Where to plant roses?

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Where to Put Your Vegetable Garden

By Charlie Nardozzi, The Editors of the National Gardening Association

When deciding where to plant your vegetable garden, assess sun exposure, soil quality, and water access. Choosing a garden site that’s best for growing vegetables is based on good old common sense, as these tips reveal:

  • Keep it close: Plant your garden where you’ll walk by it daily so that you remember to care for it. Also, a vegetable garden is a place people like to gather, so keep it close to a pathway.

  • Make it easy to access: If you need to bring in soil, compost, mulch, or wood by truck or car, make sure your garden can be easily reached by a vehicle.

  • Have a water source close by: Hauling hose around to water the garden will cause extra work and frustration.

  • Keep it flat. You can garden on a slight slope, and, in fact, a south-facing one is ideal since it warms up faster in spring. However, too severe a slope could lead to erosion problems.

    A sample yard with possible (and impossible) sites for a vegetable garden.

If you’re a first-time gardener, 100 square feet is plenty of garden to take care of; start small and build on your success. However, if you want to produce food for storing and sharing, a 20-foot-x-30-foot plot (600 square feet total) is a great size.

Fruiting vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers, beans, squash, melons, cucumbers, and eggplant, need at least 6 hours of direct sun a day for good yields. The amount of sun doesn’t have to be continuous though. You can have 3 hours in the morning with some shade midday and then 3 more hours in the late afternoon.

If your little piece of heaven gets less than 6 hours of sun, you have some options:

  • Greens, such as lettuce, arugula, bok choy, and spinach, produce reasonably well in a partially shaded location where the sun shines directly on the plants for 3 to 4 hours a day.

  • Root crops, such as carrots, potatoes, and beets, need more light than leafy vegetables, but they may do well getting only 4 to 6 hours of sun a day.

A site that’s sunny in midsummer may later be shaded by trees, buildings, and the longer shadows of late fall and early spring. If you live in a mild-winter climate, such as parts of the southeastern and southwestern United States where it’s possible to grow vegetables nearly year-round, choose a spot that’s sunny in winter as well as in summer.

You can have multiple vegetable garden plots around your yard matching the conditions with the vegetables you’re growing. If your only sunny spot is a strip of ground along the front of the house, plant a row of peppers and tomatoes. If you have a perfect location near a backdoor, but it only gets morning sun, plant lettuce and greens in that plot.

Do you have a planter box you’ve lost enthusiasm for? Perhaps you only have a small space to grow herbs and vegetables and want to maximise its productivity, but aren’t sure what that actually looks like.

We’ve put together a plan to make sure your planter box isn’t sitting empty and you have something to harvest all year round.

To help get you started, we’ve pulled together information on:

  • Composting
  • Drainage and nutrients
  • Selecting your veggies
  • When to start planting
  • How to start planting
  • Plants that are slow growing or take up a lot of space
  • Plants that grow well in small spaces
  • Great edging plants
  • Suggested plant combinations
  • The best time of year to plant things

The best place to start

Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume. Watch Duration: 1 minute 46 seconds1m 46s We take you through everything from where to plant your seeds and seedlings, to how to keep slugs and snails away.

The very first thing is to decide what you want to grow. This is as simple as thinking about the herbs and vegetables you like to eat and use often.

If you want to be pulling things to eat out of your garden all year, keep in mind that you’ll need to follow the schedule of when each herb or veggie will need planting, and what can follow in its place.

And if you’ve got limited space, you’ll need to be fairly brutal about sticking to those schedules. This can mean pulling out a crop when it hasn’t quite finished to make room for the next crop.

Other elements that will help you succeed are choosing fast-growing veggie varieties, and staggering your planting so that your crops overlap (we’ll get to that).

The main options for places to plant are in garden beds, raised freestanding beds or pots.

If you’re digging directly into the soil, raise the soil level in the bed by adding compost and manure. This will not only help provide nutrients, it will also improve drainage. You can either mound it up in the bed, or build a frame of timber sleepers and fill that up.

Compost vs manure

It’s worth noting here the difference between compost and manure.

While both are termed “organic matter”, compost is generally decomposed plant-based material (made from your garden and kitchen waste) and is great for “conditioning” soil: it makes clay soil less dense so it drains better, and adds body to sandy soil, allowing it to retain more nutrients and water. It also stimulates soil microbes into action (that’s a good thing).

While it contains nutrients, the levels are usually far less intense than in manure.

