When to plant cauliflower?

Broccoli Farming Information Guide:

We are discussing today Broccoli Farming Techniques, Planting of Broccoli. Broccoli Plant Care and Harvesting procedure.

Broccoli Farming.

Introduction to Broccoli vegetable:

Broccoli is a cool-season crop that, like spinach, can be grown in the spring or fall. In fact, you may be able to get a continual harvest throughout both seasons if you time planting correctly. A member of the cabbage family, Broccoli is a great choice for a home garden. Freshly cut broccoli heads are rich in vitamins and minerals. They’re delicious raw in salads or lightly steamed and they freeze well. In India, Broccoli is a boom for the rural economy.


Agro-Climate and Suitable Soil Type for Broccoli Plantation

Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in sultry climate. It grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18°C and 23°C. Broccoli prefers full sun, but partial shade can prevent plants from bolting (going to seed) in areas with warm spells. Provide rich, well-drained soil, with plenty of compost.

Planting and Spacing of Broccoli:

Following steps will ensure the best plantation in Broccoli Farming.

Broccoli Plant spacing.

  1. Broccoli can germinate in soil with temperatures as low as 5ºC.
  2. Broccoli requires full sun and moist, fertile soil that’s slightly acidic. Work in 2 to 4 inches of rich compost or a thin layer of manure before planting.
  3. Transplant the seedlings at 4 – 5 true leaves stage about 25 to 30 days after seeding. Space them 40 – 45 cm apart in the double rows of 60 – 70 cm apart on each high bed of 90 – 100 cm wide.
  4. The seedling must be sufficiently watered several hours before transplanting to make easier to remove the plant from the seedling bed. Thus, the roots of seedling may hold as much soil as possible, so as to prevent wilting during transplanting.
    Irrigation must apply immediately after the transplanting.
  5. For spring plantings, seed or set transplants 2 to 3 weeks before last spring frost date. If you transplant, assume 10 fewer days for growth or the “days to maturity” on the seed packet.
  6. For fall plantings, seed 85 to 100 days before your average first fall frost. If you live in a warm climate, a fall planting is best, as broccoli thrives in cool weather. Plant seeds in mid- to late-summer in most places.
  7. Plant seeds 1/2 inch deep, or set transplants slightly deeper than they were grown originally.
  8. If you overseed, you will need to thin seedlings to 12 inches apart to give room for the broccoli to grow.

Read: How To Gow Profitable Cactus.

A seed rate of Broccoli:

The usual planting rate is 300 grams of seed per hectare. Sow the seed in the nursery or on the seedling bed. Thin the seedlings to 3 cm apart 2 – 3 days after germination.

Manures and Fertilizer for Broccoli Plants:

Manure Requirement.

Broccoli thrives best on the soil of good fertility. Therefore Manure and Chemical Fertilizers. Following are the applications in Broccoli Farming.

  • 1st application: Should be applied in a circle around the plant after it recovered from transplanting.
  • 2nd application: Should be applied in bands on shoulders of the bed 2 weeks after 1st side dressing.
  • 3rd application: Should be applied on both sides of the furrows when the flower buds start to form.

Irrigation requirement of Broccoli Plants:

Broccoli is a shallow-rooted crop. Therefore, irrigation should be applied frequently to prevent the plant from injuries in dry soil. Drainage must be carried out in the rainy season. It is necessary to remove side shoots as soon as possible to improve the yield and quality of the main head.

Harvesting Procedure of Broccoli Crop:

The quality of broccoli heads are usually harvested when they reach full size and firm; never wait until the clustered buds begin to open. When cutting, including 25 cm of the edible portion of the stem. It is best to harvest the heads in the early morning. Packing should be started as soon as possible after cutting.

Harvested Broccoli.

The yield of Broccoli:

You can expect around 3.5 quintals per acre.

A Freshly Harvested Produce.

Bottom Line:

The initial investment in a broccoli production operation is relatively low, so high profits can be achievable.

Read: How To Grow Marigold From Seeds.

Broccoli is an exotic vegetable. Broccoli farming is the good sources of income because of only a few farmers aware about how to grow broccoli and its marketing knowledge.

