- Loquat Tea
- What Is Herbal Infusion?
- Loquat Leaf Tea Health Benefits
- Where Can I Buy Loquat Leaves Tea?
- How To Make Loquat Leaf Tea?
- Side Effects Of Loquat Leaves
- Other Amazing Great Posts
- Effect of Loquat Leaf Extract on Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Material and Methods
- 3. Results
- 4. Discussion
- Competing Interests
- 10 Best Benefits of Loquat
- What is Loquat?
- Loquat Nutrition Facts
- Health Benefits of Loquat
- Why does my loquat lose its leaves?
- Fall Power: Loquat Leaves
- Loquat Leaf Drop: Reasons A Loquat Is Losing Leaves
- Why is My Loquat Tree Dropping Leaves?
- Additional Reasons for Loquat Leaf Loss
- Loquat Diseases
I have been making herbal teas all my life. It was part of our culture growing up in Jamaica to have a hot beverage for breakfast. It could either be mint tea, other herbs, or a hot chocolate beverage (Milo).
Later on, when I moved to England, tea drinking was even more popular. It appeared as if my friend’s kettles were permanently boiling water on their stoves.
Every time I would visit, the first thing they asked me is, ‘would you like a cup of tea mate?’
When I moved to the USA, it definitely wasn’t as popular to drink tea throughout the day, not unless you were a shift worker.
As my love from herbal teas grew, I developed a passion for exploring all kinds of herbs and their benefits and as we moved throughout the East Coast.
In the little time we spent in Ohio, I had to learn to depend more upon the herbs that were close to my immediate surroundings.
To learn more, I visited farmers’ markets, attend foraging classes and tours, and joined many groups on social media about native plants.
In New Jersey, we enjoyed red clover, mullein, and plantain. When we moved to Virginia, we enjoyed wild lettuce, dandelion, red clover, milk thistle, burdock, echinacea, and goldenseal.
In Ohio, we had lots of nettles, St. John’s Wort, passionflower, and chicory.
Now in Florida, there are many of my favorite herbs that don’t grow well where I live because the soil is so sandy. I have been learning to adjust and utilize the herbs in my region.
What Is Herbal Infusion?
The herbal infusion method is the best way of capturing the flavors and oils of the plant. The leaves, flowers, root, and bark of the plant are steeped in boiling water to create a beverage.
Loquat Leaf Tea Health Benefits
Most people who enjoy eating loquat fruit aren’t familiar with the health benefits of the loquat leaves.
In Japan, the loquat leaves (Eriobotrya japonica) are used to make a delicious tea.
Fortunately, loquat leaves have been studied and now there are scientific validations on the many health benefits of loquat leaves.
Research has shown that loquat leaves contain a compound called Triterpenoids, which are known for their anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties. Read more here.
Loquat leaves can be applied in topical form as creams to combat acne and other skin conditions, due to its anti-inflammatory properties.
The anti-inflammatory benefits extend to the lungs, possibly soothing coughs, asthmatic conditions and relieving pain, read more here.
Loquat leaves are high in antioxidants, which fight against free radical damage,
Research has shown that consuming the leaves is beneficial to combat diabetes, liver disease, and cancer, read more here.
Where Can I Buy Loquat Leaves Tea?
Loquat plants can be purchased at nurseries, farmers market, the dried loose leaves are sold online or as teabags.
How To Make Loquat Leaf Tea?
Things You’ll Need
- Water – Fresh cold filtered spring water of the highest quality is best for brewing the best tea.
- Boiling water is needed to infuse the loquat leaves to extract the flavors.
- Stainless steel pot, kettle – Using stainless steel doesn’t affect the final taste of tea. Do not use aluminum pots or kettle.
- Knife – scrape and cut the leaves into strips
Pick about 2 tender leaves. The top should be glossy and the bottom furry.
The fur underside of the leaves needs to be removed. Take a knife or a new dish scrubbing pad and scrape off the fur off the leaves.
It is believed that the furry coating on the underside has the potential to cause throat irritation.
Rinse the leaves under cold running water, dry the leaves with a paper towel or clean dishcloth.
Remove the veins and chop the leaves into pieces. Heat cold water in a pot or kettle on medium-high heat and bring to a boil.
Add chopped loquat leaves to the pot or kettle of boiling water, cover pot reduce heat to simmer leaves for 5 minutes, turn of heat allow the tea to steep for 10-20 minutes
Strain the tea from the pot. Tea is ready to drink. You can sweeten it with your favorite sweetener; I enjoyed mine with stevia.
Side Effects Of Loquat Leaves
Loquat tea is consumed daily in Asian countries now for thousands of years. There is only one reported case of a 39-year male developing toxic myopathy after drinking 2 liters of loquat leaf tea daily for 2 weeks.
He drank the loquat leaf tea to reduce his triglyceride levels. Although his levels were significantly reduced he developed muscle weakness and pain particularly in his arms.
He was admitted to the hospital where he was given intravenous fluids. Three days later he was discharged where he continued to drink loquat leaf tea at a lower dose.
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Effect of Loquat Leaf Extract on Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ursolic acid (UA) is the major active component of the loquat leaf extract (LLE) and several previous studies have indicated that UA may have the ability to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of the LLE on muscle strength, muscle mass, muscle function, and metabolic markers in healthy adults; the safety of the compound was also evaluated. We examined the peak torque/body weight at 60°/s knee extension, handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass, physical performance, and metabolic parameters at baseline, as well as after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Either 500 mg of LLE (50.94 mg of UA) or a placebo was administered to fifty-four healthy adults each day for 12 weeks; no differences in muscle strength, muscle mass, and physical performance were observed between the two groups. However, the right-handgrip strength of female subjects in the LLE group was found to be significantly better than that of subjects in the control group (). Further studies are required to determine the optimal dose and duration of LLE supplementation to confirm the first-stage study results for clinical application. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT02401113.