Manure is generally decomposed animal waste; it might contain a mix of faeces, urine, spilt food and bedding (for example, hay from horse stables). It is a great source of nutrients for plants, being very high in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Of course, the exact levels vary depending on the animal it comes from and other additives.

Some shop-bought manure is bulked out with a lot of vegetable matter, and going the other way, some people add manure to their compost. Just don’t add cat and dog poo, as these can contain parasites that won’t break down as easily. Dog and cat poo can be buried and will break down, but you don’t want it anywhere near your veggie bed.

The veggies versus meat distinction extends to liquid garden products. Seaweed-based solutions are great soil conditioners but not strictly fertilisers, whereas fish-based ones are very high in nutrients and are potent fertilisers.

Drainage and nutrients

If you’re using a free-standing raised bed or containers, then your drainage is already sorted.

Just remember that nutrients will leach out over time and will need to be replaced. Topping up with compost as you replant is a great way to keep soil levels high and nutrients restocked in any garden type.

Adding manure is a good idea when planting “hungry” plants such as brassicas (cauliflower, broccoli, cabbages, kale and their cousins), but don’t just spread it everywhere — many root crops (onions and carrots especially) prefer less-fertile soil. There’s no getting around it, you’ll need to do some research. Sorry.

If you only have room for pots on a balcony, then buy two or three of the biggest pots you can manage (about 60 centimetres across the top is ideal — you might want to consider wheels underneath to make them mobile).

Fill them with the best potting mix you can afford (never garden soil, which will compact and won’t drain well), then put them in the sunniest but most wind-sheltered spot you have.

What veggies should I grow at home?

Fresh peas are hard to find in shops but are easy and fun to grow at home.(Unsplash: Lukas Budimaier)

The list is endless. But as we’ve said, there’s no point growing stuff you and your family don’t like.

Work out a list of the types of vegetables you tend to buy then see how they fit in with our suggestions below. You can choose crops by when to plant them or follow some suggested plant combinations.

As well as simply thinking about what you like eating, here are some other points to consider:

  • Pick veggies that are expensive or hard to find in the shops. Herbs are a great example. Brown onions are cheap but shallots can cost a lot, so try them. Same goes for cherry-sized tomatoes, which cost heaps more than regular ones. Another thought-starter: fresh peas are hard to find in shops but really easy and fun to grow.
  • What conditions you’re working with. Most veggies like 6-8 hours of sun a day, but large-leafed plants such as silverbeet, lettuce and some herbs are plants that will cope with a shadier spot.
  • How much space you have. Some plants are slow growing or take up a lot of space, so they’re less practical to grow in a small space — unless you can find a dwarf variety. Instead, focus on the plants that take up less space, are easier to grow and that you can turn over quickly.
  • “Cut-and-come again” varieties are useful. Rather than producing just one head of lettuce or broccoli, these types keep producing side shoots or leaves for several weeks so you can harvest them for longer. For broccoli, go to a nursery and look for ones with “sprouting” in the name. For lettuce, choose the loose-leaf types.
  • Include some insect-friendly flowers and herbs. These not only look nice but also attract pollinators and predatory bugs (to eat the baddies). You can use many of the flowers in salads and they make good edging plants, as do permanents such as strawberries.

When should I start growing veggies?

The best time to start is as soon as you have prepared your soil.

Crop choices will vary depending on climate but unless your garden is under snow or you’re in the grips of a drought, Australia’s weather is generally mild enough to plant something at any time of the year.

To work out an efficient cycle of crops, think broadly in terms of splitting your space in two. One spring-autumn bed or container, and one summer-winter space.

The spring-autumn bed will be planted in early spring for harvest in summer, then replanted in early autumn for harvest over winter (check out your options below).

The summer-winter space will be planted in early summer for harvest in autumn, then replanted in early winter for harvest in spring.

This way you’ll always have something coming into harvest. Each space could be as small as a single pot, or it could be a much bigger garden bed containing several crops.

How do I start planting?

Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume. Watch Duration: 1 minute 49 seconds1m 49s Learn the tricks and make your tomato harvest flourish with 7 tips from gardening guru Adrian Van Leest.

You’re asking your plants to produce big crops in a short time, so they will need to be pampered a little.

Regular watering is essential (don’t flood them, just make sure your watering is consistent). As they start to produce crops, it helps to add a serve of liquid fertiliser a couple of times a month.

Add more compost when replanting, and add manure before planting heavy croppers, such as corn, brassicas (cauliflower, kale, broccoli, etc.), melons, cucumbers, eggplant, peppers and tomatoes.