It is crisp and tasty to eat and use this vegetable in Salad. The size of broccoli’s plant is the same as cauliflower. Currently, this vegetable has become popular in India, and the consumption of food has increased in the big five star hotels as well as at home for making this vegetable salad.

Dietitian refers to Broccoli is a safe food because it is a rich source of vitamins and minerals. It contains the most proteins and vitamin A than coal crops like cabbage and cauliflower. It also contains anti-cancerous compounds and antioxidants.

The following nutrients are available in 100 grams of Broccoli. ( source – nutritiondata)

contain Amount
protein 2.8 g
Fiber 2.6 g
Calories 34
Water 89%
Omega-3 0.02 g
Omega-6 0.02 g

Broccoli crop required cold weather. This crop can be cultivated in all over India during the winter season and areas, where rainfall is less, is suitable for broccoli farming.
For Broccoli production, the ideal temperature required 25° C to 26 ° C during the day and 16° C to 17 ° C in the night.
To get through the year production broccoli farming done in the Greenhouse.

Table of Contents


Broccoli can be grown in a wide variety of soils type. To get a better yield from broccoli crop sandy and silt loam soils are most preferred. The soil PH should be in between 5.5 pH – 6.5 pH.

Before Planting broccoli Land is plowed 3-4 times then add compost or well rotten FYM 25-30 tons/ hectare and mix thoroughly at the time of land preparation.

Preparation of seedlings:

Generally, most of the farmer create broccoli plant seedlings on own felid because most of the nursery don’t create broccoli seedling due to less demand for broccoli seeling. so you can buy broccoli seed and prepared own broccoli plant seedlings.

For creating broccoli plant seedlings mainly two methods available

  1. Soilless media – with the help of coco peat in the plastic nursery tray
  2. Soil media – raised soil bed

Broccoli plant seedlings with soil Media procedure

  • prepare 1 meter wide and 3 meters long and 30 cm wide soil bed.
  • Mix roughly 10 kgs of good F.Y.M or compost manure into the soil in each bed. Likewise, add 50 grams of foret and 100 gm of Bavistin powder in each spring and mix them in soils.
  • Then make 5 cm parallel to the width of the 2 cm deep line on the bed and sow broccoli seed after that cover the seeds with fine compost material.
  • Provide light water with the help of a sprinkler.
  • For one hectare, broccoli cultivating hybrid seeds requires approximately 312 grams.
  • Seed germination starts after 5 to 6 days and seedlings and ready for transplantation within 35 days.
  • At this time the transplantation the broccoli plant must have 4-5 leaves.
  • The best time sowing of seeds is the second week of September.
  • During plant growth, the temperature should be 20° C to 22 ° C.
  • for better growth for the seedlings, the ideal night and day temperature is 20° C to 23° C
  • Each time while giving water to the nursery Give quantity to be calcium nitrate and potassium nitrate, should be given to the plants mixed with 1.5 liters of water in one liter of water.
  • Similarly, every 10-12 days of malathion or disease should be prevented due to diseases and diseases that do not affect the plants. + Bavistin 1 gm, or copper oxychloride 1.5 g per liter of water should be sprayed.

Broccoli variety:

This is top variety cultivated in India –

Roylegreen, Evergreen, Danube, Yugren, Salinas Pilgrim, Green Mountain, and Central, Premium Crop, Premium Pusa Broccoli.

Transplantation of plants:

Broccoli plant grow on a raised bed in rows and maintain the distance between raw to raw is 30 cm and plant to plant is 30 – 45 cm.

Approximately 66660 plants required for the one-hectare area. Generally, plantation did after afternoon after plantation.

Before planting the seedlings, seedlings should be Dip the solution of fungicide 12 ml in 10 liters of water.

Water Management:

For Broccoli crop, drip irrigation is very beneficial it improves crop yields an quality.

Light and frequent irrigation should be given after 10-15 days interval depending on weather condition and maintain soil moisture around the root zone.

Fertilizer Management:

Before start giving fertilizer to broccoli crop, It is necessary soil must be analyzed and then decide fertilizer dose quantity.

Generally, the broccoli crop is required to give 150 kg of Nitrogen, 100 kg of phosphorus and 170kg potassium per hectare.