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decrease in fat-free mass, mostly due to the loss of muscle mass . In addition, it has been reported that muscle atrophy results from chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, along with the disuse condition . This inevitable decline of muscle mass followed by muscle weakness leads to both physical and physiological deteriorations that increase individual’s frailty. Sarcopenia, an age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength, has been reported to be associated with physical disability, poor quality of life, high healthcare burden, and mortality . In this context, therapeutic strategies for the improvement of muscle function are important to preserve mobility in later years.
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a plant species belonging to the family Rosaceae and the loquat leaf extract (LLE) has been reported to contain ursolic acid (UA) . UA was found to reduce muscle atrophy and stimulate muscle hypertrophy in vivo study . Moreover, another previous study revealed that the LLE supplements inhibited dexamethasone-induced reduction of muscle strength in Sprague-Dawley rats . Accordingly, those results suggest the possibility of using LLE as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy . Based on evidence from these previous studies, we hypothesized that UA, which is the main component of LLE, has a positive effect on skeletal muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in humans.
Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of administration of the loquat leaf compound for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and metabolic muscle markers in healthy adults; the safety of the compound was evaluated as well.
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Study Subjects and Ethics
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital (02-2014-021), and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects prior to the study. Healthy adults were recruited through an official announcement at the tertiary hospital of Yangsan city. The eligibility criteria for enrollment were as follows: age between 19 and 65 years and body mass index (BMI) ranging from 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2.
The exclusion criteria included abnormal liver or renal function (i.e., serum aminotransferase activity > 60 IU/L and serum creatinine concentrations > 1.2 mg/dL); diabetes (diagnosed clinically or fasting glucose level > 126 mg/dL); history of fracture during the previous year; uncontrolled hypertension; history of serious cardiac disease such as angina or myocardial infarction; history of gastrectomy; history of medication for psychiatric disease; administration of oriental medicine including herbs within the past 4 weeks; and evidence of relatively high skeletal mass (more than 110% of the standard lean body mass as measured using the body composition analyzer InBody 720) .
2.2. Study Design
This study was a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. A simple randomization technique based on number tables was used to assign each participant to either the intervention or the control group. The participants were assigned randomization numbers sequentially and these randomization codes were held by the company that manufactured the LLE and the dummy placebo. The measurements were conducted by people with no access to the randomization process of the participants.
After the baseline assessment, subjects were randomly allocated to either the LLE- or the placebo-supplemented group. Each subject was instructed to visit the clinic after 4 (±3 days) and 12 (±7 days) weeks from the beginning of the treatment. On each visit, evaluation of muscle mass, anthropometric measurement of body composition, physical performance test, and blood sampling were performed for every participant.
The LLE, obtained from dried loquat leaf, contained 102 mg/g of UA as the major component, and each capsule (Korea Pharmacy Corporation, CHO-A PHARM Co., Ltd.) contained 250 mg of LLE. 500 mg (UA 50.94 mg) per day of LLE was administered to the subjects in the intervention group 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner for 12 weeks. The same quantity of placebo was administered to the subjects in the control group twice a day for 12 weeks. The placebo had an identical appearance and taste as the LLE capsule.
2.4. Muscle Strength
A Biodex® System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Inc., Shirley, NY, USA) was used to measure the peak torque (TQ) at 60°/s knee extension movements and the peak TQ/body weight was calculated at 60°/s knee extension. The handgrip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer (Jamar, Jackson, MI). Three consecutive measurements of handgrip strength of both hands were recorded with subjects sitting in an upward position and their arms at a 90° angle position, and the maximum strength effort was determined.
2.5. Body Composition
BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by square of height (m2). A mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure of each subject in the sitting position after a 10 min resting period. Two readings, each for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were recorded at 3 min intervals, and the average of each measurement was used for analyses. A well-trained radiological technologist measured the body composition using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated the appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM)/height2 and ASM/weight as skeletal muscle mass indices.
2.6. Physical Performance
The subject’s physical performance was assessed using the short physical performance battery (SPPB), which consists of 3 components: balance, 4 m gait speed, and chair-rise ability . A well-trained study nurse performed all examinations.
2.7. Blood Sampling
Blood samples after a 12 h overnight fast were collected at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after the randomization for general blood testing, biochemical testing, and lipid testing to evaluate metabolic risk factors and monitor on potential adverse effects of LLE. The serum creatinine and blood pyruvate levels were measured by Jaffe’s kinetic alkaline picrate method and the enzymatic method, respectively. Lactate concentrations and serum electrolytes levels were measured using an ion-selective electrode, while serum creatinine kinase (CK) concentration was measured using the kinetic ultraviolet method. Liver enzyme and total cholesterol levels were measured with Toshiba TBA200FR (Toshiba Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) using an enzymatic colorimetric method, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured with Toshiba TBA200FR directly. Triglycerides were measured using lipase, glycerol kinase (GK), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO), and peroxidase (POD) with a glycerol blank. Fasting blood sugar was measured using a glucose oxidase test method (LX-20, Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), and the serum insulin concentration was measured using Coat-A-Count® Insulin with solid-phase 125I radioimmunoassay.
2.8. Nutrition and Exercise Assessments
The diet of each subject was monitored by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants were asked to report the frequency of consumption of 53 food items contained in the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire over a period of 2 weeks prior to administration . The total intake of energy and essential nutrients including protein, fat, and carbohydrate of participants was calculated using the questionnaire. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline and after 12 weeks . The physical activity levels were expressed as metabolic equivalent- (MET-) minute. METs are multiples of the resting metabolic rates. An MET-minute is computed by multiplying the MET score of an activity by its duration (in minutes). MET-minute scores are equivalent to kilocalories for a person weighing 60 kg.