Looking for more help?

  • Planting seedlings (instead of seeds) of slow-growing plants such as broccoli gives you a head start, but root crops (potatoes, carrots), peas and beans are always better grown from seed; they just don’t like being moved.
  • Another trick to maximise space is to squeeze a faster-growing crop around a slower-growing one. For example, a tomato plant will eventually need a square metre of soil and can grow 1.5-2 metres tall — but not overnight. Speedy little lettuce, Asian greens and radishes can be planted, grow, and be harvested before the tomato even knows what’s happening.
  • With the point above in mind, don’t be tempted to cram larger plants in too close or the whole row will struggle. Follow the spacing suggested on the pack you bought them in.
  • Plant taller crops on the southern or western side of the patch, graded down in height to the smallest ones at the front, so everything gets a share of sun.
  • If you have space (and time), allow one or two plants to go to seed — the flowers attract the pollinators for other crops and will provide you with seed for next season.

It can be hard to keep track of what has been growing where but it’s important because the same plants shouldn’t go in the same spot year after year. Get a notebook to jot down what you plant. It will also help you build up a picture of what does well where and when. You can learn more about the best sequences for crop rotation here.

Finally, when your plants do start producing (yay!) make sure you harvest regularly. Your plants are on a mission to reproduce and, as you keep stealing their babies, they’ll be triggered into producing more. This especially applies to cucumbers, zucchini and peas.

Plants that are slow growing or take up a lot of space

Home-grown tomatoes are hard to beat, but they do take their time (and require ample space) to grow.(Unsplash: Markus Spiske)

  • Asparagus (it’s a perennial, so will be in one spot for up to 20 years!)
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Pumpkins
  • Potatoes (unless you harvest as new potatoes)
  • Melons
  • Parsnips
  • Leeks
  • Tomatoes

Plants that grow well in small spaces

  • Beans
  • Peas
  • Radishes
  • Spring onions
  • Rocket
  • Radishes
  • Beetroot
  • Any climbing fruit or veg
  • Dwarf crops

Great edging plants

Basil grows perfectly happily among other plants.(Unsplash)

  • Alyssum (sow seed in spring for summer flowers)
  • Dill (plant in autumn or early spring)
  • Basil (spring/summer)
  • Coriander (sow seed in autumn)
  • Garlic chives

Suggested plant combinations

Spring and autumn bed

Turnips prefer to get started late in winter.(Unsplash)

Plant in August to harvest in December; replant in January to harvest in May.

  • Peas (soak overnight to speed germination); followed with cucumber in warmer climates or spinach in cooler areas.
  • Spinach, replaced by onions
  • Beetroot, followed by bok choy
  • Lettuce, replaced by carrots or radishes
  • Chinese cabbage, then replant with peas
  • Turnip, replaced with bulb fennel

Summer and winter garden

Cucumbers also grow well up a trellis.(Unsplash)

Plant in September and harvest in Feb; replant in March to harvest July.

  • Tomatoes, replant with mizuna (Japanese mustard greens)
  • Green beans, replace with kale
  • Mustard greens, replant with carrots
  • Zucchini, replant with mini turnips
  • Swiss chard, follow with mini cauliflower
  • Capsicum, replant with oakleaf lettuce
  • Cantaloupe (up a trellis), followed by beets
  • Cucumbers (grown up a trellis) replant with spinach
  • Eggplant, followed by onions

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When to plant what

Autumn-winter sowing plants:

Plant cabbage in August to harvest in December.(Unsplash: Monika Grabkowska)

  • Spinach
  • Radish
  • Onions
  • Mizuna
  • Lettuce oakleaf
  • Mustard greens
  • Peas
  • Broad bean
  • Carrots
  • Rocket
  • Kale
  • Leek
  • Cauliflower
  • Endive
  • Broccoli (green sprouting)
  • Celery
  • Cabbage
  • Sugarsnap pea

Spring-summer sowing plants:

Get started with your carrots in spring.(Unsplash)

  • Silverbeet or Swiss chard
  • Pumpkin
  • Eggplant
  • Turnip
  • Okra
  • Tomato
  • Radish
  • Watermelon
  • Carrot
  • Lettuce (look for slow-bolting types; this is mentioned on seed packets)
  • Capsicum
  • Leek
  • Cucumber
  • Broccoli (choose a resprouting type)
  • Zucchini
  • Cabbage
  • Beetroot
  • Dwarf or climbing beans

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It’s that time of the year again, where girlfriends expect the sky and the moon for that special day, and guys run around like headless chickens, trying to reserve seats at that restaurant only to find that everywhere is packed. It’s also the period where there’s a huge spike in the price of flowers.

