Varieties of bleeding heart

Wild Bleeding Heart

This is the wild, pink-flowered native with finely cut foliage and a bushy, mounding habit. Also called Fringed Bleeding Heart, this beautiful wildflower sometimes makes even a more spectacular show than the taller Pink Bleeding Heart, since it is more compact, and can literally cover itself with flowers if well-grown. Perfect for the front of the shady border.

Great color in the shade, The Bleeding Hearts. The genus Dicentra, commonly called Bleeding Heart, gives us some of the most treasured plants in America, providing dependable color in moist shade as companions with Hostas and Ferns. There are basically two major types:

1. Most popular and world-famous, is D. spectabilis, a species native to Japan. It is the larger of the two (to about 3 feet,) and has the famous little heart-shaped flowers arrayed along arching stems, a lot like a string of pearls. The large bleeding hearts bloom only in spring, and in some areas, disappear altogether by midsummer, much like Trilliums and Daffodils.
2. The second type, the Fernleaf Bleeding Hearts, are hybrids of North American native wildflowers. They are smaller with finely cut blue-green foliage and similar flowers. However, with the Fernleafs, the flowers are more bunched at the top of the stems, more like a dangling bouquet. And best of all, these plants continue to bloom not only in spring, but all summer into fall.

Our native Dicentras are all wonderful wildflowers of woodland shade, from the eastern Dutchmans Breeches and Fringed Bleeding Heart to the Northwests Pacific Bleeding Heart.

These magnificent plants have long been a herald of spring in Zones 2 to 9, a huge area of the US. They are quite easy to grow, as long as woodland conditions are provided. That means some shade, plenty of moisture with good drainage, and rich soil. Once your clumps have become large, you can easily divide the rhizomes after flowering.

More Information

SKU

AM014334

Item Package Size

Bag of 1

Common Name

Wild Bleeding Heart

Botanical Name

Dicentra eximia

Zones

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Light Requirements

Half Sun / Half Shade, Full Shade

Flower Color

Pink

Mature Height

12-18″ tall

Estimated Mature Spread

18-24″ wide

Growth Rate

Medium

Bloom Time

Late spring to early summer

Planting Depth

Plant so that the top of the root is 1″ below the soil line.

Ships As

Potted Plant

Foliage

Green fern-like foliage. Foliage goes dormant mid-summer.

Soil Type

Loamy Soil, Moist/Wet Soil

Soil Moisture

Average, Moist / Wet, Well Draining

Tolerates

Humidity

Advantages

Deer Resistant, Rabbit Resistant, Native, Extended Bloom Time (more than 4 weeks), Good Rockgarden Or Alpine Plant, Plants For Small Spaces

Ideal Region

Northeast, Southeast, Midwest

Planting Time

Spring / Summer, Fall

Poisonous or Toxic to Animals

All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested.

Item Unit

Plant

Ships to Hawaii, Alaska & Canada

No

Wildflowers of the United States

Dicentra eximia – Wild Bleeding Heart, Eastern Bleeding Heart, Turkey Corn. Dicentra is a genus of about 20 species, of which 7 to 11 are found in North America, depending on which authorities you follow (and whether you include the highly cultivated Dicentra spectabilis species – which may now be classified as Lamprocapnos spectabilis.) Dicentra eximia is one of 3 or 4 species found in the eastern United States (Dicentra formosa may occasionally be found in the wild as a garden escapee, but those populations are unlikely to persist.)
While many publications refer to Dicentra eximia by the common name Turkey Corn, in my experience I’ve always heard it referred to as Bleeding Heart. Since the range of this lovely plant is on cliffs, rock outcrops, and rocky slopes of the Appalachian Mountains from New York south to South Carolina and Georgia, it is possible that it is called Turkey Corn in the northern part of its range. There are reports of disjunct populations in Illinois and Michigan, as well as outside of the Appalachians in other more eastern states. These are likely to be garden escapees rather than native or long-established naturalized populations since Dicentra eximia is a widely cultivated plant.
Synonyms: Fumaria eximia, Bicuculla eximia
Found in:
GA, IL, MA, MD, MI, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV, GS