2.9. Statistical Analysis
The primary outcome measure was 60°/s knee extension peak TQ at an angular velocity of 60°/s. The secondary outcome measures included peak TQ/body weight; handgrip strength measurement; and lean mass measured by DXA, SPPB, and other laboratory markers related to the muscle, such as pyruvate, lactate, and creatinine. The average knee extension peak TQ at an angular velocity of 60°/s was set at 67 Nm , and the difference in pre- and posttreatment changes in knee peak TQ between the placebo and the control groups was set at 5% with reference to 0–11% from a previous study , while the average difference between the placebo and the control groups to be detected was set at 5% of 67 Nm and 3.35 Nm. With a standard deviation (SD) of 3.9 Nm, based on a previous study, a minimum of 21 subjects per group would be required to detect a difference in knee peak TQ (power = 80% and alpha error = 0.05) . Using this calculation, we assumed a 20% dropout rate and selected 27 subjects per group for the present study. When the test data were unavailable, the last recorded data were used in the analysis (called the last observation carried forward). Efficacy analyses were based on the intent-to-treat population of subjects who received at least one dose of the prescribed LLE or placebo. The Shapiro-Wilk test was adopted to test the normality of the variables. Results are expressed as mean ± SD because the variables were all normally distributed. The between-group comparisons for baseline characteristics and the changes after 4 and 12 weeks were performed using a two-sample t-test for continuous variables as appropriate or the chi-square test in case of categorical variables. The within-group comparisons were done with a paired t-test. value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The SAS ver. 9.3 was used for all statistical analyses.
Sixty-five subjects were enrolled; of which, 54 subjects went through the randomization. Twenty-four subjects (88.9%) in the LLE group and 22 subjects (81.5%) in the control group completed the visits. The average compliance rates were 93.2% in the LLE group and 92.5% in the control group; these values did not differ between the groups. The baseline characteristics of the study subjects are presented in Table 1, and no significant differences were observed between the two groups, except in the gender ratio (). The number of men in the control group was four times higher than the number in the LLE group, even though they were assigned randomly. Caloric intake, intake of essential nutrients, and physical activity recorded in MET-minute remained unchanged within the group and between the groups throughout the entire 12 weeks.
Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study group.
3.2. Muscle Strength
At baseline, the muscle strength parameters did not differ between the two groups (all ) (Table 2). Throughout the 12 weeks, no significant differences in muscle strength were observed between the two groups (all ). Statistically, the right-handgrip strength significantly increased in the two groups at 12 weeks (, ) (Table 2). However, no significant differences were reported in the handgrip strength between the two groups over time (Table 2).
Table 2 Comparison of the muscle strength of the two groups.
Additionally, we performed the analysis based on gender because the sex proportion differed between the two groups (control group: 8 male subjects ; LLE group: 2 male subjects ). Statistically significant differences were observed in the right-handgrip strength during the 12 weeks between the LLE group and the control group (Δ right-handgrip strength, versus , ). However, changes during 4 weeks were similar between the two groups (Δ right-handgrip strength, versus , ) (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Intention-to-treat analysis on the right-handgrip strength of the female subjects in the LLE and placebo groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Two-sample test between groups for comparison of the difference from baseline (, after 4 weeks) (, after 12 weeks).
3.3. Muscle Mass
ASM/height2 and ASM/weight × 100 showed that the muscle mass had not changed in the two groups at 12 weeks ( and ) (Table 3). After 4 and 12 weeks, the total fat percent decreased in both the groups; however, no significant differences were observed in the two groups ( and ).
Table 3 Comparison of the muscle mass and muscle function between the two groups.
3.4. Physical Performance
The balance test score SPPB did not change in each group at 12 weeks ( and not applicable). However, 4 m gait speed and chair-rising time significantly improved in both groups at 12 weeks ( and ; and ), with no other differences between the two groups ( and ) (Table 3).
3.5. Blood Measurements
No significant differences were observed in the laboratory test results for pyruvate, lactate, electrolyte, glucose, and CK levels and the lipid profile, as well as liver and renal function between the two groups (Table 4).
Table 4 Comparison of the metabolic parameters between the two groups.
One of participants in the control group complained of skin rash and decided to drop out. Otherwise, no other adverse effects were observed in the LLE group.
To our knowledge, the present study is the first randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy and the safety of LLE supplementation for improving muscle strength, muscle mass, and muscle function. This study also showed that an LLE supplementation dose of 500 mg/day over 12 weeks had no favorable effects on muscle mass and function in healthy adults. However, the right-handgrip strength statistically improved in LLE-supplemented female subjects compared to that in the placebo group female subjects throughout the 12-week period.
Previous studies have suggested therapeutic options for the improvement of muscle mass and function mainly based on a combination of protein supplementation and exercise . In a previous study, dietary protein supplementation caused improvements in the physical performance of 65 frail elderly subjects but failed to increase the skeletal muscle mass . In contrast, another study on sarcopenic female patients demonstrated that exercise and simultaneous amino acid supplementation (3 g leucine-rich essential amino acid mixture administered twice a day) enhanced muscle strength and muscle mass variables and physical performances, such as walking speed . In addition, a recent study including 44 healthy young men showed that 3 months of resistance-type exercise training increased skeletal muscle mass, strength, and muscle fiber size. Along with exercise training, a group supplemented daily with dietary proteins (27.5 g) before sleep showed a more demonstrated increase in muscle mass and strength when compared with the group undergoing exercise training alone . Consistent with those results, the Society for Sarcopenia, Cachexia, and Wasting Disease recommended appropriate protein and energy intake with exercise for the prevention of sarcopenia .
Several studies suggest new therapeutic strategies for the prevention of aging-associated decline in muscle mass and function . Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy for 6 months showed significant beneficial effects on thigh volume, handgrip strength, and upper- and lower-body 1-RM muscle strength when compared with the placebo group . In another study, the use of high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplements preserved appendicular muscle mass in obese older adults on a hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise program when compared with that of an isocaloric control group . However, treatments for the prevention and improvement of sarcopenia are still not sufficient to meet the demands.
In oriental medicine, LLE, a common ingredient in teas and food, and UA, a major active component of loquat leaves, are used. A study based on microarray analysis reported that UA reduced skeletal muscle atrophy under two distinct atrophy-inducing stress conditions (fasting and muscle denervation). This particular in vivo study also demonstrated that long-term treatment with UA increased Akt phosphorylation and mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 . Another study showed that UA directly promoted protein accretion in cultured myotubes but did not modulate myoblast proliferation . However, the risks associated with the use of UA also have to be considered because of unfavorable side effects at high dose, including compromised viability of both myoblasts and myotubes and toxic myopathy . In this context, we performed a human study to evaluate the effect and safety of LLE in improving skeletal muscle mass, strength, and metabolic muscle markers for medical usage.