A stalk of rose that usually cost you $2 for the rest of the year could suddenly be priced at $10, and boyfriends still have to buy them because their girlfriends want them to. Guys, if you’re like most of the writers in the office, boyfriends who are too cheap or too poor to afford a proper bouquet of roses for their girlfriends, you’ll definitely have to read this article. Because this is where I’ve listed down the 9 cheapest places you can get your flowers for V-day from, or at least as cheap as it can get during Valentine’s Day.

Groupon
If you’ve not known Groupon, then you have to know them now. There’s always good deals on Groupon, including flower bouquet deals. And honestly, $12 for a 3-stalk rose bouquet is as good as you can get for this season, or at least that’s what I think. Read carefully though because there might be hidden surcharge that you’re not aware of.

Website: groupon.sg

Carousell
Best place to find cheap flowers, really. Many shops are selling roses online and through Carousell, you can find roses going for as low as $12. Hey, it might be Carouhell, but between this and $39.90 flowers, which would you prefer?

Website: carousell.com

Floral Garage Singapore
If you really want to get a well-arranged bouquet from florists, then you might want to go to this store. While $43 for 2 big and 3 small roses sounds expensive, wait till you see other shops selling them at $70.

Website: FloralGarageSG.com

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Prince’s Flower Shop
The bouquets here start from $30, with premium roses and most importantly, cheap delivery surcharges!

Location: Prince.com.sg

Far East Flora
While they sell their bouquets at a higher price, they deliver these flowers for a flat charge. Here’s a tip, since you’re going for broke, might as well go all out by throwing in a balloon and chocolate. You’ll find it more cost-effective.

Website: fareastflora.com

Roses Only
They sell a single stalk of rose in a box for $49. It might seem expensive, but they provide same day delivery if you order before 12pm. Need last minute flowers? Here’s the place to go.

Website: rosesonly.com.sg

Flower Advisor
Flowers start from as low as $35, and they don’t charge any delivery fee. Sounds like a good deal, doesn’t it? Especially when you’ve been looking around and you know some florists charge you $20 to $30 just for delivery.

Website: floweradvisor.com.sg

Supermarket
Now, don’t judge. These are the smart ones. Buy a bunch of flowers, get a container and learn how to arrange them from YouTube or wikihow. Not only is it cheaper, it also shows your sincerity and effort. Just don’t show your girlfriend this article or she’ll know why you’re doing it. To save money.

Fake Flowers
Because some of us just don’t have that kind of money. Daiso sells flowers for $2! You can even make your own roses using origami or foam paper. Just put in the effort and chances are your girlfriend will appreciate it all the same. It’s from you mah.

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“Help Me Find Roses” The single greatest rose resource we have – and need to support.

Looking for a rose such as the newly released ‘Loretta Lynn Van Lear’ named for the famed country singer? Help Me Find Roses is the place to go!
Photo/Illustration: Brad JalbertLooking for a rose such as the newly released ‘Loretta Lynn Van Lear’ named for the famed country singer? Help Me Find Roses is the place to go!
Photo/Illustration: Brad Jalbert

Since we are talking about different ways of buying roses I thought it the perfect time to introduce you to one of the greatest rose and gardening resources we have. It’s a website called:

Help Me Find Roses, Clematis and Peonies
and everything gardening related.

If you are not familiar with this website you need to be. As per above they also are a resource for information on clematis and peonies, but since this a rose column I’m going to focus on what they offer regarding roses.

For starters this should knock your socks off. Their website currently catalogues over 41,000 roses and has more than 130,000 photographs of same roses. Toss in thousands of Rose nurseries, public and private gardens, Rose societies, authors, breeders, hybridizers and publications from all over the world and you have simply the greatest rose resource I know of and have ever seen.

In terms of buying roses here is just one way it can work for you. Say you are looking for a specific rose and don’t know where to purchase it and/or would like some more information. Simply click on “Search/Lookup” in the left hand column and a box comes up where you can type part or all of the name of the rose. Click on search and up comes either the rose or the ones that are closest to what you are looking for. Then click on the one you want.

You are first taken to a “description” page with photos of the rose, eventual size, is (or isn’t it) disease resistant, hardiness zone information and a whole host of other things you might want to know.

