What do cotyledons do?

What is the function of the cotyledon in monocot seeds? I assume that monocots have hypogeal germination. Why are cotyledons present at all in seeds which undergo hypogeal germination?

The cotyledon in monocots is represented by a structure called the “scutellum” and is an outgrowth of the embryo. The scutellum is connected to the embryo by vascular tissue. The scutellum is right up against the endosperm. When germination is initiated, the embryo starts to secrete gibberellic acid (GA). After 24 hours the scutellum also starts to synthesise GA. The GA triggers synthesis of various enzymes by the aleurone layer (just under the pericarp/testa). These enzymes (including alpha-amylase) enable mobilisation of the endosperm and the products are absorbed by the scutellum and passed to the developing embryo.

In the light of the above, I believe all monocots will have hypogeal germination.

In non-endospermic seeds the cotyledons are the food store. The function of the cotyledon/scutellum in monocots is to a) synthesise GA and b) absorb the digested products of the endosperm and pass them on (via vascular tissue) to the embryo.

Common Seedling Problems & Mistakes

by Nebula Haze

Table of Contents

What Do Healthy Seedlings Look Like?

Common Seedling Problems

1.) Overwatering

  • Symptoms: ​Drooping, yellow leaves, not growing and/or damping off (dying)

2.) Underwatering

  • Symptoms: ​Drooping leaves and/or wilting

3.) Nutrient Problems

  • Symptoms: ​Leaves are yellow, burnt, discolored, crispy or have spots

4.) Too Much Heat

  • Symptoms: ​Leaves fold in the middle so they look like canoes/tacos, leaves turn up at the edges, wilting, strange spotting, symptoms usually appear after temperature starts climbing

5.) Wrong Amount of Light

  • Symptoms (​too much light): burned or crinkled leaves
  • Symptoms (not enough light): seedlings are too tall with too much space between nodes. Looks stretched/leggy and tends fall over

Frequently Asked Questions

Before we take a look at cannabis seedling problems and common beginner mistakes, let’s show you what healthy cannabis seedlings and young plants look like! If your plants look like this, you’re golden!

Healthy Cannabis Seedlings Look Like This!

Examples of healthy cannabis seedlings:

Cannabis seedlings start with two round leaves known as “cotyledons.” These leaves are already formed inside the seed and simply open up once the seed has sprouted. After the cotyledons emerge, the “true” (serrated) cannabis leaves will start to grow from the center.

As they get older, the leaves start looking more like the cannabis leaf you are probably most familiar with. Here’s what those seedlings look like as they start growing into healthy young cannabis plants…

Now that you know what healthy young cannabis plants look like; let’s take a look at some common seedling problems to avoid so your plants grow as fast and healthy as possible!

Common Cannabis Seedling Problems

1.) Overwatering

Symptoms: seedling is droopy, growing medium is moist, damping off

Most common causes:

  • Big Pot, Small Seeding
  • Pot is Too Small
  • Bad Drainage
  • Watering Too Often

When a cannabis plant is “overwatered” it has less to do with the water and more to do with oxygen. Plants can even grow directly in water (hydroponics) but in order to thrive, roots need oxygen. In hydroponics, that’s accomplished by dissolving oxygen into the water. But when plants are grown in a container, too much water = not enough oxygen.

When a plant’s roots are sitting in water, they quickly use up all the oxygen until the growing medium starts to dry out. Without enough oxygen at the roots, the plant will start showing symptoms of oxygen deprivation. Luckily, there are many steps you can take to prevent overwatering your cannabis plants.

While overwatering can display many different symptoms, most overwatered cannabis plants look droopy, like this…

Despite what seems like an obvious cause, several different scenraios can end in overwatering. Here are some of the most common trouble-makers:

Big Pot, Small Seedling

When you have a small plant in a very big pot, it’s easy to overwater because the roots aren’t drinking much yet, and the big container takes a long time to dry out.

Notice how the plants in smaller containers have grown more than the plant that was put in a big container as a seedling. It’s common for plants in too-big containers to grow a little slowly at first.

How to fix:

  • (Recommended) Start seedlings in smaller container until they’re growing vigorously, then transfer to a larger container
  • If seedling is already in a big container, there’s still hope! When watering, give just a little water at a time in a small circle around the seedling. Then allow the top inch of your medium to mostly dry before watering again. Once the plant is growing vigorously, start watering as normal (with extra runoff water coming out the bottom every time)

These small cannabis plants (below) were put in big pots, and were given enough water to support a much larger plant. The plants couldn’t drink all the water that was given to them and as a result, their roots weren’t able to get the oxygen they needed and started “drowning.” Once the roots are out of commission, the leaves start drooping.

One way to prevent this from happening is to make sure your plants are in an appropriately sized container for each stage of their life; this is done with transplanting.

First, you need to get a general idea of the final container size which will be based on how big you want your plants to grow. The less often you transplant, the bigger the final size pot you’ll need because the roots will tend to grow out and cover the whole container if left too long. You can help avoid problems with roots getting rootbound by using a fabric pot (also known as a “Smart Pot”) or an air pot.

Final Container for Desired Plant Size – General guide
(the less often you transplant your plants, the bigger final size you’ll need)

12″ ~ 2-3 gallon container

24″ ~ 3-5 gallon container

36″ ~ 5-7 gallon container

48″ ~ 6-10 gallon container

60″ ~ 8-10+ gallon container

But what size pot should you use for your seedlings?