In the present study, unfortunately, we were unable to show the positive effects of LLE on muscle strength, muscle mass, and muscle function in healthy adults. The negative results could be explained, in part, by the use of insufficient dosage of the active component. Subjects in the intervention group daily received 500 mg of LLE supplement, which contained 50.94 mg of UA. In our preliminary study, we confirmed that 50 mg/kg/day of LLE supplement over a period of 5 weeks increased the muscle mass in rats. Therefore, our planned treatment dose was 1000 mg/day at the beginning of the study. However, we had to decrease the dose to 500 mg/day because a long-term human study using LLE had not been conducted in the past. Secondly, this study excluded exercise training to evaluate primarily the effect of LLE during the study. In a prior study, community-dwelling elderly sarcopenic women were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: exercise and amino acid supplementation (exercise + AAS), exercise, AAS, or health education . The knee extension strength improved significantly only in the exercise + AAS group, and no improvement was seen in the other groups. Lastly, more than 12 weeks may be required to notice positive results. According to the subgroup analysis of our data, the right-handgrip strength of the LLE group significantly increased only after 12 weeks but showed no significant change after 4 weeks.
Our study had some limitations including lack of histological confirmation to determine the action mechanism of LLE in the muscle and inability to measure UA levels in blood. Moreover, despite the randomization process, the female sex ratio was quite high in all the groups. Because testosterone and androgen are known to affect muscle growth and muscle mass, the efficacy of LLE may vary depending on the gender. However, the prospective design of this study compensates in part for these limitations. We stratified the analysis into subjects aged <45 and those aged 45+ owing to the relatively wide age range of study participants; however, the results of subgroup analysis were not different. Our study participants cannot represent entire population because we excluded people with relatively high skeletal muscle mass. Other limitations include insufficient LLE dosage and abstinence from additional exercising for the study’s duration. In addition, there was a concern regarding the validity of the physical performance evaluation tool. The SPPB system was adopted for the evaluation of subjects’ physical performance score, even though the system was originally intended to be used only in elderly people.
In conclusion, LLE supplementation did not improve muscle strength, muscle mass, and muscle function in healthy adults. However, the right-handgrip strength of female subjects in the LLE group showed significant improvement when compared with that of the female subjects in the placebo group. Further well-designed researches are needed to determine the appropriate dose ranges and duration of LLE supplementation and to increase the usefulness of our first-stage study outcome in various clinical settings.
The authors declare no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper.
This work was supported by the R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT (10040391, Development of Functional Food Materials and Device for Prevention of Aging-Associated Muscle Function Decrease).
10 Best Benefits of Loquat
Loquat has several health benefits, including the ability to manage diabetes, lower cholesterol levels, and protect bone mineral density. It has anti-cancer potential and also helps improve gastrointestinal health, boosts vision health, strengthens the immune system, soothes the respiratory tract, boosts circulation, and decreases blood pressure.
What is Loquat?
If you’ve ever been walking through south-central China and stumbled across a small evergreen shrub or tree with bright orange fruit, then perhaps you’re familiar with loquat. Scientifically called Eriobotrya japonica, the loquat is also known by other names such as Chinese plum, Japanese plum, Japanese medlar, Pipa, Nispero, and Maltese plum.
Pear-shaped and slightly larger than a plum, the fruits can have yellow or orange skin, sometimes with a red blush. The tangy flesh of the fruit is white, yellow or orange with brown seeds. The taste of the loquat fruit has been compared to a cross between mango and peach. It can be eaten either fresh or in dried form. The brightly colored, blemish-free ones are juicy as compared to the greenish ones which are sour and acidic.
Being one of the first fruits to be cultivated in the Asian continent, it is native to China but was naturalized in Japan more than a millennium ago. There are two main cultivated varieties of loquat: Chinese and Japanese. In East Asia, there are said to be over 800 varieties. Today, it is cultivated in many parts of the world.
Fresh loquats, also known as Japanese plums Photo Credit:
Loquat Nutrition Facts
The loquat fruit and leaves include pectin (fiber), vitamin A, vitamin C, and B-complex vitamins like thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folates, and folic acid, which make it very effective for boosting overall human health. Loquats are also an excellent source of minerals like iron, calcium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, and selenium. Low in cholesterol and calories, loquats contains monounsaturated fats like omega 3 fatty acids and omega 6 fatty acids.
Health Benefits of Loquat
Let’s take a closer look at the many health benefits of loquat.
Lowers Blood Pressure
One of the many nutrients found in good supply in loquat is potassium, which acts as a vasodilator for the cardiovascular system. By reducing the strain and pressure on the blood vessels and arteries, potassium is able to lower blood pressure and protect heart health. Potassium is often considered a brain booster, due to the increased flow of blood to the capillaries of the brain, which can improve cognition.
Loquat tea is often suggested for managing diabetes, as blood sugar has been shown to significantly reduce in those who regularly consume it. The unique organic compounds found in loquat tea are able to regulate insulin and glucose levels, which helps protects against diabetes. Also, for those living with diabetes, avoiding spikes and drops in blood sugar is crucial, which this tea can help with.
As a traditional medicine component, the loquat is suggested to have chemoprotective properties. Animal studies conducted with the fruit extract showed that it can suppress cell carcinogenesis at different stages such as cancer initiation, proliferation, and metastasis. Additionally, loquat leaves contain polyphenols that displayed cytotoxicity against human oral tumor cells, according to a study conducted in Japan. Studies published in the Archives of Pharmacal Research also show that the leaves have anti-metastatic properties and display anti-cancer potential. Further studies are required to gauge the potential for cancer treatment.
Soothes Respiratory System
Expectorant substances are important in the treatment of colds and other respiratory infections. Loquat tea is used as an expectorant, either when drunk or gargled, as it can cause coughing and through that, the expulsion of mucus and phlegm. This is where bacteria can live and grow, while also exacerbating other symptoms, so eliminating these toxic substances from your respiratory tract can help you feel better fast.