Then along the top of this “description” page are tabs. Click on them to see more photos, awards, and references in published material. But three of these tabs are particularly useful.

“Member Ratings”. This is exactly what it sounds like. Other gardeners are continually rating the rose on characteristics such as bloom color, bloom frequency, fragrance, vigor, cold hardiness, disease resistance, shade tolerance and the list goes on. This gives you tremendous insight into what other gardeners feel about this rose when grown in their own garden – much like you will grow it in yours.

“Member Comments”. This area gives members the chance to expand on their ratings with comments on how well, or poorly, the rose does in their area. And here is one the best parts; click on the members name and you can see what area and what hardiness zone they live in! This means you can possibly find comments on the rose from people growing it under conditions similar to yours. What can be better than that!

“Buy From”. This is where Help Me Find really gets powerful. Rose nurseries from around the world regularly upload their rose availability list to Help Me Find. So under this tab are listed rose nurseries currently offering this rose for sale anywhere in the world. And then there are links to many of their websites plus information on how to get in touch with them to order. When I ran my former rose nursery I always made sure this list was up to date and I know almost all rose nurseries do the same.

There are more areas of Help Me Find I know you’ll find interesting and I’m going to talk about them in future posts, but before I close this one there is something you need to know and something I want you to think about doing.

First know this. Help Me Find accepts no advertising. They want this to be commercial free and unbiased. Therefore they help offset the cost of the site via donations and/or people joining for a year via their premium membership. A premium membership that costs only $24 a year and opens up whole other areas of the site. Heck, that’s less than a magazine subscription! Click on “Donations” towards the top of the left hand column for more information.

So please check the site out and have a blast. But also take a moment to donate and/or join. This is an amazing resource for lovers of gardening but without our support….

I shudder to think about it.

Happy Roseing
Paul

Zone Hardiness Information

Find Roses For Your Climate

To determine your USDA Zone based on winter low temperatures and enter your zip code. After determining your Zone you may then go the Advanced Search link on the dark green left margin on homepage. The information below will help you use the Advanced Search effectively to find all the roses you can grow in your climate. It is important to read all the information on this page and at the top of the Advanced Search page. There are no search links for the warmer Zones—7, 8, 9, and 10—because nearly every rose will grow in those zones.

Zone 7 gardeners may wish to exclude the few Zone 8 roses or, depending on your budget and personality, you may decide to experiment with adaptive practices such as micro climate locations in your garden to grow these roses. Average low ranges for the warmer zones are as follows:

Zone 7: 10 to 0 Degrees // Zone 8: 10 to 20 // Zone 9: 20 to 30 // Zone 10: 30 to 40

(See the USDA map for more Zone ranges.)

Further Notes on Zone Hardiness

The coldest Zone in which it is possible to grow roses at all is Zone 3. Please note that, while the zone ranges given on each individual rose page for that variety are helpful for finding roses appropriate to your area, they are not a guarantee of hardiness.

Occasionally any zone may experience weather outside its normal range. Colder zone gardeners sometimes extend their range of choices by experimenting with various types of winter protection methods and devices and by making good use of any warmer microclimates in their gardens such as a wind protected south wall. For Zones 3-5, we recommend planting into the ground just as soon as hard freeze danger is past in the spring. The good news is that roses that are established on their own roots will often regenerate if frozen to the ground. Feel free to email us if you have any questions about the hardiness of a rose your are considering. Our guarantees do not apply to winter survival or to abnormal weather events.

We have not included Zone 7 and warmer zones in our searches because most varieties may be grown in those zones. In Zone 7 the microclimates of the garden need to be taken into consideration in order to grow more tender varieties. Also, when pushing zone limits, one needs to remember that a West Coast Zone usually has less extreme weather than the same East Coast Zone, and, certainly, than the same Central Zone. Other considerations, not covered here, have to do with limitations for extremely southern climates on growing some of the antiques that require a period of winter chill to flower well. If you live in Zone 10 or warmer, there may not be enough winter chill to insure reliable flowering of the Gallica and Alba classes. We would like to hear from customers in Zones 10 and above who have grown these classes of roses with successful bloom. We think it may be possible, particularly in certain locations within these zones.

Saving Freeze Damaged Roses

After a damaging freeze, don’t give up on your roses too quickly. Particularly, if many of your frozen roses were well established and on their own roots before the freeze, they may very well send up new canes from the roots. This advice can also work for grafted roses that were planted with the graft union (the knob) below the soil so that the rose has established ‘own roots’ above the graft union.