For fastest growth rates, it’s better to plant young seedlings or clones in a very small container, like a disposable plastic solo cup.

For new seedlings and clones, use a small container if possible

Easy transplant guide – some popular transplant guideline:

  • Solo cup -> 1 gal -> 3 gal
  • Solo cup -> 1 gal -> 5 gal
  • Solo cup -> 2 gal -> 5 gal
  • Solo cup -> 1.5 gal -> 3 gal -> 5+ gal

There is no perfect transplant guide, but the one above should give you a general idea of where to start.

Why don’t you want to go from a solo cup to a 5 gallon pot? Or why not just start in a 5 gallon pot?

Young plants won’t be growing very fast yet, so they also won’t be using much water. When you completely saturate a big container that slow speed means that the plant won’t be able to drink all the water. Since so much of the water is contained in the middle without access to air, it won’t be able to dry out by evaporation. This means you’re left with a huge container full of wet potting mix.

The young cannabis plant roots will quickly use up all the available oxygen that’s been dissolved in the water, and then the roots will sit in water until the water slowly evaporates on its own. Some containers such as smart pots and air pots allow air in from the sides, which can help dry the growing medium faster, but it’s better to use proper technique from the beginning.

Overpotting Cannabis

Planting in too big a container is sometimes called “overpotting.” It’s possible to get around this with special watering techniques (for example by giving plants just a little bit of water until they start “growing into” their containers) but starting plants in small containers and transplanting as needed can be a more straightforward way for some growers. Overpotting plants is also a waste of growing medium and nutrients, especially if the plants never get big enough to fully use their containers.


This OG Tahoe Kush seedling was overpotted, though this can be overcome by the grower just giving a little bit of water at a time until the plant starts growing vigorously. At that point, the grower can provide more and more water until they’re finally watering normally.

More information about container size and transplanting here: https://www.growweedeasy.com/germinate#what-size-pot

Small Pot, Big Seedling

While using a too-large container can cause problems for seedlings, so can too-small of a container.

Seedlings are happy in a small container like a solo cup for a while, but as they get bigger, their roots need more room. The roots tend to wrap around the outsides of the container, encasing the middle part so that water can’t get out. This is known as the plant being “root bound.”

If the seedling isn’t transferred to a bigger container in time, it can cause symptoms of overwatering, nutrient deficiencies, wilting, and sometimes very strange and unpredictable symptoms.

These plants were left in a too-small container for too long. Because they were drinking so fast, the grower watered them frequently – too frequently! This combination of being root bound and overwatering caused the plants to suffer.

A too small container, combined with overwatering – these conditions can cause some strange symptoms that often look like a nutrient deficiency

Pink leaves, red discoloration, rusty spots and edges… While it make look like these cannabis seedlings are experiencing nutrient deficiencies, all these symptoms are actually caused by a combination of overwatering plus a too-small pot.

When the roots aren’t happy, the plant isn’t able to uptake nutrients properly and cannabis seedlings can show a wide variety of strange problems.

It’s usually not a good sign when cannabis leaves start “crossing their fingers” like this (instead of having all the leaf tips spread out). While this can happen naturally every once in a while, you know for sure that you’re having a problem if the crossed fingers are combined with discoloration of the leaves. Also notice how the stems are bright red/pink.

The following cannabis plant was also overwatered and had no drainage. Notice how dark the soil is and the green algae growing all along the top of the soil – these are more signs the plant has been overwatered for quite a while. You should never water your plant when the soil on top is still wet, and if you notice lots of algae growing on top of your soil, it may be a sign that you’re overwatering on a regular basis. Leaving the top of the soil wet is also the number one reason growers get fungus gnats.

No Drainage (or poor drainage)

Cannabis roots need oxygen to thrive, and therefore they will have trouble if the roots are “drowned.” If water cannot run out the bottom of the container, it will pool at the roots, which causes overwatered plants.

How to fix:

  • Always start with a good growing medium that drains well – never use a clay based soil which holds onto way too much water. A high quality potting mix (especially mixed with some perlite) provides great drainage
  • Start with a smaller container to reduce the chances of overwatering seedlings
  • Make sure there are plenty of drainage holes to let water out the bottom of the container
  • If water runs through growing medium slowly, you can mix perlite into the potting mix to increase oxygen and quicken drainage
  • Water less often and less at a time until plant is drinking more
  • Get a container that helps the growing medium dry out from the sides (such as “Smart Pots” – highly recommended; or air pots).
  • Don’t allow plants to sit in a tray that has been collecting runoff water

This seedling started “damping off” (dying) due to terrible drainage from bad soil. Never use soil that looks like it contains clay!

Seedling is “damping off” due to bad soil with no drainage

Here’s another example of a seedling damping off due to too much water (drowning roots), whis time combined with not enough light. After a few days of these conditions, this seedling just fell over and started dying.

The following plant was grown in an unsuitable growing medium with no drainage and started showing signs of overwatering. Always start with a quality potting mix that has good drainage, and never allow the top of your growing medium to look this wet!

This “soil” is more like mud. The plant roots are drowning from lack of oxygen, causing severe wilting.