Loquat is a wonderful source of vitamin C, which helps stimulate the production of white blood cells, the body’s first line of defense against pathogens, and also works as an antioxidant to prevent chronic illness. Furthermore, vitamin C is needed for the production of collagen, which aids the growth and repair of tissues throughout the body. The loquat leaf also produces acids containing antigens like megastigmane glycosides and polyphenolic compounds, which act as antiviral agents. Triterpene compounds help destroy rhinovirus, which causes the common cold.
Aids in Digestion and Weight Loss
Pectin is a particular type of dietary fiber found in loquat fruit, and it is often praised as a digestive aid. Dietary fiber can bulk up the stool and stimulate peristaltic motion, which helps with the regularity of bowel movements. If you suffer from constipation, diarrhea, cramping, bloating, or other stomach disorders, dietary fiber can ease that inflammation and improve the health of your gut. Eating more fiber can also keep you full for longer, stopping those hunger pangs that make you overeat.
Protects the Brain
The powerful antioxidants contained in loquat combat oxidative stress due to free radicals, which is one of the primary causes of neurological degeneration and memory loss.
Controls Cholesterol Levels
Although the precise mechanism isn’t fully understood, research has directly linked loquat with lower cholesterol levels in subjects who regularly consumed the fruit and tea. This health benefit of loquat is very exciting, but also relatively unproven on a large scale, and studies to find out more are ongoing.
Losing bone mineral density is a major problem for many people as they age, particularly for women following menopause. Fortunately, loquat has been shown to prevent bone density loss in various parts of the body, owing to its rich mixture of vitamins, nutrients, and hormone-mimicking chemical components.
Regulates Circulatory System
High iron levels in a person’s diet are important if they want to avoid anemia and its brutal symptoms. Iron is found in high concentrations within loquat, which is good news for your red blood cells. Iron is a necessary part of hemoglobin, which transports oxygenated red blood cells throughout the body, thus boosting circulation. This can speed healing, increase energy, and ensure that all your organ systems are working at full capacity!
Word of Caution
- Too much intake of loquat leaf extract (a concentrated form occasionally sold in health food stores or naturally derived) can cause toxic myopathy, which is weakness and non-specific pain.
- The seeds of the loquat fruit contain toxic substances and can be life-threatening if consumed.
Why does my loquat lose its leaves?
Q. When I purchased my house in 1996, the builder included a loquat tree in the landscaping package. I like the tree as it blends in nicely with the front of the house. Although the tree has grown and produces fruit each spring, several times throughout the year 40 percent of the leaves brown and fall off, only to be replaced immediately by new growth. Is this common?
— M.W., Houston
A. Because the loquat, or Japanese plum, is symmetrical and has a dense, evergreen crown, it is desirable in the home landscape. It matures to about 25 feet in height with a spread of 15 or more feet.
The large, stiff leaves are a glossy green on the upper sides and a whitish or rusty color on the undersides.
The tree is hardy, but the flowers and fruit can be damaged when temperatures dip to the upper 20s. Since the tree blooms in fall, the fruit must be carried through winter, and if winter is mild, as we’ve just had, you get to harvest.
Fire blight, the same disease that darkens pear and pyracantha foliage, affects loquats. But the diseased foliage usually clings to the plant. Prune out affected branches, disinfecting your clippers with each cut.
Your problem may be leaf scorch, or tip-burn, which crops up during hot, dry weather, especially with saline conditions. If the edges of the foliage brown first, this could be your problem. To combat tip-burn, water slowly and deeply to improve moisture uptake to the leaves and flush built-up salts.
Other than disliking saline conditions or poor drainage, loquats are not too picky about soil types. Since the tree is planted only 8 feet from the house, perhaps construction wastes affect the soil quality. As the plant continues to grow, make sure drainage is good, improve the soil with compost mulch, and water when rain is inadequate.
Loquat is an evergreen tree with delicious fruit. Too bad some varieties have big seeds, but in some countries like Spain and China they are a big deal. At one point, Orange County had 500 acres of trees – ‘Big Jim’, ‘Gold Nugget’, ‘Victory’, ‘Mammoth’….. Now it’s more of a pleasurable backyard shade tree that gets immense quantities of fruit twice a year. Too good to be true.
But it may be troubling to hear that a new bark beetle pest of loquats has been identified in China by the University of Florida’s Forest Entomology Lab. A new paper describing the beetle has just been published in the journal Insects.
The beetle, newly named Cryphalus eriobotryae, was first observed in April of 2018 in a tree nursery near the city of Suzhou in Jiangsu, a coastal province of China. Loquat trees were dying for unknown reasons. There are no other insect pests known either to specialize in loquat trees or to kill them. But when the problem spread to other areas during the summer of 2018, it became clear that a real problem had emerged.
Chunrong Chu, a technician with Suzhou’s forest service, and Sizhu Zheng, an entomologist with Suzhou’s customs agency, sent photos and specimens of the beetles to the UF Forest Entomology Lab for identification, led by Dr. Jiri Hulcr. The lab has staked out an unusual specialty in the entomology world. Having already built the world’s largest cryo-collection of bark and ambrosia beetles, Hulcr’s team established a volunteer service for the global identification of bark and ambrosia beetles.
Dr. Andrew Johnson, a research scientist in the UF Forest Entomology Lab, was studying the genus. He quickly realized that he was looking at an entirely new species. He named the beetle eriobotryae in reference to the name of the genus of plants to which loquats belong. “By giving this a name and recognizing it as a potential threat, we can encourage further work,” said Johnson. “Before giving it a name, it is difficult to coordinate and to work on this species.”
The work has barely started. The beetles’ DNA has recently been sequenced and analyzed via a method that examines one very specific part of a genome in order to determine its identity. But a full pre-invasion assessment has not been conducted. It is still not clear exactly where the beetle came from, what its potential is as an invasive species, or what means can be used to prevent and fight future outbreaks.