However, one thing is certain, if your roses are to regenerate from the roots, frozen canes that are piano key black must be trimmed back to white wood, or the freeze damage will continue traveling down into the roots and will kill the crown of the plant. When the rot travels into the crown and then into the roots, regeneration is much less likely. I will say though that, when digging up an own root rose, small pieces of root, left behind, will often regenerate. So, even if the crown is damaged, you might want to experiment with cutting away the damaged part of the crown, sterilizing the cut, and waiting a few months to see whether new canes emerge.

Certain types of roses, such as the warmth loving Teas, are particularly vulnerable to freeze generated rot traveling rapidly down their canes. So, it is particularly important to trim all that true black damage down to green wood right away on any rose. Be sure to differentiate the piano key black of damage from healthy dark purple canes. Many varieties have dark purple canes rather than green. Trim just below freeze damage (above a healthy node) as more low temps can still occur. Following that surgery be sure to inspect and perform the above process on your roses several more times, as needed, for at least a couple of weeks after a freeze. I usually continue to inspect once a week for a month after a severe freeze. In the beginning, space your inspections a few days to a week apart. Look for damage that was missed during the first trim, or that has progressed. This type of vigilance has saved many roses in our gardens over the years.

I confess I have never gardened in USDA Zones 3-5, where winters can be very severe. So, I have no experience with using protection measures like the ‘Minnesota Tilt’, which involves tilting and covering the entire rose with soil, or using a cone filled with loose material such as leaves to protect roses. We salute all our Northern customers for their fierce fortitude and ask you to let us know if the above advice may be relevant at all to your situation—perhaps to very hardy roses that are unprotected?

RVR offers many varieties bred to be grown in the coldest zones. Photos of some outstanding, very hardy varieties are embedded in this article.

If you would like to see all the roses that can be grown in your USDA Zone, go to the Advanced Search Link on the Left Margin and Highlight Your Zone and all the Zones that are colder than your zone as well. Example: If you are in Zone 5, you would highlight not just 5 but Zones 3, 4, and 5. If you are in Zone 3 you would highlight only Zone 3. (The smaller the zone number, the colder the zone.) If a rose on our website is marked Zone 7, the coldest zone it is hardy in is Zone 7. You would not want to order a rose listing Zone 7 in its data if you live in Zones 3, 4, 5 or 6 (unless you are a “zone pusher” in Zone 6). Nearly any rose can be grown in Zones 7, 8, and 9. In Zones 10 and up, a few classes, such as the Gallicas, may not always bloom reliably due to lack of winter chilling, depending on your specific location.

NOTE: The USDA Zone map was revised two summers ago. The Zone Hardiness Link on our website’s left margin connects directly to this map.

Fall Planting and Cold Season Tips

Fall planting is a good thing to do in Zones 7 and warmer. An exception is that we do not recommend planting the Teas, Noisettes, and Chinas after mid summer in Zones 7 and 8a. If you prefer delayed shipping, we will overwinter your order and ship in the spring on the date you specify. Bands and 1 gallon plants can also be potted into 5 gallon or larger pots for overwintering in Zone 7 and up. Plants in pots should be considered to be in a zone colder than that of plants in the ground. Colder zones may require taking roses in pots into a cold garage for a brief time during hard freezes.

Alert gardeners will see that plants are well watered before a freeze hits. Roses in pots that are less hardy may be moved into a cold structure that provides some warmth against extreme temperatures, or at least under a roof overhang. Move them right back outside as soon as the extreme weather stops, otherwise you will need to observe them carefully all winter. Plants moved indoors for longer periods must be kept moist but not wet. Infestation of spider mites, aphids, or other insects should be prevented by regular application of a systemic pesticide that also contains a fungicide for disease prevention. Keeping plants indoors at room temperature is not recommended. Moving plants outdoors again is best if just a few plants are involved. Consult successful rose gardeners or organizations in your area for successful special outdoor techniques used in extreme cold where you live.

How To Choose The Best Location To Grow Roses In Your Yard

By Stan V. Griep
American Rose Society Consulting Master Rosarian – Rocky Mountain District

I cannot begin to tell you how many times I have had someone tell me how hard roses are to grow. It just really is not true. There are some things a beginning rose-loving gardener can do that will make it very easy on them to be successful. One of those things is choosing where to plant your rose bush.

