flowers which are yellow-green in color. Hermaphrodite trees produce bisexual flowers. The papaya fruit is a large fleshy berry with smooth green skin that ripens to yellow or orange. The flesh of the fruit is thick and succulent and ranges in color from yellow to red or orange. The fruit contains many black wrinkled seeds. Papaya trees range in height from 2–10 m (6.6–33 ft) and can live for up to 25 years. Plantations are usually replaced every 3 years to ensure maximum productivity. Papaya may also be referred to as pawpaw and is believed to originate from the Caribbean region on Central America.

Papaya tree
Male papaya flowers
Papaya fruit developing
Papaya leaf
Papaya fruits on tree
Ripening papaya fruit
Papaya leaf
Papaya tree
Papaya flesh and seeds ‹ ×

Uses

Papaya fruits are commonly eaten fresh. The may also be processed into jams, jellies and juices are dried and candied. Green fruits and young leaves can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

Propagation

Basic requirements Papaya is a tropical plant and will grow optimally at temperatures between 21 and 33°C (69.8–91.4°F) in areas with no frost. Papaya can be grown in a range of soils as long as there is adequate drainage but will grow optimally in light, well-draining soils with a pH between 5.5 and 6.5. Papaya requires well distributed rainfall of about 4 inches per month. In areas with low rainfall, trees should be provided with supplemental irrigation. Trees are very sensitive to flooding and water-logged soils should be be avoided. Papaya is also sensitive to high winds and the tall trees can be easily toppled. Windy areas should be avoided for planting. Propagation Papaya is propagated from seed due to the labor involved in producing cuttings. Seeds are usually sown in small containers or nursery beds in sterilized soil. It is usual to sow 3–4 seeds per container and seeds can take 3–4 weeks to germinate depending on temperature.. Seedlings are transplanted after approximately 2 months when the reach approximately 20 cm (8 in) in height and possess 3–4 leaves. Seedlings are commonly planted on hills or ridges to aid drainage and should be spaced 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) apart. General care and maintenance Papaya seedlings are very susceptible to competition from weeds and the areas around the trees should be kept weed-free. A layer of mulch around the plants can successfully suppress weeds. Papaya requires regular fertilizer applications to meet the nutrient requirements for fruit production. In commercial plantations, fertilizer is usually applied 2–4 times per year. In the home garden, the addition of 1/4 cup of a balanced fertilizer every 14 days is usually sufficient. As the trees mature, the amount of fertilizer should be increased. When trees reach 7 to 8 months, 1–2 lbs of a complete fertilizer should be provided every 2 months. Papaya trees should be watered regularly, particularly during hot, dry periods. Papaya trees do not require pruning but it is good practice to remove any dead leaves from the tree. Harvesting Papaya fruits generally require 22–26 weeks to mature. The fruits can be picked when 1/5 of the fruit surface has turned from green to yellow but leaving them on the tree longer will increase the sugar content of the fruit. Fruit can be twisted or snapped from the tree or cut using a sharp knife.
CABI Crop Protection Compendium. (2008). Carica papaya (papaw) datasheet. Available at: http://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/13392. . Paid subscription required. Crane, J. H. Papaya growing in the Florida home landscape. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Available at: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG05400.pdf. . Free to access. Nishina, M., Zee, F., Ebesu, R., Arakaki, A., Hamasaki, R., Fukuda, S, Nagata, N., Chia, C. L., Nishijima, W., Mau, R. & Uchida, R. (2000). Papaya production in Hawaii. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Available at: http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/F_N-3.pdf. . Free to access. Ploetz, R. C., Zentmyer, G. A., Nishijima, W. T., Rohrbach, K. G. & Ohr, H. D. (eds) (1994). Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press. Available at: http://www.apsnet.org/apsstore/shopapspress/Pages/41620.aspx. Available for purchase from APS Press.

How To Treat A Sick Pawpaw: Information About Diseases Of Pawpaw Trees

Pawpaw trees (Asimina triloba) are remarkably disease resistant and they are even known to stand up to oak root fungus, a widespread disease that attacks many woody plants. However, pawpaw diseases may occasionally occur. Read on to learn more about a couple of common pawpaw illnesses and tips on treating a diseased pawpaw.