Nitrogen 120 kg, 80 kg phosphorus and60 kg potash should be applied at the time of transplanting. The remaining half of nitrogen should be used in two split doses at 30 and 45 days after transplanting.

Give micronutrient according to the crop requirement. broccoli plant show born deficiency, so it is observed in the field then apply born with foiler spray or with water fertilizer

weed management

After the 30 days transplanting remove weed, this weed competes for food sunlight and air with the main crop so maintain the crop weed free.

Also, rake the soil on the bed which helpful for increase oxygen level to the root zone.

Pests and diseases.


1) Damping off:

It is a serious disease and It occurs in pre-emergence and the post-emergency phase. High humidity condition, heavy rainfall poor water drain soil and low temperature this are the favorable condition for this disease
Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan at 2.5-3 gm/kg of seed.

2) Downy Mildew:

White Hair like Fungus growth is observed on the leaves. After some time brown necrotic spots appear on the upper surface of leaves.
Avoid dense sowing of seeds in the nursery For controlling the disease. At disease, infestation stage sprays Mancozeb at 0.25% and repeat this spray after 7 – 8 days interval.

3) White rust:

It is a soil-borne disease caused by fungus Sclerotiniascelorotiorum. The white rust fungus attacks the lower surface of the outer leaves and plants suddenly die.
The fungus Sclerotiniascelorotiorum cannot survive below 15cm of soil so deep ploughings help to control white rust. For controlling this white rust, the soil should be treated with a fungicide like Bavistin at 1gm/liter of water.

4) Black rot:

First signs appear on leaves; leaves become yellow in color at leaf margins areas. Plant Veins and veinlets start to turn brown and then become black. If this infection is observed at an early stage of the plant, the plants wilt and die

5) Alternaria leaf spot

It occurs mostly in moist regions, small dark coloured Spots are observed on the leaf of the plant after some time they become large circular with a 1mm in diameter.


1) Cutworms:

The size caterpillars larva is about 3 to 4 cm long; they are gray or brown in colour. The larva may cut several plants in a single night. They hide in the daytime and feed at night.

  • use Pheromone Trap to control the production of caterpillar
  • Grow of paired rows of the mustard crop after every 25 rows of the broccoli crop.
  • If cutworm observed in large quantity in the broccoli field, then Spray insecticide like Rogoror, Endosulfan at 2 -3 ml/liter of water.

2) Aphids:

Aphids are small, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insects. They feed on the plants affecting the quality and production


A mustard crop can act as a trap crop for aphids. spray Neems oil at 4% or Oxydemeton methyl @ 0.02% to control aphids insect.

3) Mustard sawfly:

Larva of mustard sawfly is greenish black with the wrinkled body. The larvae feed on leaves. The yield decrease 5% to 18 %.


spraying Chlorpyriphos or Quinalphos is effective against mustard sawfly.

Harvesting and Production:

After 80-90 days of transplanting crop ready to harvest. Harvest broccoli when it Heads become 3 to 6 inches size with a sharp knife also this crop must be harvested before small flower open present on the broccoli crop heads.

A good quality broccoli crop Heads weight is around 250-300 gm.

On an average, yield varies from 19 to 24 ton/hectare depending upon the variety. According to market demand broccoli pack in corrugated box or plastic crates

Broccoli farming is a good source of income. this guide help in how to grow Broccoli complete step by step broccoli cultivation procedure

Easy Tips for Growing Broccoli Successfully at Home!

Here are some easy tips for growing broccoli in your vegetable garden; also use our free planting guide and zone chart for raising broccoli.

Raising broccoli in your vegetable garden is actually quite simple, believe it or not!

Design Your Own Vegetable Garden Layout Using our Free “Vegetable Garden Planner” Software!

Purple Broccoli Variety

Adding broccoli to your organic home garden has many advantages, whether you are planning a small raised bed, or traditional in-ground vegetable garden.

Broccoli is easy to fit into your vegetable garden design or layout.

You can harvest this wonder plant in as little as 55 days and yet continue to harvest for many more weeks to come.

Even if you’re a beginner in the garden, you can cultivate broccoli with little difficulty!