Tips for Choosing Where to Put a Rose Bed

Select a place for your new rose bed first before you order your roses. For best results, select

a spot that gets six to eight hours of good sun a day.

The selected spot should be an area that has good drainage with good soil. The soil can be built up by using some compost and if a bit heavy on the clay or sandy, can be worked up nicely using some soil amendments. Most garden centers carry bagged compost, topsoil and soil amendments.

Once you have selected your garden location, go about working up the soil by adding the amendments needed for your rose bed.

Deciding How Big Your Rose Bed Will Be

Roses need room to grow. Each location for a rose bush should be about a 3-foot diameter space. This will allow for good air movement and will make tending to them easy as well. Using this 3-foot diameter rule will also help you plan the actual size of your new rose bed. Basically multiply 3 square feet by the number of rose bushes you will be growing and this is the proper size for your rose beds.

By starting out with choosing a good location to grow your roses even before you buy them, you will be on a better path towards rose growing success.

The History of Roses

Roses have a long and colorful history. They have been symbols of love, beauty, war, and politics. The rose is, according to fossil evidence, 35 million years old. In nature, the genus Rosa has some 150 species spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska to Mexico and including northern Africa. Garden cultivation of roses began some 5,000 years ago, probably in China. During the Roman period, roses were grown extensively in the Middle East. They were used as confetti at celebrations, for medicinal purposes, and as a source of perfume. Roman nobility established large public rose gardens in the south of Rome. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the popularity of roses seemed to rise and fall depending on gardening trends of the time.

During the fifteenth century, the rose was used as a symbol for the factions fighting to control England. The white rose symbolized York, and the red rose symbolized Lancaster, as a result, the conflict became known as the “War of the Roses.”

Roses were in such high demand during the seventeenth century that royalty considered roses or rose water as legal tender, and they were often used as barter and for payments. Napoleon’s wife Josephine established an extensive collection of roses at Chateau de Malmaison, an estate seven miles west of Paris in the 1800s. This garden became the setting for Pierre Joseph Redoute’s work as a botanical illustrator. In 1824, he completed his watercolor collection “Les Rose,” which is still considered one of the finest records of botanical illustration.

It wasn’t until the late eighteenth century that cultivated roses were introduced into Europe from China. Most modern-day roses can be traced back to this ancestry. These introductions were repeat bloomers, making them unusual and of great interest to hybridizers, setting the stage for breeding work with native roses to select for hardiness and a long bloom season. Many of these early efforts by plant breeders are of great interest to today’s gardeners.

Roses are once again enjoying a resurgence in popularity, specifically, shrub roses and old garden roses. Gardeners realize that these roses fit the lifestyle of today’s gardeners who want roses that are not as demanding with regard to disease control, offer excellent floral quality, have excellent winter hardiness, and fit into shrub borders and perennial gardens without seeming out of place.

To be successful in growing roses in Midwest gardens, one needs to be aware of some basic considerations. Attention to plant selection, a basic knowledge of the wide array of classes available, basic culture information, and information about potential disease and insect problems will go a long way in making roses an enjoyable addition to the garden.

This short guide to rose gardening will hopefully help sort through some of the confusion about roses and entice you to include one or more of these plants in your garden.

Wild Roses

Description:
Wild roses have been used by people for centuries, provide food for pollinators, birds and mammals and are even the provincial flower of Alberta. Discover more about the uses, growing requirements and learn all about some Canadian species of this much-loved plant.

Native roses have pink blossoms, ranging from very pale to deep tones. They typically bloom around the end of June or early July. Their stems usually have thorns and their compound leaves (comprising several small leaflets) are arranged alternately along the stem. They often have a bushy appearance and interesting fall colour.

Similar Species: Please see similar species below “
Habitat: Wild Roses prefer to be in sun, well-drained soil and water at the base of the plant in the mornings. In the spring, cut back deadwood but leave living canes as they flower on older stems.
Behaviour:

Collect rose hips once they are ripe (usually red or orange in colour). Remove the seeds and gently rub the plumpest with sandpaper. Plant immediately and watch for seedlings the following spring.

Primary Ecosystem Roles:

The pollen on the wild rose’s many bright yellow anthers are a valued food source for many beneficial insects, including bees. Rose hips are a winter food for birds and mammals such as waxwings, pine grosbeaks, grouse, rabbits, coyotes and skunks.