Bark beetles are a group of insects including thousands of species that chew holes through the bark of a tree and feed on the phloem just beneath the bark. They live most of their lives invisibly, breeding and rearing their young in tunnels called galleries. Most bark beetles only colonize recently dead trees, but some species may turn their attention to living trees and can kill them, sometimes on a massive scale, as with the Southern pine beetle.
In affected areas of Jiangsu, the threat of the loquat beetle is not an obscure issue. Loquats are as economically and culinarily important as, say, oranges in Florida or avocados in Mexico. “Local people really want to know how to control and kill this pest,” says Dr. You Li, a scientist with the UF Forest Entomology Lab who also contributed to the paper. “That’s why they are happy we could tell them more about this beetle.”
So far, the loquat beetles have all been found in nurseries, which may be a clue to the origins of the beetle and the means of its spread. Transportation of live plants from one location to another is a frequent vector for movement of invasive species that can hitch a ride.
The process of loquat death begins when beetles make tiny holes at the base of the tree. This progresses up along the trunk as the offspring of the initial beetles mature and start tunnels of their own. As the galleries of beetles become more dense, eventually, the tree may be girdled around its circumference. At that point, it is no longer able to move water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. The leaves rapidly turn brown and die while remaining attached to the branches.
So it looks like we can add another beetle to the list that is causing problems around the world.
Get the low down on bark beetle spread:
Photo: Loquat orchard under netting in Spain:
Cryphalus eriobotryae sp. nov. (Coleopetera: Curculionide: Scolytinae), a New Insect Pest of Loquat: Eriobotrya japonica in China
The newly-identified loquat beetle. Credit: Dr. Andrew Johnson
Fall Power: Loquat Leaves
Not only do I love making medicines from my own garden but I also appreciate clients being able to obtain homegrown medicines, too. I’ll never forget one case where a woman was having nausea along with tremendous problems breathing with lots of white mucus in her lungs. She lived quite a distance away and so couldn’t quickly get to the clinic. As she had a small farm and big garden, I knew she grew lots of plants. I asked if she had a loquat tree and she did. I told her how to make a tea of the leaves and after she drank the first cup, her breathing immediately opened and her lungs soon cleared. Loquat is readily found in cough syrups in Chinese pharmacies as well as in many health food stores so you are probably already familiar with this herb, if not the fruit. If you are fortunate to have one of these trees in your yard or nearby, make some syrup yourself or dry the leaves to have on hand when needed. One of the best aspects of loquat is that it is not only quite effective for coughs, especially those with abundant mucus, but it also has a neutral energy. This means it treats both white and yellow mucus conditions. Further, it is good for those with either excess (fullness) and deficiency (weakness). This makes loquat incredibly versatile for all kinds of coughs with abundant mucus. As well, loquat is useful for nausea, vomiting, hiccough, and belching. In these cases, dampness or mucus is generally trapped in the stomach, causing those digestive problems (which can further lead to mucus in the lungs, appearing as coughs or constant need to clear the throat without an acute cold or flu condition). It also stops nosebleeds and spitting or coughing up of blood. In all these cases, loquat works not only through expectoration but also by “directing the Qi downward.” This loosely indicates that it is bringing things that are going up, back down. When you use loquat leaves, know that they should first be dried and then the fuzzy hair under the leaf rubbed off. Otherwise, these can irritate the throat. The hydrocyanic acid content of loquat is not concentrated in the leaf, so this herb does not require the same caution as other hydrocyanic acid-containing herbs (such as wild cherry bark and apricot seed). Do NOT use loquat seeds as they are slightly poisonous.
Loquat Leaf (Eriobotrya japonica) Pi pa ye (Chinese) Family: Rosaceae Also named: Eriobtrya, Eriobotryae Folium Energy and flavors: Neutral, bitter Organs and channels affected: Lung, Stomach Chemical constituents: Saponins, amygdalin, hydrocyanic acid Properties and actions: Antitussive, expectorant; transforms Phlegm and stops coughing and wheezing, directs Qi downwards, stops bleeding Contraindications: Caution in Cold conditions Dosage: 6-15g; 30-60 drops tincture (1:5 @50%ABV), TID
Loquat Leaf Drop: Reasons A Loquat Is Losing Leaves
Owners of loquat trees know they are gorgeous subtropical trees with large, dark green, shiny leaves that are invaluable for providing shade in warmer climates. These tropical beauties are prone to a few issues, namely loquat leaf drop. Don’t panic if the leaves are falling off your loquat. Read on to find out why the loquat is losing leaves and what to do if your loquat is dropping leaves.
Why is My Loquat Tree Dropping Leaves?
There are a couple of reasons for loquat leaf loss. Because they are subtropical, loquats do not respond favorably to drops in temperature, specifically in the spring when Mother Nature tends to be rather moody. When there is a sudden dip in temps, the loquat may respond by losing leaves.
With regard to temperature, loquat trees will tolerate temperatures down to 12 F. (-11 C.), which means that they can be grown in USDA
zones 8a-11. Further dips in temperature will damage flower buds, kill mature flowers and may even result in leaves falling off a loquat.
Cold temperatures aren’t the only culprit, however. Loquat leaf loss may be the result of high temperatures as well. Dry, hot winds combined with summer heat will scorch the foliage, resulting in leaves falling off the loquat.
Additional Reasons for Loquat Leaf Loss
Loquat leaf loss might be the result of insects, either due to feeding or in the case of aphids, the sticky honeydew left behind that attracts fungal disease. Damage due to insect infestations, however, most often afflict fruit rather than foliage.
Both fungal and bacterial diseases may cause foliage loss. Loquats are particularly susceptible to fire blight, which is spread by bees. Fire blight is most common in regions with high humidity or where there is significant late spring and summer rains. This disease attacks young shoots and kills their leaves. Preventative bactericides will help control fire blight but, once it is infected, shoots must be trimmed back into healthy green tissue. Then the infected portions must be bagged and removed or burned.
Other diseases such as pear blight, cankers, and crown rot may all also afflict loquat trees.
Lastly, misapplication of fertilizer or lack thereof can result in defoliation to a certain extent. Loquat trees should have regular, light applications of a nitrogen rich fertilizer. Giving the trees too much fertilizer can open them up to fire blight. The basic recommendation for trees that are 8-10 feet (2.4 to 3 m.) in height is about a pound (0.45 kg) of 6-6-6-three times per year during active growth.