Watering too often

While oxygen is available to the roots immediately after watering, the roots use up all the oxygen quickly if they are sitting in water. If all the oxygen is gone, roots are not able to get what they need to help power growth, at least not until the growing medium begins to dry out and create new air spaces in the growing medium.

Keep roots happy for fast-growing plants

Each air spot in the potting mix provides roots with precious oxygen, but if there’s no air spots, roots start to “drown.” By watering seedlings less often, growers can ensure that roots are getting access to plenty of oxygen at all times.

Of course you should never allow roots to actually dry out – roots need moisture at all times. But for new growers who want to do everything possible for their new seedlings, it can seem like more water = better. Unfortunately, this isn’t true.

Roots work best when they get as much oxygen as possible while also staying completely moist at all times.

How to Fix:

  • Wait until top inch is dry. Make sure that the top bit of potting mix has started to dry before you water seedlings again. Sometimes it can take a few days, depending on your growing medium, your environment and how much water you provided during the last watering.
  • Increase the number of air pockets in the growing medium by mixing in a “lighter” amendment like perlite to the potting mix. Perlite will allow the mix to hold onto more oxygen when mixed with heavy soil. Many cannabis soil growers will mix 30-40% perlite into their potting mix to make sure there’s lots of drainage and plenty of air available for the roots.
  • Provide air from the sides. Transplant to a container which allows air in from the sides like fabric pots (“Smart Pots” – highly recommended) or air pots.
  • Start in a smaller container until plant gets bigger so there’s less water in the potting mix that needs to dry. You’ll be able to water your plants more often while ensuring they get plenty of oxygen.
  • Water less when it’s cold. Plant processes tend to slow down when temps get cooler. This means that plants usually need water less often than normal after a cold snap.

This plant went through a few cool days but the grower continued to water as normal. As a result, the plants roots were surrounded by too much water and the plant started showing signs of overwatering.

The plant was watered the right amount each time, but too often. As a result, it shows some slight drooping. While this won’t kill the plant, the plant will definitely grow faster when the mix is allowed to dry out a bit so the roots are getting plenty of oxygen.

2.) Underwatering – seedling is droopy, wilting, or not growing properly, and the growing medium around the seedling isn’t moist

While overwatering is the most common seedling symptom, underwatering is also a problem, especially for those who have been warned to avoid giving too much water.

It can be confusing because the symptoms often look similar to each other, which is why it’s important to learn good watering practices.

This seedling was underwatered – the grower had been warned many times to avoid overwatering, and went too far in the other direction. Notice that the growing medium looks bone dry.

It’s crucially important to make sure that plant roots have access to moisture at all times. Plants are constantly losing water through their leaves (called “transpiration”) and this is actually how plants get water up from the roots. As the plants lose water from the leaves, it pulls water up from the ground like a straw.

When there’s not enough water at the roots, many plant processes cease to function. If roots actually dry out, the dried shoots die.

Here’s another example of a young cannabis plant that is underwatered, even in a big container (where the problem is usually overwatering). Notice how this cannabis seedling is basically just wilting and falling over, while the potting mix looks completely dry.

Seedlings suffer greatly from being underwatered, even more so than from overwatering. Often the grower will actually be able to see how dry the growing medium is. A big sign that the plant is being under-watered is when you can see the soil separating from the container. In this case, you can see the starter cube separating from the soil because it’s so dry.

Underwatering is bad on it’s own, but it causes the most problems when young cannabis seedlings are also stressed by too high levels of nutrients, or when started in a “hot” (nutrient-enriched) soil.

When underwatering is combined with too much nutrients, seedlings often become dark green and stunted, with twisted and discolored new growth.

The solution for this (underwatering + high levels of nutrients) is simply to give the plants more water so they can establish roots and start growing again. Most plants will be able to grow out of this problem once they get enough water to start growing. While it’s not always the best idea to start out with a hot soil mix, most seedlings will easily grow into it if given a good growing environment.

This cannabis seedling is dark because it was underwatered in a “hot” soil mix, but after watering the plant as normal for a week or two, the plant started growing vigorously

3.) Nutrient Problems – leaves are yellow, discolored, crispy or have spots

Healthy cannabis leaves on seedlings should be green! Again, here’s what healthy leaves look like…

Healthy Leaves Look Like This

When the cannabis leaves of young plants stop being green, you need to react. Changes of color (such as yellowing, spots, burnt tips, etc) are usually a sign that there’s a problem when it comes to young cannabis plants.

The leaves of young cannabis plants & seedlings should be green!

Some common seedling nutrient problems include…

  • Too Much Nutrients
  • Not Enough or Wrong Kind of Nutrients
  • Other Nutrient Problems

Too Much Nutrients

A nutrient toxicity is most common in dry or hot conditions, when starting in “hot” soil, and when plants are underwatered.

Two of the most common signs of nutrient toxicty are tip burn and dark leaves.

Tip burn is a sure sign that the plant took up too much nutrients

A closeup of nutrient tip burn

Nutrient burned tips eventually start curling upwards if nutrient levels are too high for too long

Very dark leaves often indicate a nitrogen toxicity (too much nitrogen)

If a nitrogen toxicity is left too long, it starts causing other nutrient problems, like the yellow lines on the bottom leaves of this plant.