Two Common Diseases of Pawpaw Trees

Powdery mildew usually isn’t deadly, but it can stunt growth of new shoots and will certainly affect the appearance of the tree. Powdery mildew is easy to recognize by powdery, whitish-gray areas on young leaves, buds and twigs. Affected leaves may take on a wrinkled, curled appearance.

Black spot on pawpaw is recognized by masses of tiny black spots on the leaves and fruit. Black spot, a fungal disease, is most common in cool weather or following a period of unusually damp weather.

How to Treat a Sick Pawpaw Tree

Treating a diseased pawpaw is necessary if your pawpaw tree is suffering from black spot or powdery mildew. The best treatment is to simply prune the tree to remove damaged growth. Dispose of the affected plant parts carefully. Sanitize cutting tools immediately, using a 10 percent bleach solution, to prevent spread of disease.

Sulphur or copper-based fungicides may be effective when applied early in the season. Reapply regularly until new shoots no longer appear.

Nutrition and Pawpaw Illnesses

When it comes to treating a diseased pawpaw tree, maintaining proper nutrition is of utmost importance. Pawpaw trees that lack adequate potassium, magnesium and phosphorus are more likely to suffer pawpaw diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot on pawpaw.

Note: There is no way to know your soil is nutrient poor without a soil test. This should always be the first step in treating a diseased pawpaw.

Potassium: To improve the potassium level, add potassium sulphate, which promotes strong growth and disease resistance while improving water retention. Apply the product when the soil is moist, then water in well. Granular and soluble products are available.

Magnesium: Application of Epsom salts (hydrated magnesium sulfate) is an easy, inexpensive way to promote healthy pawpaw trees, as the addition of magnesium strengthens cell walls and improves uptake of other nutrients. To apply Epsom salts, sprinkle the powder around the base of the tree, then water deeply.

Phosphorus: Well-rotted chicken manure is a great way to boost the level of phosphorus in the soil. If the deficit is considerable, you can apply a product known as rock phosphate (colloidal phosphate). Refer to the recommendations on the package for specific information.

Papaya Disease Stock Photos and Images

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  • The top section of a papaya tree against a blue sky showing leaves and fruit some fruit with rot and blemishes
  • Papaya leaf spot Esperisporium caricae on papaya leaf
  • Papaya slices papaya fruit Inside Cut view and papaya seeds
  • Papaya leaf spot (Esperisporium caricae) on papaya leaf backlit
  • Papaya fruit with textured background.
  • Ripe Papaya fruits on sale within a fruit market,Cebu City,Philippines
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus TYLCV on tomato.
  • Papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest. Philippines.
  • Fruit fly larvae. Close-up of fruit fly (Drosophila sp., white) larvae in a papaya (Carica papaya) fruit. The dark black areas are the papaya seeds. F
  • Rotten Pineapple on a white background
  • Houseflies feeding on rotten papaya meat
  • Twisted papaya tree trunk disease Martinique Tropical fruits
  • Papain enzyme. Protease present in papaya fruit. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional color coding.
  • Paw Paw flower resting on a Paw Paw leaf Leaf is showing some disease spots
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • rotten pineapple
  • Fruits and vegetables highest in vitamin B9 composing B9 letter shape, nutrition and healthy eating concept
  • Dragon fruit is sick, illustration, vector on white background.
  • The top section of a papaya tree against a blue sky showing leaves and fruit some fruit with slight rot and blemishes
  • World Health Day. Concept Vector Card. Heart form.
  • Papaya leaf spot (Esperisporium caricae) on papaya leaf backlit
  • Papaya fruit with textured background.
  • Ripe Papaya fruits – centre,(bananas below), on sale within a fruit market,Cebu City,Philippines
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Houseflies feeding on rotten papaya meat
  • Twisted papaya tree trunk disease Martinique Tropical fruits
  • Papain enzyme. Protease present in papaya fruit. Cartoon & stick representation with backbone gradient coloring.
  • Paw Paw flower resting on a Paw Paw leaf Leaf is showing some disease spots
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • Papaya fruit with white background.
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Houseflies feeding on rotten papaya meat
  • Papain enzyme. Protease present in papaya fruit. Cartoon representation with secondary structure coloring (green sheets, red helices).
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Houseflies feeding on rotten papaya meat
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • Close up Disease Green leaf of Young papaya tree
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.
  • papaya tree with of the plant disease. papaya fruit on tree not ready for harvest.

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