Courtesy Photo The damage to this rose bush could be spider mites, drought or lack of fertilizer.
Q: I have a picture of what went on with the leaves of my roses this past summer. Do you think this is black spot or rust disease of roses?
A: I really didn’t see any black spot or rust in the picture. Black spot has the typical “black spots” on the leaves with a yellow halo around them, and rust creates iron-colored pustules on the leaves that can be rubbed off on your fingers.
Both are more common during the spring, periods of high humidity and too much shade. Usually full sunlight, drip irrigation (no overhead irrigations), watering during early morning hours, fertilizing regularly and our dry conditions seldom lend themselves to either disease here.
If you need to put on a preventive treatment on roses in the spring or fall, apply one of these treatments to the leaves: sulfur dust, neem oil or compost tea.
The damage looks more like spider mites, drought or lack of fertilizer. Make sure roses have an organic surface mulch applied to the top of the soil that decomposes (wood chips), use drip irrigation, water early in the morning and apply fertilizer during the spring and fall months.
Q: The leaves closest to the trunk of my 2-year-old loquat turned yellow and fell off. Last year, the tree grew very well and produced a few loquats. This year, the amount of fruit doubled but it developed this leaf problem.
A: I cannot give you any definite answers why your loquat leaves yellowed and dropped. But I can tell you many leaves turn yellow just before they drop from the tree. This type of yellowing means the leaves have died and will drop soon.
The leaf color of loquat, without the green pigment chlorophyll, is yellow. When the tree initiates leaf drop, the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll and hence their greenness. The remaining color after the chlorophyll disappears is yellow.
Your tree likely went through some sort of shock, which initiated leaf drop. Shock of an established tree can be related to water, salts including salts from fertilizers, a light freeze, toxic chemicals or salts such as a high concentration of fertilizer applied to the leaves, etc.
Water-related problems can stem from too much or too little water. For instance, if it went through a very dry spell, it will drop its leaves. If the soil is too wet for an extended period, it will drop its leaves. If fertilizer was applied to close to the trunk or the applied rate was too high for the plant, it will drop its leaves.
There are two types of overwatering; one is related to the volume of water the plant is given. The other relates to the frequency water is applied. By overwatering, I am referring to applying water too often, not applying too much water in a single application.
Once a week is not too often in my opinion unless you have a drainage problem.
If you don’t think the soil has been too wet, or you haven’t fertilized the tree by applying fertilizer to the soil, I would just wait and see what happens.
If you applied fertilizer to the soil and you suspect the application might have been too strong, then flood the area with water and push the salts through the soils, away from the trunk and past the roots.
Q: My large tree was damaged during a strong wind storm so that the trunk split in two. Can it be saved and how?
A: Yes, both branches can be saved or you can remove one of the larger branches. But I know removing a large part of the canopy will make it look ugly.
This type of tree repair is beyond most homeowners’ abilities. There is also the possibility of future liability if this work is done incorrectly. Repairing this type of damage is best left for professional arborists.
If you want to tackle this yourself or hire someone to do it under your supervision, then pay particular attention in getting the right supplies for this type of job. Any permanent steel that enters and stays inside the tree should be stainless. Make sure supplies you use are strong enough. Use American or Western-manufactured steel products.
Steps to repair the tree include inserting a metal rod, threaded on both ends, through the split in the trunk and cabling the limbs together using eye screws and stranded steel cable.
First, the load above the split is reduced by pruning the top.
Second, the cabling is secured with eye screws inserted into the upper limbs. Cable is never wrapped around tree limbs. The limbs are drawn together tightly.
Third, a threaded rod is inserted through the split and tightened with washers and nuts.
The tree eventually grows and engulfs the steel rod, washers and nuts. You should remember to notify anyone who might remove the tree that there is a steel rod in the interior at the split. If not, it could cause extensive damage to wood chippers or chainsaws.
More extensive discussion is posted on my blog.
Q: I have a strawberry tree that is probably getting too much sun. The leaves’ tips are very discolored. Is there anything I can do to help it?
A: The strawberry tree is native to Western Europe and the Mediterranean region. Its leaves tend to yellow because of micronutrient fertilizer problems, cold temperatures and intense sunlight. Leaves also tend to scorch on the tips in very hot locations with intense sunlight. They do not perform well in rock mulch in south or western exposures.
Getting this plant closer to optimum health helps it tolerate stresses caused by extreme soil and environmental conditions. Soil improvement and wood surface mulch will help this plant a lot.
This plant should not be in rock mulch; rock mulches radiate a lot of heat during the summer and add nothing back to the soil. If this plant is in rock mulch, I would pull the rock back a couple of feet and apply an inch or two of compost.
After lightly incorporating the compost into the upper soil surface, I would cover the exposed area with about 3 to 4 inches of wood chips. The combination of compost and decomposing wood chips will help to rebuild the soil around the roots. Rebuilding the soil around the roots improves the biological activity of the soil and overall plant health.
From your picture, the foliage looks healthy except for its scorched leaf tips. I would guess it is getting adequate amounts of fertilizer.
Applying fertilizers regularly to desert soils is frequently not enough to provide a plant with optimum health. Be sure to add an iron chelate such as EDDHA in a spring application of fertilizer once a year. The combination of the right kind of fertilizer, soil improvement and wood surface mulch will bring this plant closer to optimum health and better tolerance for hot locations
Q: When should a Vitex tree be trimmed and how much should be cut?
A: Vitex blooms in early summer through late June or July. If this plant is pruned with a hedge shears you will likely affect how it blooms this summer.
Any pruning done now should selectively remove entire branches back to a crotch. This is a pruning technique called “drop-crotching.” This technique reduces the size of a plant while still retaining its natural form. Drop-crotching avoids plant injuries due to “topping.”
Limbs that add height or size are removed at the juncture with a branch of smaller size. This type of limb removal maintains terminal buds at a lower height, retains flowers and maintains the architecture of the plant.