Dicentra Species, Fringed Bleeding Heart, Wild Bleeding Heart, Fern Leaf Bleeding Heart

Category:

Alpines and Rock Gardens

Groundcovers

Perennials

Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Sun to Partial Shade

Foliage:

Grown for foliage

Herbaceous

Foliage Color:

Bronze

Blue-Green

Height:

12-18 in. (30-45 cm)

18-24 in. (45-60 cm)

Spacing:

12-15 in. (30-38 cm)

15-18 in. (38-45 cm)

Hardiness:

USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 °C (-40 °F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 °C (-35 °F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 °C (-30 °F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 °C (-25 °F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 °C (-20 °F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 °C (-15 °F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 °C (-10 °F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 °C (-5 °F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 °C (0 °F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 °C (5 °F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 °C (10 °F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 °C (15 °F)

Where to Grow:

Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone

Can be grown as an annual

Danger:

All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction

Bloom Color:

Pink

White/Near White

Bloom Characteristics:

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

Bloom Size:

Unknown – Tell us

Bloom Time:

Mid Spring

Late Spring/Early Summer

Other details:

Unknown – Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:

Non-patented

Propagation Methods:

By dividing the rootball

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

From seed; stratify if sowing indoors

Seed Collecting:

Bag seedheads to capture ripening seed

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

Regional

This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Auburn, Alabama

Juneau, Alaska

Seward, Alaska

CARLOTTA, California

Sacramento, California

Niantic, Connecticut

Oxford, Connecticut

Mount Prospect, Illinois

Farmersburg, Indiana

Greenville, Indiana

Inwood, Iowa

Pacific Junction, Iowa

Portland, Maine

Brookeville, Maryland

Gaithersburg, Maryland

Boxford, Massachusetts

Reading, Massachusetts

Worcester, Massachusetts

Dearborn Heights, Michigan

Grand Blanc, Michigan

Grand Rapids, Michigan

Madison Heights, Michigan

Mason, Michigan

Pinconning, Michigan

Royal Oak, Michigan

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Olive Branch, Mississippi

Hudson, New Hampshire

Princeton Junction, New Jersey

Ballston Lake, New York

Jefferson, New York

Queensbury, New York

Southold, New York

Cary, North Carolina

Elizabeth City, North Carolina

Norristown, Pennsylvania

Port Matilda, Pennsylvania

Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Belton, South Carolina

Greenville, South Carolina

Knoxville, Tennessee

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

Fort Worth, Texas

Essex Junction, Vermont

Leesburg, Virginia

Springfield, Virginia

Kalama, Washington

Puyallup, Washington

show all

Fringed Bleeding Heart

Photo by Paul Drobot

Pat Roberts, Master Gardener Volunteer
Revised: 6/25/2010

Common Name: Zestful Fringed Bleeding Heart

Botanical Name: Dicentra eximia ‘Zestful’

Location: Perennial Garden

Size: 12-18 inches high and 12-18 inches wide

Bloom Time: May-July

Bloom Color: Medium pink

Light Requirements: Partial shade to partial sun

Moisture and Soil Requirements: Grow in average, medium, well-drained soil. Plant prefers moist, humusy soil. Intolerant of wet soils in winter and dry soils in summers.

Hardiness: Zones 3-9

Insect problems: None serious, although watch for aphids.

Diseases: None serious

Maintenance notes: Very low-maintenance. After flowers fade, cut back to basal growth for fall rebloom. Naturalizes by self-seeding. Not as long-blooming as ‘Luxuriant’, but may be more reliable when trying to establish.

Uses: The partially-shaded border, woodland garden, wildflower garden, or naturalized area are good places for this plant. Its long bloom period allows it to stand out in a semi-shaded garden.