Broccoli Head Just Starting to Form

Tips for Growing Broccoli

  • Broccoli is a cool season plant like cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts.
  • Broccoli plants will not tolerate hot weather, but will immediately “go to flower” (which means you won’t enjoy eating it!)
  • It prefers daytime high temperatures of 50-70 degrees F.
  • If your winter temperature doesn’t go below 20 degrees F., it can be planted in the fall and will be ready to mature in the cooler weather of spring and early summer.
  • Download our vegetable planting guide and zone chart for more information on planting and growing times for broccoli.
Download Zone Chart Download Garden Planting Guide

Recommended Broccoli Varieties

Ripe Head of Broccoli Ready to Pick

For beginners, the following varieties are recommended for ease of cultivation:

  • Green Goliath – bred for the home gardener, it yields side shoots to harvest even after the center flower has been picked.
  • Cruiser – this thrives even in dry conditions with high-yield harvests after 58 days.
  • Green Comet – with its very early maturity and vigorous characteristics, it can be harvested after only 55 days.

Planting Guide for Growing Broccoli Sprouts

You’ll have to look for a location with good air circulation and soil drainage as well plenty of direct sunlight when growing broccoli.

Broccoli will grow much better in rich soil with added compost, humus, or aged manure worked into the soil.

Also, it is important that no other cabbage family plants like Brussels sprouts have been planted in the same spot for 3-4 years prior to planting broccoli.

Planting Broccoli Seeds

If you plan to apply the direct-sowing method to growing broccoli, which will work for fall plantings, you must plant the seeds directly into the soil about 90 days prior to the first frost at depths of ¼-½ inches.

Transplanting Broccoli Seedlings

Broccoli Seedling in the Garden

If you use the transplanting method, you will want to plant the seeds in indoor trays about 5-6 weeks prior to the last frost.

You can then transplant the young plants in the early spring with 18-24 inches clearance between plants.

If you are planting several plants, you might want to stagger the plantings by several weeks so that all of your plants are not ready for harvest at the same time.

If you have more broccoli ready to harvest than you can eat, you can blanch it in boiling water, and put it in the freezer for later use.

Whatever method used, you need to allocate 36 inches of space between rows.

This is necessary because broccoli plants can grow up to 3 feet in height and are very heavy feeders, which means that they need space and enriched soil to grow well.

3 Broccoli Growing Tips

Broccoli Growing in the Garden

As most home gardeners can tell you from experience, growing broccoli is a relatively easy undertaking.

Often, you just plant it in the prepared enriched soil, sprinkle starter fertilizer and provide ample water and you’re done in about 2-3 months!

There are, however, tips to yield better and bigger broccoli heads.

  • First, you need to add compost as topdressing when the central flower/head measures an inch in diameter. Just sprinkle around the plant’s base but never against the stem.
  • Second, always ensure ample moisture by giving the plant 1-2 inches of water per week during dry weather. However, you must never water the head as you can encourage flowering, which is definitely not desired in broccoli cultivation.
  • Third, you have to mulch to maximize moisture retention as well as to prevent weed growth. Growing broccoli also means that you may want to install cardboard collars to prevent cutworms from eating the plant and row covers for protection against the cold.

And that’s about it! You can start harvesting your delicious broccoli and enjoy eating the fruits of your labor.

Cool Season Vegetables include Broccoli

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You Might Also like to Read:

How to Grow Broccoli

Broccoli Raab

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Fall Planting Guide

This is the time of year when Arizona’s desert gardeners head outside to get a jump on fall vegetable and herb planting. Fall is our biggest planting season, when we can have successive crops of edibles, some that will last into early spring. It’s a huge time for seed planting, as evidenced by the number of seed orders we place at the shop each week just to keep up.

Despite the heat, everyone is itching to get going, here’s a list of all the things that can go into the ground. We’re starting with October in this post because we want you to use September to prepare your soil. Tending to soil is the best thing you can do to ensure a good crop of healthy, relatively pest-free produce. Remember to prepare your soil and then let it sit for a few weeks before planting, so everything gets a chance to percolate together.