Uses

Roses have been valued by people for centuries. Aboriginals are reputed to have used the roots as an ointment for sore eyes, and the wood of the plant for arrows. As food, rose hips are nourishing with their high vitamin C content and antioxidants, along with other nutrients such as zinc. They were used to treat scurvy, numerous infections and to promote digestion. You can pick the ripe red hips in the fall – some wait until after the first frost – to nibble on or to make a tea. While the seeds are edible, they don’t taste overly great and can be cut or strained out. Some species are fleshier than others. Rose hips have also been used in baked goods and puddings, and their pectin has been used as a thickener.

Rose petals are also edible and can be sprinkled into salads — a feast for the eye and a conversation starter! They can also be made into jams, jellies, vinegars and syrups. Remove the white base of the petal as it can be bitter. Candied rose petals are added to cakes for both decoration and consumption.

The pollen on the wild rose’s many bright yellow anthers are a valued food source for many beneficial insects, including bees. Rose hips are a winter food for birds and mammals such as waxwings, pine grosbeaks, grouse, rabbits, coyotes and skunks.

(Caution: We are not recommending the use of these plants for medicinal or food purposes. Many plants are poisonous or harmful if eaten or used externally. The information on food and medicinal value is only added for interest. This information hasbeen gathered from books and its accuracy has not been tested.)

Propagation

Collect rose hips once they are ripe (usually red or orange in colour). Remove the seeds and gently rub the plumpest with sandpaper. Plant immediately and watch for seedlings the following spring. According to William Cullina in his book Native Trees, Shrubs and Vines, “powdery mildew is usually not a severe problem in the garden and in the wild, but it can get pretty bad under irrigation in the nursery.” He therefore recommends keeping them in an open spot that gets sun and good air circulation, and watering in the mornings.

You can also start new plants by digging up new shoots that spread from the mother plant, or from cuttings, although some find this less successful than using seeds.

Care

These plants don’t usually require much assistance once established. Generally wild roses prefer full sun and well-drained soil although some will manage in partial shade. In the spring, cut back deadwood but leave living canes as they flower on older stems.

Some Canadian Species

Prickly rose, Arctic flame (Rosa acicularis)

Prairie rose (Rosa arkansana)

  • Native to: Alta., Sask. and Man.
  • Habitat: prairies, fencerows and open woods — sun and dry, well-drained soil
  • Appearance: pale pink blossoms with dark pink in the veins; plants grow 30 to 60 centimetres.

Meadow rose, smooth rose (Rosa blanda)

Pasture rose (Rosa carolina)

Baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa)

  • Native to: sB.C.
  • Habitat: woods and clearings — partial shade to full shade, dry to moist soil
  • Appearance: 30 to 240 centimetres

Shining rose (Rosa nitida)

Nootka rose (Rosa nutkana)

  • Native to: coastal B.C.
  • Habitat: shorelines, roadsides, thickets and clearings — sun, dry to moist soil
  • Appearance: large, pale-pink flowers on a tall plant reaching 150 to 300 centimetres

Swamp rose, marsh rose (Rosa palustris)

Climbing prairie rose (Rosa setigera)

  • Native to: sOnt.
  • Habitat: thickets, hedgerows and wet areas — sun to partial shade, moist soil
  • Appearance: This plant has clusters of pink flowers atop long canes that can be trained along fences. The flowers change from deep to pale pink, giving the shrub an interesting look. Larger leaves than the other species mentioned. Grows to 120 to 240 centimetres.

Virginia rose (Rosa virginiana)

Wood rose, desert wild rose (Rosa woodsii)

Black Roses

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Barrington Levy

Barrington Ainsworth Levy (born 30 April 1964, Clarendon, Jamaica) is a reggae and dancehall artist from Jamaica. more “

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In my garden Black, black roses in my garden To keep and care it you got to water it To keep and care it you got to water it I’ve been travelin’ all over this world I’ve never seen no other black rose in no other garden So you see my garden is so special Black, black roses in my garden Black, black roses in my garden Black, black roses in my garden Black, black roses in my garden To keep and care it you got to water it Got to keep the earth so cool ‘Cause something special is in my garden Black, black roses in my garden hey eh Black, black roses in my garden Black, black roses in my garden Black, black roses in my garden Sure you got to water it, water it You got to do the best you can do ‘Cause no other garden is so special like this Black roses is in my garden Black, black roses I’ve got to water it My garden is so nice oh hey oh hey Something special special in my garden Black, black roses in my garden Sure, sure, sure I’ve got to stay And take good care of the roses Go to see, go to see that’s so special to me My garden, my garden is so special yeah Black, black roses is blooming in my garden

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