Causes of Nutrient Toxicity

  • “Hot” Potting Mix – Sometimes seedlings get a nutrient toxicity when started ing a “hot” potting mix (one that has a lot of nutrients). If it’s good soil and you’re watering properly, your seedlings will be able to grow out of this relatively quickly.
  • Slow-Release Soil – Nutrient toxicities are common when grower start with a “extended release” soil like Miracle-Gro original soil – you don’t want any type of soil that will be slowly releasing nitrogen throughout the grow; it will cause nutrient burn and reduced bud development in the flowering stage. Avoid original Miracle-Gro soil and any other slow-release soils!
  • Give Nutrients Too Soon – Giving nutrients too early will overload the seedling with nutrients – in a good soil potting mix, additional nutrients usually aren’t needed for the first few weeks at least
  • Give Too Much Nutrients At Once – Giving too much nutrients at once can cause a toxicity overnight – always start at half the recommended dose according to the nutrient schedule (most cannabis nutrients come with a nutrient schedule), and see how your plants react before upping the dose

Too much nutrients too soon caused this (tip burn)

While the above seedling may look light colored, the problem is actually that it was given too high levels of nutrients.

When there’s too many nutrients, the plant can start getting light colored because some nutrients are getting locked out. The tip burn on the leaves is a good indicator that this problem is caused by too many nutrients. Also this grower started with a “hot” (nutrient rich) soil mix, and there’s no way a plant this size could have already used up all those nutrients.

A lot of growers may think the way to fix this is add more nutrients since the plant leaves are pale, but that will actually make things worse! This plant just needs some plain water until it starts to use up the nutrients in the soil, and it will soon take on a healthy green appearance on new leaves.

Not Enough or Wrong Kind of Nutrients

Nutrient deficiencies and other nutrient problems are most common when growers are using the wrong type of potting mix or cannabis nutrients.

Two of the most common signs of nutrient deficiencies are pale or yellowing leaves and other unusual leaf discoloration.

The most common type of deficiency is a nitrogen deficiency.

The yellow leaves of a nitrogen deficiency may show signs of brown, and they will usually become soft and sort of “fold” in, before turning crispy and falling off on their own.

If the yellowing leaves are at the top of your plant or the yellow leaves are mosty new growth, then you probably don’t have a nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen deficiencies affect the oldest, lowest leaves first.

Nitrogen Deficiency Leaf Closeup

There are many other nutrient deficiencies, and you can view them all here…

Look at more nutrient deficiencies!

Causes of Nutrient Deficiencies and Problems

  • Soilless Medium w/o Hydro Nutrients – Some growers may start in a soilless medium and not realize it has no nutrients (with a soilless medium like vermiculite, coco coir, pertlie, rockwool, etc, it’s up to the grower to provide all the nutrients since they are inert mediums and don’t contain any nutrients on their own) which results in a deficiency if grower isn’t providing extra nutrients. Soilless mediums are easy to grow in, but they do require the grower provide nutrients from the beginning.
  • Don’t Provide Nutrients As Plant Uses Up Soil – Many growers start in a good soil that has nutrients, but don’t give nutrients or transplant seedlings to a bigger container when the plant has started to use up the nutrients in the soil
  • Wrong Type of Nutrients – Nutrient deficiencies commonly show up with the grower gives their plants the the wrong type of nutrients – generally it’s a good idea to give a “vegetative” nutrient formula for the first part of the plant’s life and a “bloom” nutrient formula for the flowering/budding stage. When giving the wrong time of nutrients at the wrong time, your plant won’t grow as well. If you give vegetative nutrients in the flowering stage, you make it harder for the plant to form buds, while also increasing the chance of getting nutrient burn and other nutrient problems.

Other Nutrient Problems

  • Not Maintaining pH – If growers don’t manage pH, their plants may show signs of nutrient deficiencies even if the nutrients are actually there near the roots.
  • Improper Watering Technique – Growers who don’t water properly (growing mediums stays wet or dry for too long, poor drainage, etc) often start getting nutrient deficiencies as the plant isn’t able to effectively carry out normal plant processes
  • Too Small Container – Nutrient problems crop up when plants are kept in a small container for too long without being transferred to a bigger pot (this is known as being “root bound” and can cause the plant to display nutrient deficiencies because the roots aren’t functioning properly)
  • Bugs – a lot of bugs and pests may initially look like a deficiency (spots on the leaves can appear from bites, or if bugs have infested the soil, etc)

4.) Heat – leaves bend in the middle so they look like canoes or tacos, turning up at the edges, wilting, strange spotting, symptoms usually appear after temperature starts climbing.

When the heat gets too high, the edges of the leaves will begin to curl up and the leaves will begin to “cup” or “taco.”

Here’s another cannabis seedling suffering from heat stress – notice how the edges are curling upwards. The solution to this problem is simply to lower the heat as experienced by the plant.

Sometimes the leaves sort of fold downwards due to heat, too, like this seedling

After being subjected to overwatering plus a heat wave, the leaves of the following seedling started cuppping upwards and turned lime green. The stems and veins of the leaves were turning red. You can see the soil is still dark and wet because the plant stopped drinking after developing root problems.

Cannabis plants often display heat stress when grown in hot, dry weather, especially when not given the right amount of water.