Fall Seeds & Transplants:

Vegetable Transplants – Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Chinese Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celery, Chard, Garlic, Kohlrabi, Lettuce (head and leaf)

Flower Seeds – Calendula, Cornflower, Desert marigold, Gaillardia, Johnny Jump-ups, Larkspur, Nasturtium, Sweet Pea, Wildflowers (native varieties)

If you’re interested in taking your gardening skills to the next level come to the Cool Season Vegetable Gardening Workshop. Nurseryman Gregory Ware will teach you everything you need to know to grow your own healthy organic fall crop garden.


This is the foundation of everything that happens in your garden and if you skip it, you run the risk of losing what you plant. Every time you plant you need to renew/refresh/feed your soil. Our native soils lack a lot of nutrients that plants need, and when nutrients are added your healthy garden plants use them up. It’s important to feed your soil each season before you plant.

1. Start by cultivating your garden beds. Dig into them (not when the soil is soaking wet), fluff up the soil, make air in there so roots will grow.

2. Add organic matter – basically you are feeding your soil beneficial microorganisms that will become nutrients for the plants. Organic matter is composted horse or chicken manure, or compost (preferably from your own compost pile).

3. Add sulfur – Desert soil is very alkaline and soil sulfur counteracts alkalinity. It helps make the nutrients in the soil available to plants as well as helping to reduce nutrient deficiencies such as chlorosis and calcium deficiency.

4. Add organic fertilizer – If you are planting flowers choose a balanced fertilizer with a good amount of phosphorous (the second of the three hyphenated numbers on the package) for good bloom. If you’re planting vegetables and fruits, choose a granular fertilizer formulated to help them, like Happy Frog Tomato & Vegetable Fertilizer.

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Growing Cauliflower – How To Plant Cauliflower In The Garden

If you’ve been wondering how to plant cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), you’ll find that it is not difficult once you know what it likes. Growing cauliflower can be done alongside other closely related plants like broccoli, kale and turnips.

Many gardeners don’t bother growing cauliflower, as it has the reputation of being one of the more temperamental crops and with good reason. Bringing cauliflower to fruition means knowing when is the best time to plant and when to harvest cauliflower. Read on to learn how to plant cauliflower and other helpful cauliflower planting tips to make this crop a success.

Best Time to Plant Cauliflower

Cauliflower is a cool season veggie from the Brassicaceae family, which includes broccoli, and, in fact, cauliflower is often referred to as ‘heading broccoli.’ Unlike broccoli, however, which produces multiple side shoots, cauliflower only produces a single head which means you have one chance to get it right.

The main thing to remember is that the plant thrives in temperatures around 60-65 F. (16-18 C.) and no higher than 75 F. (24 C.). Of all the cole crops, cauliflower is the most sensitive to temperature. When temperatures exceed 75 F., the plants have a tendency to button or bolt.

The best time to plant most varieties of cauliflower is in the spring so they grow and produce their flower heads before summer’s hot temperatures ramp up. Other varieties are suited for mid-summer planting for a fall harvest. A good fall recommendation is its pointy, green Romanesco cousin.

How to Plant Cauliflower

For spring sown cauliflower, start seed indoors in April. For fall crops, start seed in July, either sown indoors or direct sown in the garden. Do not transplant any earlier than 2-3 weeks prior to the average frost-free date for your area. This can be rather tricky in that it is important to start cauliflower early enough so it matures before the heat arrives but not so early that cold spring temps damage the plants.

Sow seeds ¼ inch deep in peat pots or in furrows in well-draining potting soil. Once the seeds have germinated, continue to grow them in an area of direct sun or under grow lights and maintain a temperature of 60 F. (16 C.). Keep the seedlings moist.

Transplant the plants 2 feet (.5 m.) apart in rows that are 30-36 inches (76-91 cm.) apart.

Cauliflower Planting Tips

Early maturing varieties are more susceptible to buttoning than later cultivars.

Keep the plants moist but not soggy. Mulch around young plants to help retard weeds and retain moisture.

Harden off seedlings for 5 days to a week before transplanting outside by setting them in the shade and then gradually exposing them to longer periods of sun. Transplant on a cool, cloudy day or late in the afternoon to avoid stressing the plants.

Fertilize at transplanting with a liquid fertilizer according to the manufacturer’s instructions and again when the plants are established, side dressing with nitrogen rich compost.