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Tags: selection Categories: Flower Selection

Wild Bleeding Heart (Dicentra eximia)

Hardy, herbaceous North American perennial
Description: Clusters of deep rose-pink blossoms form on long stems in spring and sporadically through summer and fall; fine textured, fern-like pale green foliage remains until frost
Habit: Grows 10 to 16 inches high and wide
Culture: Prefers part shade and moist, organically rich, well-drained garden loam, but is adaptable to various conditions
Hardiness: Cold hardy to USDA Zone 3
Origin: North America

This attractive wildflower is native to the mountainous regions of Eastern North America from New York to Georgia. It was being cultivated by Annapolis, Maryland artisan William Faris in 1793 and recommended for the flower garden in 1859 by Boston seedsman and garden writer Joseph Breck, author of The Flower Garden or Breck’s Book of Flowers, 1851. At the turn of the 20th century, British garden writer William Robinson noted that the Dicentra eximia “combines a fern-like grace with the flowering qualities of a good hardy perennial”. He considered the species useful in rock gardens, mixed flower borders or for naturalizing by woodland walks.

Arrives in a 1 quart pot.

Outstanding Qualities

Dicentra is one of those romantic perennials of the woodland garden. This selection of fern-leaf Bleeding heart is valued for its compact habit and long season of bloom. Dicentra ‘Luxuriant’ forms a vigorous clump of green leaves, topped by clusters of delicate, dangling heart shaped pale pink flowers. It is excellent for edging, or to weave through the woodland garden. This plant is a reliable performer. Dicentra ‘Luxuriant’ goes summer dormant so is a good companion for later season perennials such as hostas or a number shade loving grasses. It looks good with Brunnera ‘Jack Frost’, blue bostas, Actaea, Beesia, Hakonechloa, and Ophiopogon.

Quick Facts

Plant Type: perennial

Foliage Type: deciduous

Plant Height: 1 ft. 0 in. (0.30 meters)

Plant Width/Spread: 1 ft. 6 in. (0.46 meters)

Hardiness: USDA Zones 4 to 9

Flower Color: pink

Sun/Light Exposure: light, open, or dappled shade

Water Requirements: regular watering

Wildlife Associations: bees

Colors & Combos

Great Color Contrasts: black, gold, blue

Great Color Partners: pink, purple, cream


Dicentra ‘Luxuriant’K. Van Bourgondien / 800-437-7501
Dicentra ‘Bacchanal’by George Papadelis

Fern-leaf bleeding heart boasts versatility, durability, and beauty. It differs from its cousin, old-fashioned bleeding heart (Dicentra spectabilis), in many ways. Old-fashioned bleeding heart can grow up to 4 feet tall and equally wide. The common form produces the classic white “heart” shaped flowers that “bleed” rosy red “drips” on either side of each flower. The blossoms emerge in spring and gracefully cascade from arching stems. Flowers last 6 or more weeks, but the plants usually go dormant by summer. They are therefore best planted in the rear of the border behind summer bloomers. In contrast, fern-leaf bleeding heart rarely grows over 15 inches, will bloom almost all summer long without going dormant, has handsome cut-leaf foliage, and has smaller “non-bleeding” flowers. These are available in a range of leaf and flower colors that provide gardeners with many choices for their shadier spots.

Fern-leaf bleeding heart is a North American native that can actually be divided into two very similar species. The western species, Dicentra formosa (western bleeding heart), occurs naturally from northern California to British Columbia while our eastern species, Dicentra eximia (fern-leaf or fringed bleeding heart), is found from New York to Georgia. Breeders in America and Europe have used these to develop several interesting varieties with flowers that range from white to pink to lavender to deep red. ‘Luxuriant’ is the most readily available variety and has cherry red flowers above 12- to 15-inch blue-green foliage. For an excellent white, try ‘Snowdrift’ or ‘Snowflakes’; both have blue-green leaves and grow 10 to 14 inches tall. For one of the deepest reds and almost silver-blue leaves, look for ‘Bacchanal’ at only 8 to 10 inches tall. Most of the newer varieties have beautiful foliage that is worth considering for any semi-shady site.