Learn more about cannabis heat stress and how to fix it: https://www.growweedeasy.com/heat-light-stress

5.) Not enough (or too much) light – burned or crinkled leaves, too much space between nodes, tall seedlings that fall over

Not Enough Light = Stretched, “Leggy,” Tall Seedlings

Too Much Light = Burned, Crinkled Leaves

Stretched, “Leggy,” Tall Seedlings – Give More Light!

This seedling is stretching too tall, with a lot of space in between sets of leaves, and a long thin stalk. This is caused by the plant not getting enough light. It’s “reaching” upwards, trying to find the sun.

More seedlings stretching from lack of light

To fix too-tall seedlings, simply provide more light (usually by bringing grow lights closer or getting a brighter grow light)

After giving enough light, growers can bury the extra stem, or just wait until the seedling grows out of it on its own

Burned, Crinkled Leaves – Reduce Light or Move Grow Lights Up

This cannabis seedling basically grew up into the grow light!

This cannabis seedling is being burned by too-close LED grow lights

FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions

Question: What do seedlings like?

Answer: Moist but not drowning conditions, warmer temps, and a bit of light to help them start growing. Very little nutrients to start.

Question: How do I avoid germination problems?

Answer: Before anyone worries about cannabis seedling problems, it’s important to get your cannabis seeds to sprout!

So make sure you are avoiding these common germination mistakes!

Most importantly, just remember that cannabis seeds like a warm, moist environment to sprout.

Common Germination problems

  • Too wet – don’t drown your seeds! While it’s okay to soak seeds for the first 24 hours, after that they should be moist but not soaking.
  • Too dry – if seeds are too dry, they won’t sprout! If seeds sprout but then are exposed to dryness, they will die.
  • Too deep – if you plant seeds too deep in the growing medium, they may have a hard time making it to the surface. An inch deep (just enough to support the seed and cover it) is about as deep as you’ll ever need to go.
  • Not warm enough – seeds and seedlings like warmer temps (from 80-85 F) and will grow more slowly in cooler environments.
  • Wrong starting growing medium – Many growers like to plant their seeds directly in a growing medium, just like in nature. But some growing mediums are better for seeds than others. Learn more about the pros and cons of different starting growing mediums here.
  • Old or improperly stored seeds – any seeds that germinates is a good seeds, but older or improperly stored seeds often take longer to sprout, and may no sprout at all, even if you do everything right.
  • Not ripe seeds (pale or translucent) – while any seed that sprouts is a good seed, seeds that are pale, flimsy or translucent have very low germination rates because they’re not fully mature.
  • Too much humidity – Some growers like to use a humidity dome for new seedlings, but don’t leaves these on too long after sprouting, as too much humidity can cause “damping off (seedling sort of folding over and dying, more info below)

Learn more about germinating cannabis seeds!

Question: Am I drowning my plants? I planted my seeds two days ago in moist soil, I watered them a little, but no waterlogging. I then stopped watering them for fear of drowning them. Today, the top of the soil is getting dry, there’s still some moisture left in it, but not much from what I can tell. Should I keep it moist or just leave it be?

Answer: Young seedlings can get easily drowned, especially in a big container (learn about different containers for growing cannabis). But at the same time, they like moist conditions, and seedling roots should NEVER dry out as this can kill or seriously stunt your plant.

But how to balance the need for both water and air?

In a smaller container like a solo cup, it’s very difficult to overwater young seedlings as long as there’s plenty of drainage and you’re using a good growing medium. Once seedlings have started to outgrow a small container, you can transfer to a bigger container and the seedling will be much more robust.

If you’ve started your seedling in a big container, it’s good to be worried about overwatering young seedlings. In a large container, it generally takes a relatively long time for the growing medium to dry out, and your seedlings aren’t drinking much. Therefore it’s easy for them to get waterlogged. In this situation, you can use a spray bottle or a mister to mist the area around the plant thoroughly, which will seep down to the roots and keep them wet, but won’t soak the soil. Another option is to use just a small amount of water, maybe a cup at a time, and water in a circle around your plant until it starts growing vigorously. Giving seedlings just a bit of water at a time prevents them from getting drowned in drenched soil.

Once the plant is growing fast, you can start watering as normal (water until 20% runoff comes out the bottom, then don’t water again until the top inch is dry to the touch). At this point your plant will be drinking more and will have a stronger root system to seek out both the water and the oxygen it needs.

After reading this article, all your seedlings will look as green and happy as this one!

Jump to…

How to germinate cannabis seeds

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Start growing today!

All about cannabis seedlings

Most cannabis growers refer to the seedling stage of cannabis plants, when the shoots start to develop their first set of “real” leaves. Compared to the embryonic cotyledons, which have an oval shape, this second set of leaves will already look like cannabis leaves with the typical serrated edge, but it will only be one “finger”.

The next leaves the seedling will be growing will have 3 fingers and the following sets that will develop afterwards will more and more resemble the common cannabis leaf shape until they will have the full set of 5-7 fingers, sometimes more.


The number of leaf fingers, that is when the leaves are finally reaching their final number, is also when cannabis growers say that the seedling stage is over and the next growing phase of the cannabis plant, the vegetating stage, is beginning. Other growers consider the seedling stage over when the stem reached a certain thickness or when the plant has grown 3-4 leaf nodes.

The duration of the seedling stage of your cannabis plant can vary depending whether you grow indoors or out. Grown indoors, your plant will normally spend 2-3 weeks being a seedling, while the seedling phase when grown outdoors can last up to 6 weeks.

While your seedling will be growing eagerly to become a fully grown cannabis plant, it will spend a good amount of energy on developing a root system. A healthy root system is important, so that the plant can take in nutrients optimally for healthy growth.


If you place a small fan at the location where you grow your seedlings and have a weak, but constant stream of air blowing over them, it will benefit them in several ways. The airflow can help prevent the growth of mould, which young seedlings in particular are prone to. The steady stream of air will also make your seedlings put some extra energy into growing stronger, with a better and more resistant structural integrity.


Be careful, since young seedlings are very fragile and usually don’t take it too well should you transplant them prematurely. The time to transplant the seedlings into bigger pots has come once you see, that the seedling has developed a solid root system. If you grow your seedlings in small starter pots or in rock wool, wait until you see roots coming out the holes or on the sides of the rock wool cubes.

Still, be careful when transplanting and try to avoid damage to the still small and fragile plant. When you grow seedlings in rock wool cubes, this has the advantage that you can leave them in the cubes when transplanting, which helps reduce the risk for any damage.


Seedlings don’t require too much light to grow. In fact, a light, that is too strong, can sometimes do more harm than good in this early stage. Many cultivars grow seedlings under fluorescent light tubes, which are relatively weak and optimal suited for this purpose. Because of the rather weak fluorescent light it is normally recommended, that you place the fixture with the light as close as 5cm above your seedlings. Know that the further away your grow light will be, the more stretched-out and longish your plants will grow in their search for light. Avoid having your seedlings become too stretched-out, because they would then easily tip over. Find the best distance to the light for your seedlings so they won’t stretch too much.

If you use other types of grow lighting for your seedlings, such as HID lights, be aware, that this type of lights can often produce a considerable amount of heat. In this case you need to be careful and start out with a light distance of about 80cm above your seedlings. Gradually have your plants accustomed to the HID light and lower it a few cm each day until you reach a distance of 40-60cm depending on the amount of Watts. You can also do a simple heat test when you hold your hands under the light. If it feels too hot for your hands, it will also be for your fragile seedlings.

For optimal seedling growth, get a grow light with a “cold” spectrum, that will be beneficial for early vegetative growth. These types of lamps have more blue in their spectrum as compared to flowering lamps, that will have more red.

As for the best light cycles for your seedlings, you can go with the common 18/6 light schedule, which is 18 hours of light per day, with a 6 hour darkness period, although some growers use 20/4 or even 24/0. You can experiment which light schedule would give you the best results.


One thing that less experienced cannabis growers may not be aware of, is that very young seedlings that have just sprouted don’t really need any nutrients. In fact, adding nutrients in this early phase of growth can be detrimental. Have your seedling spend some energy “searching” for nutrients and growing its roots, rather than spoiling it with nutrients from early on.

Only use clean, distilled water at a pH level of 6.5-7 without any nutrients added. You can start with slight feeding after a week or two. Here again, be careful, since seedlings can be very sensitive to overfeeding. Use half the recommended dosage of nutrients, because otherwise you may risk killing your plants. Don’t make the mistake some new growers tend to make who “love” their young plants to death. For seedlings, less is most often better.

Be aware, that many commercial potting mixes have nutrients added to them. This makes such potting mixes less optimal for seedlings. Grow them with special “light” potting mixes for seedlings, use rock wool cubes or make your own starter mix with perlite.

Phase One: Planting the Seed

When a seed starts to grow, we say it germinates. The cotyledons store food for the baby plant inside the seed. When the seed starts to germinate, the first thing to grow is the main root. The seed’s growing conditions usually need to be damp, warm, and dark, like springtime soil. A dry seed will stay dormant until it soaks in some water, then it will start to germinate.

There are two different types of seeds: dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Dicotyledons are seeds with two parts and monocotyldons have only one part. You can call theses seed types dicots and monocots for short.

An example of a dicot would be a bean seed. A bean seed that has been soaked in water has a soft outer covering. This outer covering is the seed coat. Inside of the seed would be a tiny plant called the embryo. The two large parts of the seed are called the cotyledons. The cotyledons are stored food that the young plant will use while it is growing.

Monocots are seeds that have only one cotyledon, such as the corn seed. Monocots have a thicker seed coat that does not slip off easily like the bean seed. The corn seed does not split open like the bean seed, it stays in one piece. One cotyldeon surrounds the embryo and is called the endosperm.


Activity 1: Seed Dissection

  1. Pass out one copy of the “Seed Dissection” activity sheet to each student.
  2. Use the first three slides of the “Seeds” PowerPoint to show students the parts of a seed. Have them label the diagram on their activity sheet and write the functions of the seed coat, food supply, and embryo.
  3. Soak the seeds (except the pine nut) in water for 24 hours at room temperature. Drain the seeds and pass out a bean, corn, and pine seed to each student. Follow the instructions below to dissect each seed. Have students place each dissected seed part in the labeled box at the bottom of the activity sheet.
    • Bean Seed: Carefully have students remove the bean seed coat, which, before the soaking, protected the seed food source (cotyledons) and the embryo, which will become the new plant. Next, have the students gently split the bean seed—the two halves are the two cotyledons. This is where the bean seed stores the food that is used for growth until it gets its first true leaves and begins to make its own food. The students should be able to see a little lump near the edge of one cotyledon. Don’t touch it yet! Carefully study this lump (a hand lens may be useful). This is the embryo—the new plant! If students look closely, they should see the delicate, translucent leaves. Finally, instruct them to separate the embryo from the cotyledon, place it on a flat surface, and look to see not only the leaves, but also the embryonic roots.
    • Corn Seed: For contrast, ask the students to try to open the corn seed. You’ll probably see a lot of students squish their seeds, but if they carefully remove the seed coat, and then press their fingernail into the endosperm, the cotyledon and the new embryo can be removed.
    • Pine Nut: Finally, perhaps the most interesting seed to dissect is a pine nut. Ask students to gently remove the seed coat. They may have to crack this with their teeth. Next, tell them to push their finger nail through the food source and gently open it to see the embryo—a baby tree.
  4. Students should now have three seed coats, three food sources, and three seed embryos in the corresponding boxes of their activity sheets. Use glue or tape to attach them.
  5. Summarize what the students have learned. Yes! We eat seeds: peas, beans, peanuts, sunflower seeds, walnuts, cashews, wheat used in bread, poppy seeds, sesame seeds, not to mention the oil that comes from seeds. Seeds truly are a miracle with the potential for life and the ability to sustain lives—like yours and mine. Review by asking these questions: What are seeds used for? Do we eat any seeds or are they used just to grow new plants? Which part of the seed is the outer covering that protects the inside? Which part of the seed is the largest, and what is its purpose? Which part of the seed will grow into the new plant?

Activity 2: Monocots and Dicots

  1. Tell your students that most seeds can be classified into two groups: monocots and dicots.
  2. Break the words into smaller pieces to define. Mono=one, di=two, and “cot” is short for cotyledon. Therefore, a monocot seed has one cotyledon and a dicot seed has two cotyledons. Tell students that corn is a monocot and beans are dicots. Discuss the differences they observed between the corn and bean seeds they dissected. Use the information provided in the Background section of this lesson to discuss the differences between monocots and dicots.
  3. Beginning with slide four of the “Seed” PowerPoint, show students the diagrams and examples of monocot and dicot seeds and seedlings.
  4. Have students apply their knowledge and identify the next eight plants on the PowerPoint as monocots or dicots. Each slide shows the seedling just after it emerges from the soil as well as the mature plant that the seedling will become. If there is one single leaf on the seedling, it is probably a monocot. You can also identify monocot plants by their long strap-like leaves that are similar to grass. If the plant is a dicot, the seedling will probably have two leaves. Use a method of formative assessment to identify the plants in the PowerPoint. For example:
    • Have all students stand in the center of the room. Instruct them to go to the far left of the room if the plant is a monocot and to the far right of the room if it is a dicot. Show students the picture, identify the correct answer, and continue to the next plant following the same procedure.
    • Use student response boards (white boards or chalk boards). Instruct students to write, monocot or dicot on their response boards and hold them up.
    • Pass out a sheet of scrap paper to each student. Have them write monocot on one side and dicot on the other. Ask students to hold up the correct answer as you show the picture of each plant.

Activity 3: Seed Science

  1. Soak a bag of pinto beans in water overnight to prepare for this activity.
  2. Prepare Ziploc bags for sprouting seeds and embryos. You may choose to prepare the bags ahead of time or have students prepare their own. Fold a paper towel to fit inside the bag. Punch a row of staples two inches from the bottom of the ziploc bag. The staples will hold the paper towel in place and help with water drainage, decreasing the chance of the seeds rotting.
  3. Have the students recall the differences between monocot and dicot plants. Review that monocot seeds appear to be made up of a single whole, while the dicot seed appears to be made up of pieces. Hold up a dry bean seed and ask students to identify if it is a monocot or dicot. Show them a seed that has been soaking and show them the different parts to reveal that it is a seed from a dicot plant.
  4. Give each student four beans.
  5. Instruct students to first place two of their bean seeds in their ziploc bag on top of the row of staples.
  6. With the remaining two seeds, instruct students to carefully peel the seed coats off of the seed.
  7. Next, each student should take the two seeds without seed coats and gently pull them apart to reveal the two halves— the two cotyledons. Have them look inside for the embryos. Have extra bean seeds available for this step. Some bean seeds have very small embryos, which may make it difficult for the students to remove them intact.
  8. Once the embryos have been separated, carefully place them inside the ziploc bag, above the row of staples. Students should now have two bean seed embryos and two whole bean seeds in their bag.
  9. Remind the students that the cotyledons are the bean seed’s food supply—you can think of them as the seed’s “lunch box.” They feed the seed until it can grow leaves and make its own food. Tell them that they will conduct an experiment to see how well seeds grow with and without their food supply.
  10. Add one tablespoon of water to each bag to wet the paper towel and moisten the seeds. Using tape, hang the bags on a window or in a well-lit area. Do not seal the bags; leaving them slightly open will help prevent the seeds from rotting.
  11. Have the students complete the first section of the “Seed Science Experiment” activity sheet.
  12. Observe the growth of the bean seedlings over the next week. Most seeds will sprout in three to five days.
  13. Have students complete the final section of the “Seed Science Experiment” activity sheet. Discuss what factors might have affected the growth of the embryos and the whole seeds. At the completion of the experiment, students should see the growth and development of a stem, leaves, and roots of the whole bean seed. The embryos will have very limited growth without their food supply, cotyledon, or seed coat.

Concept Elaboration and Evaluation

After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:

  • Seeds have a seed coat, embryo, and cotyledon.
  • The embryo is the portion of the seed that will develop into the mature plant.
  • Many plants grow from seeds, including the plants that produce the fruits, vegetables, and grain that we eat.

We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!

Enriching Activities

  • Play the My American Farm interactive game The Great Seed Search.

Suggested Companion Resources

Glossary Tip – Cotyledon

When the seed of a plant germinates, that first leaf or set of leaves to unfold is called a cotyledon. Cotyledons are developed by the embryo of the seed and are sometimes called seed-leaves. They contain stored food reserves from the seed, used to keep the seedling fed until the next set of leaves, considered the “true leaves,” appears. Once the second set of true leaves sprouts, the plant will begin photosynthesis. The cotyledons will wither and disappear soon after the true leaves start to grow.


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Some plant seeds produce one cotyledon leaf and some seeds produce two cotyledons.
Flowering plants with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous (or “monocots”). Examples of monocots include daylilies, tulips, grasses, wheat, barley, corn, and onions.
Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
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Plants with two embryonic leaves are called dicotyledonous (“dicots”). Examples of dicots include roses, chrysanthemums, carnations, beans, mustard, peppers, squash, and tomatoes.

The cotyledons will fall off as the true leaves emerge. Most cotyledons are nondescript, while the true leaves resemble the leaves of the mature plant.

What Is A Cotyledon: When Do Cotyledons Fall Off

Cotyledons may be one of the first visible signs a plant has germinated. What is a cotyledon? It is the embryonic part of a seed which stores fuel for further growth. Some cotyledons are seed leaves which fall off the plant within a few days. These cotyledons on plants are photosynthetic, but there are also hypogeal cotyledons which remain under the soil. These unique plant parts are a crucial step to plant emergence and food storage. Continue reading for more fascinating cotyledon plant information.

Cotyledons on Plants and Classifying

You can study cotyledons by viewing a split peanut. The cotyledon is the little bump at the top of the half nut and will sprout in ideal conditions. The cotyledon forms at the crest of the endosperm, which carries enough plant nutrients to jump-start the sprouting process. The photosynthetic cotyledons will look quite dissimilar from the true leaves and only last a short time.

When viewing a seed it is often quite easy to see what is a cotyledon.

While this is the case with a peanut, other seeds do not have the little nub that indicates where the leaves will sprout. Scientists use the number of cotyledons to classify plants.

A monocot has only one cotyledon and a dicot has two. Corn is a monocot and has an endosperm, embryo and single cotyledon. Beans can be easily split in half and each side will bear a cotyledon, endosperm and embryo. Both forms are considered flowering plants but the blooms are not always evident.

Cotyledon Plant Information

The number of cotyledons in a seed is the basis for classifying any plant in the angiosperm or flowering plant group. There are a few fuzzy exceptions where a plant cannot simply be designated monocot or dicot simply by its number of cotyledons, but these are rare.

When a dicot emerges from the soil, it has two seed leaves whereas a monocot will bear only one. Most monocot leaves are long and narrow while dicots come in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Flowers and seed pods of monocots tend to come in parts of three while dicots have three or five petals and seed heads come in a host of forms.

When Do Cotyledons Fall Off?

Photosynthetic cotyledons remain on the plant until the first true leaves appear and can begin to perform photosynthesis. This is generally just a few days and then the seed leaves fall off. They remain to help direct the energy stored in the seed to new growth, but once the plant is self-sufficient, they are no longer needed.

Similarly, the hypogeal cotyledons that remain under soil are also directing stored energy from the seed and will wither when no longer needed. Some plants’ cotyledons persist for up to a week but most are gone by the time the first two true leaves are evident.

Biology dictionary


noun, plural: cotyledons

(1) (botany) The primary or rudimentary leaf of the embryo of a seed plant that either remains in the seed or emerges upon seed germination; a modified leaf that is part of the plant embryo within the seed; a seed leaf.

(2) (plant taxonomy) A genus of the Crassulaceae family first described by Linnaeus, which include plants with succulent leaves that are opposite, stiff, and persistent, corolla of five petals fused into a tube, flowers that are tubular and bell-like, and stamens that are ten in two whorls, such as the species Cotyledon tomentosa commonly known as Bear’s Paw.

(3) (anatomy) Any of the lobules located on the uterine surface of the detached placenta, consisting mainly of a rounded mass of villi; the functional unit of the placenta.


Botany: In plants, the cotyledons are involved in the storage or absorption of food reserves. The number of cotyledons is one of the plant characteristics used in grouping angiosperms into monocots and dicots.

Anatomy: In humans, a full term placenta contains about 20 cotyledons that are surrounded with maternal blood which contact the villous trees from the fetal circulation. Exchanges of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and nutrients between the mother and her fetus take place here.

Word origin: Latin cotylēdōn, navelwort, from Greek kotulēdōn, from kotulē, hollow object


  • (botany) seed leaf

Related terms:

  • (botany) monocotyledon
  • (botany) dicotyledon

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