White cauliflower should be blanched, while green, orange and purple cultivars need sun to develop their colors. When the head is golf to tennis ball size, tie the outer leaves loosely over the developing head with a soft cloth or nylon. This will protect it from sunscald and keep it from turning yellow.

When to Harvest Cauliflower

Cauliflower is ready to harvest a week or two after blanching, or covering the heads. Check the heads every couple of days. Harvest when the heads are 6 plus inches (15+ cm.) across but before the flower parts begin to separate.

Cut the cauliflower from the plant with a large knife, leaving at least one set of leaves to protect the head.

Planting configurations and densities for cauliflower and broccoli

Cauliflower and broccoli are generally grown at a density of 29 000 plants per hectare. However, trial work in Manjimup and Perth has shown planting density can be increased without detrimental impact on yield or quality. The results discussed below. The ideal planting density and configuration for your farm will depend on soil type, crop and variety grown, cropping rotation and market requirements for your product.

Row configuration

Planting density can be increased by reducing the within-row spacing, however there is a limit to how close plants can be placed before they become crowded. Planting density can also be increased by reducing the between-row spacing, that is increasing the number of rows per bed. This allows for increased and more even light interception and utilisation of resources such as growing area and soil nutrients.

Broccoli and cauliflower can be planted in two, three or four-row configurations. In two-row plantings seedlings are planted in line. In three and four-row configurations plants are offset from each other and shown below.

Soil type

A two or three-row configuration has been found most suitable for sandy soils. Four-row configurations are not suitable due to lower water and nutrient-holding capacity. The higher the density of the crop the greater the competition for water and nutrients between plants.

Two, three or four-row configuration is recommended on loam soils. These have higher water and nutrient-holding capacity. Compared with sand, crops on loam are able to achieve heavier and larger curds or heads at higher densities.


On sandy soil the recommended planting density for cauliflower is 32 000 to 39 000 plants per hectare. In a three-row configuration this is achieved with a between-row spacing of 45cm and spacing within rows of 45 to 55cm. See Table 1 for more information on the different spacings used to reach certain planting densities.

Average curd weight tends to decrease with increasing density, while there is little change in curd size. Curd weights generally met market specifications for export and domestic markets when planted at 39 000 plants per hectare. However, at this density the percentage of curds under 500g increased, on average, by 6 per cent compared to crops grown with 29 000 plants per hectare.

On loam soils the most suitable planting density for cauliflower was found to be 39 000 plants per hectare in a three or four-row configuration. Average curd weight generally decreased with increasing density.

Increasing density from 29 000 to 39 000 resulted in a higher percentage of curds weighing less than 500g but the percentage in the 0.9 to 1.1kg range was similar. Above 39 000 plants per hectare, average curd size was reduced by 12%.

Table 1 Different planting densities achieved from row and spacing configurations

Plant density (No/ha) Number of rows per bed Within-row spacing (cm)
29 000 2 40
39 000 2 30

47 000

2 25
51 000 2 23
29 000 3 60
32 000 3 55
35 000 3 50
39 000 3 45
44 000 3 40
50 000 3 35
59 000 3 30
29 000 4 80
34 000 4 70
39 000 4 60
47 000 4 50
52 000 4 45

Densities in this table and throughout this information have been rounded to the nearest thousand and were calculated based on a 1.7m centre-to-centre bed width with no land for spray runs and head ways taken into account.


Broccoli can be grown at higher density than cauliflower as it is naturally more competitive and has lower nutrient and water demands.

On sandy soil the recommended density is up to 47 000 plants per hectare in a two-row configuration. Increasing the density increased the number of marketable heads and total yield for a given area. In some crops, higher densities to 47 000 did not impact on average head weight.

In other crops higher densities did lead to lower average weight, with the percentage of heads weighing more than 500g decreasing while the percentage weighing less than 300g increased, yet the number of marketable heads remained similar.

On loam soil the recommended density is 39 000 to 52 000 plants per hectare in a two, three or four-row configuration. Average head weight decreased with higher density but most heads were still within marketable range at the recommended densities.

Average head weight was smaller but at increased planting density the total number of marketable heads harvested per hectare was greater. The highest percentages of heads in the 300-500g range were in crops with densities of 44 000 to 52 000 plants per hectare.

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