Fern-leaf bleeding hearts form slow-spreading clumps that require no maintenance all season long. They can tolerate the coldest of winters and are not too particular about soil type as long as it isn’t too heavy. They do, however, thrive in moist, fertile soil. Plants will tolerate full sun, but prefer a semi-shaded site. Too much shade, however, will discourage flowering, which typically lasts from spring until fall. Avoid positioning this plant where competition from tree roots will occur since the lack of water and nutrients can make bleeding hearts only last for a few years. To maintain the healthiest, longest-blooming plants, divide the crown every 3 or 4 years in early spring or late summer. When planting new divisions, take advantage of this opportunity to amend your soil with organic matter such as compost, manure, or aged pine bark. Once established, this disease- and insect-resistant plant will effortlessly flower for years without requiring staking, deadheading, or pruning.

The relatively small size of fern-leaf bleeding heart makes it ideal for the front of the shady garden. It can also be used nestled between boulders in your rock garden or planted among trillium and Jack-in-the-pulpits in your woodland garden. Its tidy, bluish foliage and long season of bloom combine to make it useful as an edging plant too. The blue-green ferny leaves are contrasted beautifully by the bold purple-red leaves of coral bells (Heuchera) or by the large gold leaves of Hosta ‘Daybreak.’ Plant fern-leaf bleeding heart with an ornamental grass for shade such as golden hakone grass (Hakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’). Its fine, wispy gold leaves against the ferny blue-green leaves of the bleeding heart would provide a long-lasting combination of different colors and textures.

George Papadelis is the owner of Telly’s Greenhouse in Troy, MI.


Dicentra eximia ‘Snowdrift’Walters Gardens
Dicentra ‘King of Hearts’
Dicentra ‘Snowdrift’

At a glance: Fern-leaf Bleeding Heart

Botanical name: Dicentra eximia (dy-SEN-truh eks-IM-ee-uh)

Plant type: Perennial

Plant size: 10 to 15 inches tall and wide

Habit: Clump-forming mound

Hardiness: Zone 3

Flower color: Pink, deep pink, cherry red, deep red, white

Flower size: 1 inch long, narrow heart-shaped

Bloom period: Spring to fall

Leaf color: Blue-green, gray-green

Leaf size: 4-12 inches long, fern-like

Light: Partial shade

Soil: Well-drained, fertile, moist

Uses: Front of the shade border; rock garden

Companion plants: Hostas (smaller, gold- and blue-leaved varieties), purple-leaved coral bells (Heucheras)

Remarks: Grown in the proper conditions, may self-seed in the garden. Divide every 3 to 4 years. Avoid dry soil areas in the summer.

  • Dutchman’s breeches plant (Dicentra cucullaria) bears white flowers on leafless stems that truly do remind one of the pairs of pants hung out to dry on a clothesline. The fern-like foliage dies back in summer, but the plant lives on, underground, in a state of dormancy.
  • Squirrel corn (D. canadensis), like Dutchman’s breeches, has white flowers, but the flowers assume a shape more like those on Dicentra eximia and D. spectabilis than those on D. cucullaria. It, too, has leaves that remind you of ferns and that disappear in the heat of the summer; both are suited to zones 3 to 7.
  • Pacific bleeding heart (D. formosa) has pink flowers and leaves that are bluish-green and shaped like ferns. The Latin word, formosa, translates to “beautiful.” It can be grown in zones 4 to 8. Native to the West Coast of North America, it is the West’s version of the fringed bleeding heart.
  • For something quite different in the same genus, try D. scandens. It is a large vine (10 feet tall) with yellow flowers. But it is not as tolerant of the cold as are other types of Dicentra: It is hardy only in zones 7 to 9.
  • Some types of false bleeding heart (Corydalis spp.) have fern-like leaves, including C. cheilanthifolia, its cultivar, Manchu, and C. lutea (all have yellow flowers and grow in zones 3 to 6). Since C. lutea is by far the most popular Corydalis, it is the type that you are most likely to find in garden centers. C. lutea Alba bears white blooms. If you can find it for sale, of even greater interest will be C. flexuosa China Blue (zones 5 to 7), so called because it produces blue flowers.

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