The opposite of drop-crotching is topping, or shearing the plant at a desired height or size. We do not want to do that to most trees. After reducing the size of Vitex, remove any crossed branches or broken branches and shape the tree to maintain its symmetry.
Bob Morris is a horticulture expert living in Las Vegas and professor emeritus for the University of Nevada. Visit his blog at xtremehorticulture.blogspot.com. Send questions to [email protected]
Shoot/fruit blight and bark canker
- The symptoms of the disease are observed only on old leaves. Initially, the lesions are angular, minute, irregular, yellow to light brown, scattered over leaf lamina.
- As the lesions enlarge, their colour changes from brown to cinnamon and they become almost irregular.
- In case of severe infection such spots coalesce forming patches resulting in complete withering and defoliation of infected leaves
Survival and spread
- The disease spreads through the seeds of affected fruits. The incidence is wide spread during rainy season.
- The optimum temprature between 20 – 25 °C, 95% relative humidity.
- Symptoms of crown rot include rapid wilting and dying of trees during the first warm weather of the season, as well as leaves changing color to dull green or yellow.
- The disease can affect loquat trees of any age, but typically affects younger trees that do not have fully developed root systems and crown areas
Survival and spread
- The pathogen survives as oospores on the affected plant tissues in soil and on weed hosts.
- Atmospheric temperature in the range of 10-20 °C and relative humidity 90% favours disease development.
- Sunken lesions on infected tissue.
- The cankers are perennial and continue to enlarge each year.
- The fungus slowly invades and girdles limbs or trunks.
- The result is a dead limb above the infection site.
- Black pycnidia of Cytospora can easily be seen emerging from infected bark with use of a hand lens.
- The pycnidia are roundish and pinhead in size.
- They are scattered in the cankered area.
Survival and spread
- During wet weather, sticky masses of orange-yellow conidia are extended in long tendrils. These conidia are wind disseminated to injured tissue where they germinate and infect host tissue
- Atmospheric temperature in the range of 10-20 °C and relative humidity 90% favours disease development.
Root rot/ white rot
- The bark and the wood of the root including the root collar is affected.
- The decayed wood is pinkish to dull violet in colour whereas in the advanced stages, small, white, elongated pockets appear and they form a mass of spongy white fibres.
- The affected tree begins to show symptoms of wilt, early leaf fall and increase in the fruitset
- . The fruiting bodies conks which may grow up to 30 cm or more in diameter usually appear when the rot is fairly well advanced
- . They are either hidden by the litter or lie exposed on the surface of the soil.
- Disease emergence favored by continually damp soil
Survival and spread
- The fungal pathogen survives on diseased wood and roots below ground for many years
- The die back often progressed slowly and caused leaves to wilt, turn yellow and drop off
- Twigs and branches appeared to have been scorched by fire
- Drying of twig from tip to down ward.
- When twig were dry, minute brown to black, slightly raised, clumped pustules are observed which acervuli of the fungus
- Dry twigs are ash colored.
- Affected fruit showed tar stain symptoms
- The temperature range for disease development 10-30˚C and the relative humidity 95- 97%.
Survival and spread
- The inoculum remains on dried leaves defoliated branches and mummified flowers.
- The lower portion of the stem is affected from the soil borne inoculum (sclerotia).
- Decortication is the main symptom.
- Exposure and necrosis of underlying tissues may lead to collapse of the plant.
- Near the ground surface on the stem may be seen the mycelia and sclerotia.
- Lack of plant vigour, accumulation of water around the stem, and mechanical injuries help in development of this disease.
- Most severe in warm to hot, wet or humid conditions
Survival and spread
- Sclerotia survive in soil for long periods.
- Infects through the base of the stem from hyphae from sclerotia.
- Secondary infection can be more severe where plant residues are on the soil surface.
- Tiny reddish spots, sometimes surrounded by a yellow halo, appear on the leaves of infected plants, usually on older growth.
- These spots darken and enlarge as the leaves mature
- Spore-forming bodies eventually appear in the center of the spots.
- These dark fruiting bodies may appear to be covered with a glossy membrane, beneath which white masses of spores may be visible.
- Infected plants may prematurely drop many leaves.
Entomosporium leaf spot
Survival and spread
- The pathogen is seed borne fungus and inoculums present in the seeds are source of primary infection. Fungus also survives on fruit and plant debris.
- The disease is favoured by temperatures between 77 and 86 °F (25–30 °C), and by wet conditions.
- Infection occurs at optimum temperatures with 5.5 hours of wetting and an outbreak can become serious within two days of infection.
- Branch and trunk canker symptoms can appear as soon as trees begin active growth.
- The first sign is a watery, light tan bacterial ooze that exudes from cankers (small to large areas of dead bark that the pathogen killed during previous seasons) on branches, twigs, or trunks.
- The ooze turns dark after exposure to air, leaving streaks on branches or trunks.
- However, most cankers are small and inconspicuous; thus infections might not be noticed until later in spring when flowers, shoots, and/or young fruit shrivel and blacken.
- The amount of fruit loss depends upon the extent and severity of the disease.
Survival and spread
- Splashing rain or insects transmit the bacteria to nearby blossoms or succulent growing shoots.
- Once blossoms are contaminated with the bacteria, honey bees become efficient carriers of the pathogen.
- Spread of the pathogen are rainy or humid weather with day time temperatures from 75° to 85°F, especially when night temperatures stay above 55°F.
- Olive green to black, circular, scabby or velvety spots appear on infected leaves, which may yellow or redden and drop prematurely.
- Scabby spots, often more sunken, may appear on fruit, which may crack or shrivel and drop.
- Shoots may die back if the disease is severe.
Survival and spread
- The pathogen survives through perithecia in the soil debris.
- Suitable temperatures and moisture promote the release of V. inaequalis ascospores.
- This cycle of secondary infections continues throughout the summer, until the leaves and fruit fall from the treeat the onset of winter.
Shoot fruit blight and bark canker
Root rot /white rot
IPM for Loquat
To know the IPM practices for Loquat, click here.
Source:NIPHM; Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage