Types of mums flowers

5 different types of Mums – which would you pick?

Posted on May 06, 2019 | Tags: flowers, chrysanthemums, Mother’s Day

To thank our wonderful mums for all their hard work, the perfect Mother’s Day gift is most definitely flowers, and the most popular of all is fragrant and brightly coloured chrysanthemums.

So with the big day just around the corner, Sunday 12th May to be precise, we set out to find out everything there is to know about our ‘mums’ of the floral variety.

Here we interview chrysanthemum growers, explain the difference between the five most popular types of ‘mums’ and give helpful tips to make them last longer.

Second-generation grower David Giansante wouldn’t want to produce any other flower than the chrysanthemum at his family-run business Linton Flowers in Horsley Market, Sydney.

Flower grower David Giansante

The allure of the classic memorable aroma, along with the age-old tradition of Australia’s most popular Mother’s Day flower, has David firmly under the spell of the ‘mum’, as it’s so affectionately known around the nation.

“Mother’s Day is 10 times busier for florists than Valentine’s Day,” says David, whose unique ‘crazy spider’ chrysanthemum is always a sell-out.

Sydney Flower Market grower Joe Olivieri, one of three brothers who run Olivieri’s Flowers at Doyalson North, says “Daisies have a flatter flower, disbuds look like pom-poms, and Polaris are the decorative type most popular for Mother’s Day,” There’s also an art to growing them.”

Chrysanthemums flower in autumn because their blooming is triggered by shortening days.

We’re all aware that flowering can be affected by temperature but it’s less well known that light levels play an important role, too.

This means that chrysanthemums in glasshouses can be manipulated to have their flowering occur on cue.

Here are just a few of the other popular varieties of chrysanthemum your favourite florist will have in stock this Mother’s Day

Red – Daisy Chrysanthemum

Red Daisy chrysanthemum is covered in stunning red daisy flowers with yellow eyes at the ends of the stems. The flowers are excellent for cutting. Its fragrant ferny leaves remain dark green in colour too throughout the season.

White – Polaris

This tried-and-true favourite with traditionalists has been putting a smile on mums’ faces for longer than most. Available in white, cream, yellow, and shades of pink, the Polaris is a mainstay of almost every bouquet because of its versatility and long-lasting qualities – up to 10-12 days.

Green – Spider

Appropriately named for their long, curling petals that look like spiders sitting on top of stems, spider mums are revered as one of the more unusual chrysanthemum plant types.

Yellow – Disbud

So named because this varietal has just one single large flower per stem, produced by moving all the side buds when the plant is still young. With an eye-catching bloom 7-9cm in diameter, a yellow disbud makes the perfect focal flower for any Mother’s Day ‘mum’ arrangement.

Pink – Pompom

A small globular bloom, somewhat flat when young, but fully round and bursting with character when mature. Size ranges from small button types to large disbudded blooms almost 10cm in diameter. The florets incurve or reflex in a regular manner and fully conceal the centre.

7 Tips To Look After Your ‘Mums

Chrysanthemums are a forgiving flower and have a good vase life. Even still, it’s handy to know these little tricks to keep them vibrant for longer.

  1. Ensure your vase or vessel is very clean.
  2. Chrysanthemums have a woody stem, so you need to help them absorb water. Before placing them in a clean vase, trim 2 to 5 cm off the stem base at a sharp angle. Every few days, trim 1 cm off the stem to aid water absorption.
  3. Place flowers in clean tepid water, enough for them not to go dry quickly- about half the vase full.
  4. Strip leaves that would be below the water line.
  5. Remove leaves from the stem when they start to droop.
  6. Change the water regularly.
  7. For a maximum vase life and display, don’t mix chrysanthemums with other flowers. They release a chemical called ethylene, which may cause other flowers to wilt quickly.

What the colours mean

Chrysanthemums generally symbolise longevity, fidelity, joy and optimism. Various colours symbolise other important meanings as well.

  • Red chrysanthemums symbolise love and devotion.
  • Yellow chrysanthemums symbolise happiness and joy.
  • White chrysanthemums symbolise loyalty and honesty.
  • Violet chrysanthemums symbolise a wish to good health.

As a special thanks to our fabulous mums for all the amazing things they do all year round, there is no question that the best Mother’s Day gift is the simple act of giving flowers.

“But did you know that the favourite flowers given on this special day are the vibrant and fragrant chrysanthemums, also commonly known as ‘mums’.”

So with the big day on Sunday 14th May, we set out to find out everything there is to know about our ‘mums’ of the floral variety from the difference between the most popular varieties to how to care for them.

Here we explain the difference between the five most popular types of ‘mums’ and give helpful tips to make them last longer.

RED – DAISY CHRYSANTHEMUM

Red Daisy chrysanthemum is covered in stunning red daisy flowers with yellow eyes at the ends of the stems. The flowers are excellent for cutting. Its fragrant ferny leaves remain dark green in colour too throughout the season.

WHITE – POLARIS

This tried-and-true favourite with traditionalists has been putting a smile on mums’ faces for longer than most. Available in white, cream, yellow, and shades of pink, the Polaris is mainstay of almost every bouquet because of its versatility and long-lasting qualities – up to 10-12 days.

GREEN – SPIDER

Appropriately named for their long, curling petals that look like spiders sitting on top of stems, spider mums are revered as one of the more unusual chrysanthemum plant types.

YELLOW – DISBUD

So named because this varietal has just one single large flower per stem, produced by moving all the side buds when the plant is still young. With an eye-catching bloom 7-9cm in diameter, a yellow disbud makes the perfect focal flower for any Mother’s Day ‘mum’ arrangement.

PINK – POMPOM

A small globular bloom, somewhat flat when young, but fully round and bursting with character when mature. Size ranges from small button types to large disbudded blooms almost 10cm in diametre. The florets incurve or reflex in a regular manner and fully conceal the centre.

7 TIPS TO LOOK AFTER YOUR ‘MUMS

Chrysanthemums are a forgiving flower and have a good vase life. Even still, it’s handy to know these little tricks to keep them vibrant for longer.

  1. Ensure your vase or vessel is very clean.
  2. Chrysanthemums have a woody stem, so you need to help them absorb water. Before placing them in a clean vase, trim 2 to 5 cm off the stem base at a sharp angle. Every few days, trim 1 cm off the stem to aid water absorption.
  3. Place flowers in clean tepid water, enough for them not to go dry quickly- about half the vase full.
  4. Strip leaves that would be below the water line.
  5. Remove leaves from the stem when they start to droop.
  6. Change the water regularly.
  7. For a maximum vase life and display, don’t mix chrysanthemums with other flowers. They release a chemical called ethylene, which may cause other flowers to wilt quickly.

WHAT THE COLOURS MEAN

Chrysanthemums generally symbolise longevity, fidelity, joy and optimism. Various colours symbolise other important meanings as well.

  • Red chrysanthemums symbolise love and devotion.
  • Yellow chrysanthemums symbolise happiness and joy.
  • White chrysanthemums symbolise loyalty and honesty.
  • Violet chrysanthemums symbolise a wish to good health.

For more fabulous flower stories, head to the Sydney Markets website for their regular flower blogs and inspiration.

Today’s chrysanthemums are highly evolved flowering plants. A member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, the Chrysanthemum is related to dahlias, sunflowers, marigolds, zinnias, and cosmos. The genus Chrysanthemum once included more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera, putting the economically important florist chrysanthemum in the genus Dendranthema. The placement of the florist chrysanthemum in this genus was very contentious. A ruling of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in 1999 changed the defining species of the genus Chrysanthemum to C. indicum, giving the florist mum back its prized generic name.

The bloom which appears as a single flower is actually hundreds of flowers called florets. Two kinds of florets are present in a single bloom, disk florets and ray florets. For example, in the daisy-type chrysanthemum (class 7 below) each type of floret is easy to see – the outer parts are ray florets and the center or eye is composed of disk florets. For ease of identification the National Chrysanthemum Society divides bloom forms into 13 classes.

For a larger picture, click on the image.

Class 1 Irregular Incurve These are the giant blooms of the chrysanthemum genus. The florets (petals) loosely incurve and make fully closed centers. The lower florets present an irregular appearance and may give a skirted effect. Bola de Oro (1992) Flower Size: 6-8 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant moderately short.

Class 2 Reflex The florets in this class curve downward and overlap, similar to bird plumage. The tops of these blooms are full, but somewhat flattened. Doreen Statham (1995) Flower Size: 4-6 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant medium height.

Class 3 Regular Incurve A true globular bloom equal in breadth and depth. The florets smoothly incurve and form a ball. Heather James (1972) Flower Size: 4-6 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant moderately short.

Class 4 Decorative A flattened bloom with short petals. As in classes 1-3 the center disk should not be visible. The upper florets tend to incurve, but the lower petals generally reflex. Chime (1994) Flower Size: 5 inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a pot mum or disbud, plant height short.

Class 5 Intermediate Incurve This bloom class is smaller than the irregular incurve, with shorter florets, only partially incurving with full centers, but giving a more open appearance. Many of the popular commercial incurving types are in this intermediate class. Bob Dear (1986) Flower Size: 6 inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant medium height.

Class 6 Pompon A small globular bloom, somewhat flat when young but fully round when mature. Size ranges from small button types to large disbudded blooms almost 4 inches in diameter. The florets incurve or reflex in a regular manner and fully conceal the center. Lakeside (1972) Flower Size: 1-4 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a spray, plant height tall.

Class 7 Single and Semi-Double A daisy-like flower with a center disk and one or more rows of ray florets. Crimson Glory (1978) Flower Size: Greater than 4 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud or spray, plant medium height.

Class 8 Anemone These blooms are similar to the semi-doubles, but have a raised cushion-like center. Dorothy Mechen (1987) Flower Size: Greater than 4 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant medium height.

Class 9 Spoon Essentially the same as the semi-double, except the ray florets are like spoons at the tips. The center disk is round and visible. Kimie (1956) Flower Size: 4 inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud or spray, plant height tall.

Class 10 Quill The florets in this Class are straight and tubular with open tips. The bloom is fully double with no open center. Seatons Toffee (1996) Flower Size: 6 inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant height medium.

Class 11 Spider Spiders have long tubular ray florets which may coil or hook at the ends. The florets may be very fine to coarse. Chesapeake (1997) Flower Size: Six inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant medium height.

Class 12 Brush or Thistle Fine tubular florets which grow parallel to the stem and resemble an artist’s paint brushes or in the thistle form the florets are flattened, twisted and dropping. Cindy (1987) Flower Size: less than 2 inches. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a spray, plant medium height.

Class 13 Unclassified or Exotic Those blooms which fit in none of the other classes. They are often exotic, with twisted florets. They may also exhibit characteristics of more than one bloom class. Lone Star (1986) Flower Size: 6 inches or greater. Flower Characteristics: Grown as a disbud, plant medium height.

Chrysanthemum flowers are the second most popular flowers in the world, next to rose. There are 40 wild species and thousands of varieties of chrysanthemums. The varieties can differ in size, colours and number of flowers per stem.

Chrysanthemum flowers are the second most popular flowers in the world, next to rose. There are 40 wild species and thousands of varieties of chrysanthemums. The varieties can differ in size, colours and number of flowers per stem.

A study conducted by NASA revealed that chrysanthemums also help reduce air pollution. Get to know the 13 different types of chrystanthemums and this flower’s health benefits.

Types

Single blooms

These chrysanthemums look very much like daisies, thanks to their white petals and yellow centers. The main difference is that the centers are a little larger than they are in daisies, and their petals are spaced equally all around them. When they grow, chrysanthemums have a bushy-like quality, and they usually grow 2-3 feet high, although some of the smaller varieties never reach a foot. Sometimes there is one petal per stem, while at other times there can be single-bloom plants that grow in clusters. Some of the varieties include Icy Isle, which looks just like the yellow-and-white daisy, and the Fire Island, which consists of a yellow center and red petals that have yellow stripes. There is also a semi-double type of mum, which is very similar to the single blooms and are attractive when used in sprays. Examples: Daisy, Tenderness, and Amber Morning.

Quilled blooms

Like the name suggests, these chrysanthemums have petals that are spiky and quill-like. The petals are very narrow and some of them cup up at the tip. In fact, some of the petals can look somewhat like a spoon because of this cupped edge. Some of its varieties include Lola, which is very large in size and boasts beautiful lavender petals, and the Kings Delight, which is also large and comes in a beautiful shade of pink. Quilled blooms are open-tipped, have no open center, and varieties such as the Toffee grow 6 or more inches in height. Quills are good for disbuds. Examples: Muted Sunshine and Matchsticks.

Spider blooms

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These chrysanthemums have petals that are long and thin and look a lot like spider legs. Even though they’re long and tubular, the petals often go off in all different directions, looking lacy and elegant. One of its varieties, Evening Glow, has petals that are rose to bronze in color, while the Symphony is lacy and bronze to yellow in color. Some varieties are white in color. Another variety, the Chesapeake, is at least 6 inches high and has petals that range from very fine to coarse. Spider blooms can also have petals that hook or coil at the tips. Example: Cremon and Anastasia.

Anemone

These flowers have a central disk with petals surrounding themselves around that disk, with the exception that these petals are tubular in shape and create a cushioned appearance. The variety called Angel is striking because it has a yellow center and small lavender-colored petals that create the cushion, as well as outer petals that are somewhat larger and are usually colored in dark purple with white tips. With a raised cushion-like center, the Anemone mums are perfect as a disbud and grow at least 4 inches high. Examples: Daybreak and Mansetta Sunset.

Pompons

Called Pompons – not Pompoms – these chrysanthemums’ heads are globe-shaped and have short petals that hide their disk. If they are small, they are called button mums. The Moonbeam variety has blooms that are large and solid-white in color, while the Yoko Ono has very small blooms, usually very green in color. The Moonbeam variety can grow up to 2 or 3 feet in height. The Pompons start out flat but turn quite round when they mature, and the blooms can be 4 inches wide. One example is the Lakeside, which grows 1-4 inches high. Pompons are perfect for use in sprays. Examples: Baby Tears and Small Wonder.

Decorative blooms

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These chrysanthemums vary in size and their petals cover their disks. Some have cushions that are flat and have no petals that curve inward. In other words, they are flat and have short blooms. One variety, called the Lexy, is somewhat smaller than regular chrysanthemums and have bronze petals and a very dark center. On the other hand, the Honeyglow is a medium-sized bloom with petals that are amber in color. Decorative mums are usually 5 inches high or taller, and they make excellent plants to place in pots. Examples: Indian Summer and Tobago.

Reflex and Incurve blooms

The petals of these types of chrysanthemum either curve inward or outward, hence the name. The ones that incurve irregularly have large heads and irregular-shaped petals, so they look slightly inconsistent and very informal. The variety called Goldfield is an example of this type of chrysanthemum, and they are golden yellow in color. Most irregular or incurve mums grow to 6-8 inches in height. A more formal type consists of regular incurves, and these flowers are more uniform-looking and more formal. The latter is also more ball-like and compact, making it especially attractive to many mum-lovers. These tend to grow no more than 6 inches high. The variety called Moira is mauve and lavender in color. The chrysanthemums known as intermediate curve mums have a small, fluffy-looking flower, while the St. Tropez – a French variety – has bright red petals and bronze-colored tips. Finally, reflex mums have petals that droop away from the center of the plant, such as the Joyce Fountain. This variety has gorgeous red petals with a touch of yellow in the center. These chrysanthemums can also have an intermediate incurve. In these flowers, there are shorter petals than the irregular incurve mums, and they usually grow at least 6 inches high. One example of the intermediate incurve mum is called the Bob Dear, which is bright yellow in color and quite stunning.

Reflex mums

These chrysanthemums have flat centers and over-lapping petals that curve downward. The globe-shaped blooms are approximately 4-5 inches wide and are likely to be light or dark orange in color, although other colors are possible. Reflex mums grow up to 6 inches high and have full and flat blooms. Their darker colors, such as deep orange and red, are nothing short of striking.

Brush or Thistle Chrysanthemums

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These mums have tubular petals that are fine and grow parallel to the stem. They usually grow no more than 2 inches in diameter, and the petals can be flat, drooping, or even twisted, looking just like a paint brush in some instances. They are good for use in sprays and are very small – no more than 2 inches high.

Unclassified

As the name suggests, these are mums that do not fit neatly in any other category. They are usually 6 inches or wider, or the petals are exotic and large and resemble other types of mums. They can also have twisted petals on them. The Lone Star is an example of an exotic plant, and it grows at least 6 inches high.

Spoon mums

These are almost identical to the semi-double mums, except the petals look like spoons at the tip of the petal. With a center disk that is visible and round, varieties such as the Kimie grow at least 4 inches in height and make an excellent addition to any spray or as a disbud. Examples: Happy Face and Starlet.

Cushion mums

These mums are quite bushy and grow low to the ground. They produce wide masses of blooms that are medium in size. Examples: Valor, Chiffon, and Ruby Mound.

Miscellaneous mums:

  • Red Bradford: Paprika red to deep burgundy.
  • Football mums: Found in nurseries during the Fall months.
  • Daisy mum: Usually multi-colored and look like daisies.
  • Dark Weldon: A beautiful mix of soft yellow and lilac.
  • Focus: Bright yellow highlighted in green in the center.
  • Orange Viking: A bronze-orange color.
  • Yellow Sizzle: Colored in yellow and dark orange.

What Not to Do When Planting Mums

When planting mums, be sure you don’t:

  1. Plant mums that were placed in a pot and given to you as a gift. Instead, look for plants that are grown in nurseries and ready to be planted the right way.
  2. Forget to feed your mums. Mums love to eat, so feed, feed, feed!
  3. Expect them to be sturdy and healthy if they are planted in containers. This is because when mums are in containers, their roots aren’t as protected as they should be, which means you should treat them as annuals and re-plant them the following year.
  4. Forget to pinch your mums. At six inches high and again at 12 inches, pinch off the branches’ tips in order to keep them more compact and skip that messy stage that happens right before their blooms open up to the world.
  5. Forget to take advantage of the mums you already have in your flower bed. If you plant mums in the spring like you do your other perennials, the wait will be well worth it once they start to bloom.

The Many Health Benefits of Chrysanthemums

Drinking a tea made with the flowers of the chrysanthemum plant offers relief for a variety of ailments, including:

  1. Tinnitus
  2. Colds
  3. Sore throats
  4. Headaches
  5. Eyes that are inflamed
  6. Vertigo
  7. Skin conditions such as boils
  8. Anxiety
  9. Tightening of the chest
  10. Allergies
  11. Hypertension (high blood pressure)

How to Make the Tea

Simply place a fair amount of the flowers in a closed vessel filled with hot water and let it steep for approximately 10 minutes. Producing the tea in a closed pot or pan allows you to preserve the essential oil that results. Of course, if you find chrysanthemum in capsule form, all you have to do is follow the directions on the bottle and take them according to these instructions.

Medicinal Properties in Chrysanthemums

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These include being anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, demulcent, febrifuge, hepatic, aromatic, refrigerant, and hypotensive.

Ingredients in Chrysanthemums

Some of the helpful ingredients found in mums include calcium, beta-carotene, magnesium, potassium, ascorbic acid, essential oils, fiber, iron, Vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, and folacin.

Chrysanthemum Tea Can:

  1. Help you feel better without the nasty side effects that other medicines may have, particularly prescription medications. For instance, tea made with chrysanthemums have no caffeine, so you won’t suffer with nervousness, anxiety, or tension.
  2. Lower your body temperature, which is just what you need when running a fever or have problems with your sinuses or even heat stroke. Even if you have a toothache or pain in your gums, chrysanthemum tea can help you relieve your pain.
  3. Help alleviate pimples, acne, and other skin problems.
  4. Detoxify your liver, making you healthier overall, as well as lower your cholesterol numbers.
  5. Rejuvenate the brain and alert the senses. This is because chrysanthemum tea stimulates all of your senses while, at the same time, calming your nerves.
  6. Help alleviate dryness and itchiness in the eyes.
  7. Help ease digestive issues, eliminating a lot of your digestive problems and keeping you in less pain with fewer stomach problems.
  8. Help alleviate varicose veins.
  9. Help unclog arteries and improve your overall heart health.
  10. Boost your immune system because of its high levels of Vitamin C and Vitamin A.
  11. Help improve bone density and even prevent osteoporosis. This is due to its many naturally occurring minerals, including calcium and magnesium.
  12. Improve your vision. In addition to uncomfortable or inflamed eyes, chrysanthemum tea can also improve your eyesight, and can even protect against diseases such as cataracts, macular degeneration, neuropathy, and even blurry vision.
  13. Prevent certain chronic illnesses, in part because it helps fight free radicals, prevents cellular mutations, and protects you against numerous illnesses caused by these free radicals.
  14. Increase your metabolism, which can help you lose weight, improve circulation, regulate hormone levels, and even improve neurotransmitter activity.

A Few Words of Caution

Like other herbs and natural remedies, no one should consume chrysanthemum tea without first speaking to a qualified physician, especially if you already take prescriptions or have any medical conditions. Although there are no known side effects even for people taking other treatments, it is safer all around to check everything out with a medical professional before drinking chrysanthemum tea or taking the capsules. This will ensure that nothing goes wrong while you’re drinking the tea, giving you the peace of mind you deserve.

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Chrysanthemum Varieties – What Are Some Different Types Of Mums

Gardeners delight in hundreds of different types of chrysanthemums, often classified by criteria such as bloom time, shape, color, size and arrangement of petals. To simplify the process for home gardeners, plants are often divided into eight distinct chrysanthemum plant types.

Types of Chrysanthemums

Single – Single chrysanthemums, one of the most common varieties of mums, are distinguished by a flat center and up to five radiating rows of long, daisy-like petals. The leaves, which are lobed or toothed, have a distinct aroma when crushed. Examples include Amber Morning, Daisy and Tenderness.

Pompom – Of all the different types of mums, pompom mums are among the smallest, and the cutest. Pompom mums produce several colorful little globe-like blooms per stem. The tiniest pompom mums are called button mums. Examples include Moonbeam and Pixie. Button mums include Small Wonder and Baby Tears.

Cushion – Chrysanthemum varieties include hardy cushion mums, which are bushy, low-growing plants that produce masses of mid-sized blooms. Examples include Chiffon, Valour and Ruby Mound.

Anemone – Anemone mums display a raised center surrounded by shorter, darker petals that contrast with the radiating daisy-like petals. They aren’t always offered at garden centers, but are often available at specialty nurseries. Examples include Mansetta Sunset and Daybreak.

Spider – Appropriately named for their long, curling petals that look like spiders sitting on top of stems, spider mums are one of the more unusual chrysanthemum plant types. Examples include Anastasia and Cremon.

Spoon – As the name suggests, spoon mums are easy to spot by the long, spoon-like petals that radiate from the center. Examples include Starlet and Happy Face.

Quill – Quill mums display long, straight, tube-shaped petals. This type requires a bit of extra care and may not survive cold temperatures. It is often grown as an annual. Examples include Matchsticks and Muted Sunshine.

Decorative – This type consists of short plants and big, showy blooms with several rows of full, curved petals. Examples include Tobago and Indian Summer.

Types of chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemum cultivation

Properties of chrysanthemums

Medicinal plant list

Healthy natural food

Main species and varieties of chrysanthemums

The most important species of varieties of mums are:

– Garden mum (Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum Chrysanthemum morifolium = = Dendranthema grandiflorum): Native from China, it is derived from the species Chrysanthemum indicum. It can reach up to 1.5 m in height. Garden mums are characterized by their woody stems arising from a horizontal rhizome. Their leaves are lobed, with margins rounded and fitted with a gray felt on the underside

All cultivated types form a very diverse group of hybrids that ranges from simple forms, such as a a big marguerite to globular forms. double or more complex flowering structures that resemble balls or pompoms. Many of them are distinguished by the shapes of their florets (outer petals) that can be curved, recurved, tubular, radial, spoon-shaped, etc.

The simple form is the most common. It’s usually sold in flower shops and used for making branches in the feast of All Saints.

This variety of chrysanthemum is more suitable for use as an indoor plant because it is the most resistant and produces more flowers. It stands out for its aroma.

In Japan and China the flowers are lightly boiled and used as food, seasoned with soy. They are also fried, served with vinegar in salads, or in soups.

Chrysanthemum maximum

– Shasta Daisy, giant marguerite (Chrysanthemum maximum) It is a herbaceous plant from southern Europe up to 70 cm. Erect stems with toothed leaves above. Large flowers, till 10 cm wide with a yellow center and white florets. Flowers appear in spring or summer.

–Tricolor chrysanthemum = Tricolor daisy (Chrysanthemum carinatum= Chrysanthemum tricolor). It is from Morocco. It has simple flowers like daisies with two or three colors.

Plant size is more stocky (about 60 cm high and 30 wide. Very divided and fleshy leaves. It blooms from midsummer through fall. It is widely used to make plant beds and as cut flower.

Young shoots can be eaten cooked or raw as a vegetable before the plant bloom.

– Indian chrysanthemum= winter aster (Chrysanthemum indicum = Dendranthema indicum) comes from Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan) where you can find it abundantly in most environments from almost sea level up to 3000 meters.

. It is characterized by small yellow flowers resembling those of marguerites, although there are cultivated species with double flowers. It is very suitable for growing indoors. It has been widely used as a medicinal plant.

The young leaves are eaten as vegetables and flowers are eaten with vinegar.

Chrysanthemum frutescens

– Marguerite Daisy= bushy daisy (Chrysanthemum frutescens): From the Canary Islands, it is a shrub that can grow to 1.5 meters in height. Flowers till 5 cm wide, yellow in the center and white florets that appear during the spring and fall. It is useful as a garden plant and as a plant to grow potted in balconies.

– Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) It is an annual herb from the Mediterranean that can reach 90 cm. Light green leaves deeply divided with lobes reaching the midrib. Solitary flowers resembling those of daisies, completely yellow or part of them white.

The stems and the tender young shoots can be used as a vegetable. In Asian cuisine, it is known as Chop suey shungiku or sprouts. The outer flowers or florets are also edible and can be added to salads, but not the plants that have a bitter taste. Eaten raw in salads have a very strong flavor.

It is believed that it can be used to protect other plants from the attacks of caterpillars or worms because it excretes secrete repellent productos through its roots.

– Corn marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum) It is an annual herb from the eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. Till 60 cm height. Flowers 4 to 6 cm in diameter similar to those of yellow daisies (sometimes partly white florets) Greyish green leaves, toothed. It grows in fields as a weed. It can be grown in pots or as cut flower. Because of the coumarins content, it is is believed that it could be harmful to humans, however it is consumed as a vegetable in China and Japan.

More information on chrysanthemums in the listing above

Written by Editorial Botanical-online team in charge of content writing

All about fall mums: Types of flowers, surviving the winter

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Picking several varieties of pumpkins at Paulus Orchards in Monaghan Township. York Daily Record

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Nothing brings color to the fall garden like mums (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

At this time of year, it’s easy to pick up a couple mums during your trip to the grocery store. And while this is great way to add some easy and instant color to your porch when you get home, I encourage you to visit your local garden center for the best array of colors and flower shapes. Or peruse plant catalogs online for even more amazing finds.

According to the National Chrysanthemum Society, mums were first cultivated as an herb in China as far back as the 15th century B.C.! It wasn’t until about 2,300 years later that they first appeared in Japan, where they were so loved that the mum was adopted as the seal for the emperor. From those lofty beginnings, mums have been bred over and over to give us the options we have today.

Will mums survive the winter?

One important question to consider for gardeners who want more than a four-week annual display is whether mums are hardy enough to survive our winters. Well, that depends. You will usually see “Garden Mum” on tags and in seasonal advertising. This typically means that they are not hardy enough to survive the winter temperatures of Pennsylvania. The portion of the plant that survives sub-freezing temperatures is the rhizome – kind of like an underground stem with shoots.

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Due to high demand, most of our fall mums are produced too quickly to form this rhizome and thus have no way to overwinter. Therefore, if you plan to plant your mums directly into your garden as a perennial, look for tags that read “Hardy.” A word of caution, however: sometimes this is no guarantee.

All the more reason, if you want your investment to yield future flowers, to find varieties through catalog or online vendors or in a garden center where you can consult with knowledgeable staff.

Types of mums

Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Visitors to Longwood Gardens enjoy the season Chrysanthemum Festival that is now on display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival is now on full display. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal A display showing the different varieties of chrysanthemums at Longwood Gardens Chrysanthemum Festival. Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal

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Now for the fun part: the flowers. Are they pompoms? Daisy mums? Buttons? Or better yet, the spoon or quilled style! Being a gardener that likes to scatter the unique and unexpected among familiar plants, I fell in love with the latter the minute I saw them. The flower petals look like tiny, colorful spoons, just as the name suggests!

Although as mentioned above, you cannot assume these will be hardy unless you buy from specific sources, the higher price tag for the real deal is quite worth it. One variety, Matchsticks, has a bright yellow flower center with pale yellow petals ending with rust-colored “spoons.” They look like delectable little cannolis! Red Carousel sports a mini-mum petal cluster in the center, while the matching pale pink main petals that encircle the center end in dusky-mauve “spoons.” Adding to the color punch – the unopened buds are a darker color, lending dimension to the display.

But what if you can’t find these little gems close by? Well, put them on your list to search for next year and enjoy the still-striking options at your local garden center now. Mums come in yellow, white, purple, red and all hues in-between. As mentioned above, the options for flower shapes are like the icing on the cake. The demure daisies can be combined with the straight-laced button mums as well as the more traditional mop-headed varieties.

You can create an eye-catching display quickly by simply putting them in baskets and interspersing gourds and pumpkins, as well as other fall flora such as purple cabbage plants or ornamental peppers. And as far as I’m concerned, this is one time of year when wanton use of color goes – combine anything you want, as fall is the season when trees and many shrubs express their own season-ending “hurrah” with a breathtaking palette!

Mary Prescott is a Master Gardener in York County. Master Gardeners are volunteers for Penn State Cooperative Extension. For more information contact the Master Gardener office at 717-840-7408 or [email protected]

Chrysanthemums: The Ultimate Guide to Growing Beautiful Mums

It seems as soon as the air cools, signaling the coming of fall, garden centers begin showcasing full mounds of brilliant red, yellow, and violet flowers. Chrysanthemums, or mums, are a staple in fall gardens. Mums are a national symbol of fall abundance, and this herbaceous and hardy perennial is an easy addition to give a gorgeous pop of color in your fall garden landscape. With a little understanding and a few simple tips, you can have a lush, beautiful fall chrysanthemum garden display to help celebrate the changing of seasons.

  • What are Chrysanthemum?
  • Types of Chrysanthemum
  • Steps to Planting Chrysanthemums
  • Caring for Chrysanthemums
  • Chrysanthemum FAQs

What Are Chrysanthemum?

Chrysanthemum are a member of the Compositae family and are available in a wide range of brilliant colors, shapes and sizes. First cultivated in China over 6 centuries ago, this type of daisy was initially grown as an herb associated with the power of life. The chrysanthemum flowers range from dazzling whites to deep bronzes, and the hardy plants are highlighted with full, dark green leaves.

Chrysanthemum flowers look like they have a multitude of petals, but each individual petal is actually a small floret. There are two different types of florets: ray and disc florets. Ray florets are what we traditionally see as the petals, while the disc florets create the center buttons. When the florets are all clustered together, they give us what we know and love as a mum bloom.

Types of Chrysanthemum

With over 100 different chrysanthemum cultivars in the United States, the National Chrysanthemum Society has a classification system in place to categorize 13 different mums by flower shape.

  • Anemone
    These daisy-like blooms feature long, tubular florets clustered around a tight button center. They form a 4-inch bloom in single or multiple colors.
    Popular varieties include: Dorothy Mechum, Purple Light and Angel
  • Decorative
    Florists use decorative class mums in floral arrangements. The 5-inch plus blooms have a flat appearance as the florets gradually get longer from the center out.
    Popular varieties include: Fireflash, Coral Charm and Honeyglow
  • Irregular Incurve
    Incurve blooms feature florets curving inwards. Irregular incurve mums feature large blooms between 6 to 8 inches. The florets curve in and cover the center of the flower. A few florets at the bottom of the bloom add fringe to the stem.
    Popular varieties include: Luxor, Blushing Bride and River City
  • Intermediate Incurve
    The florets of an intermediate incurve mum don’t cover the center of the bloom. With shorter florets curving inwards, the less-compact bloom of an intermediate incurve only reaches a maximum 6 inches.
    Popular varieties include: Apricot Alexis, Candid and Pat Lawson
  • Regular Incurve
    Regular incurve chrysanthemum blossoms are tight, smooth globes of inwardly curving florets. Each bloom is between 4 to 6 inches in diameter.
    Popular varieties include: Gillette, Moira and Heather James
  • Pompom
    Resembling the regular incurve, Pompom mums are only 1 to 4 inches. The tight blooms are common in floral arrangements.
    Popular varieties include: Rocky, Yoko Ono and Lavender Pixie
  • Quilled
    Show-stopping quilled chrysanthemums feature long, tubular florets that open to a spoon shape or slight downward curve at the end. Their spiky appearance often mimics other types of mums.
    Popular varieties include: Seatons Toffee, Mammoth Yellow Quill and Muted Sunshine
  • Single and Semi-Double
    These daisy look-a-likes feature one or two rounds of ray florets around a compact center. Their total plant size is between 1 to 3 feet, making them ideal for small spaces and borders.
    Popular varieties include: Rage, Icy Island and Crimson Glory
  • Spider
    Spider mums are well known for their long, spiky florets of single or multiple colors. The tubular florets resemble spider legs and can go in all directions. The delicate and exotic appearance creates a focal bloom in your garden.
    Popular varieties include: Evening Glow, Symphony and Western Voodoo
  • Spoon
    Spoon mums have a button center surrounded by ray florets featuring a spoon shape at each tip. They are often mistaken for single chrysanthemums, but the difference lays in the slight curve.
    Popular varieties include: Kimie, Fantasy and Redwing
  • Reflex
    The bloom of a reflex mum is slightly flat with florets that curve downward. The crossing of the florets produces an interesting feather-like appearance.
    Popular varieties include: White City, Champion and Apricot
  • Thistle
    The thistle bloom, also called the bush bloom, often features multi-colored blooms. The long, thin florets twist to rise up or fall backwards towards the stem. Thistle blooms have a unique, exotic look to them.
    Popular varieties include: Cindy, Cisco and Orange Spray
  • Unclassified
    With so many chrysanthemum varieties, many chrysanthemum blooms feature characteristics that place them in more than one category. Unclassified mums exhibit a wide range of colors and sizes.
    Popular varieties include: Lone Star, Lili Gallon and Pacificum

Steps to Planting Chrysanthemums

You may be asking yourself how to grow chrysanthemums to fill your garden landscape as quickly as possible. Taking the time to first understand how to plant chrysanthemums rewards you with full, beautiful plants loaded with blooms.

  1. When to Plant Chrysanthemums?
    Planting chrysanthemum in the spring gives the perennial plant time to establish and adapt to its new garden home. You’ll easily find mums in garden centers and nurseries in both fall and spring, but planning ahead is key to successful planting. It’s tempting to buy those huge beautiful fall mums you see during the autumn season, but in terms of longevity, the smaller spring mums are actually a better investment.The root system becomes stronger throughout the summer and fall, which increases a plant’s ability to survive the winter. Planting in the spring will also result in a bigger bloom the following season. Although some fall mums can survive winter if planted immediately, the odds are much better with spring-planted mums.
  2. How Hardy Are Chrysanthemums?
    The chrysanthemums you purchase in garden centers are frequently referred to as “hardy mums” for a reason. The majority of mum varieties are winter hardy in Zones 5 through 9. Some varieties, such as Mammoth Daisy, are hardy down to Zone 3.When shopping for mums, check the label to make sure you’re purchasing hardy garden varieties appropriate for your planting zone. Local nurseries and garden centers will most often feature the varieties that are specific to local areas. Avoid purchasing from floral shops – their mums are different, less hardy floral varieties.
  3. What is the Best Soil for Mums?
    Chrysanthemums can survive in most soils, but they thrive in well-draining soil with consistent moisture. Growing mums in hard, dry soil prevents the roots from becoming well established, while wet, boggy soil drowns the roots. Finding the middle ground is key.If you’ve planted other perennials, then you already know how to plant chrysanthemum. To create a good soil for your mums, work your soil to a depth of 8 to 12 inches. Mix in 2 to 4 inches of organic material, such as compost or peat moss. The perfect soil texture can be tested by taking a handful and squeezing. When you open your hand, the soil shouldn’t clump or quickly fall apart. It should simply crumble.
  4. How Much Sunlight Do Mums Require?
    Chrysanthemums are sun-loving plants. Although they technically require only 6 hours of sunlight each day, the more light they receive, the better their growth, bloom and hardiness. Slight shade in hot, summer afternoons is appropriate in warmer gardening zones to prevent scorching.Mums bloom due to their photoperiodic nature. When the plant senses a change in the length of darkness in late summer, it begins to set buds. Planting near artificial lights, such as security lights or porch lights, can alter the bloom time of your mums.
  5. Does Spacing Really Matter?
    It can be tempting to plant mums closely together. Smaller, spring mums don’t seem to fill out a garden space as well. However, keep in mind that by fall, most properly planted mums will reach up to 3 feet in height and width. Like many perennials, mums will often become larger each year. Even if your flower bed looks a bit bare when you first plant your mums, in time it will fill in.Spacing mums properly is essential for plant health. Plants that are too crowded compete for nutrients, have root system issues, attract pests and suffer from disease. Following the plant spacing directions for your chrysanthemum variety increases the health of your garden and protects your investment of time and money.

Caring for Chrysanthemums

Mums are generally considered low maintenance plants. Knowing how to care for chrysanthemums properly simply requires basic gardening techniques. With just a little special chrysanthemum care, your garden will be filled with a multitude of beautiful blooms.

  • How Often Should Mums Be Watered?
    Mums require even moisture for the best growth. Consistent watering throughout the spring, summer and fall is essential. Once the ground is frozen in the winter, watering can be suspended until spring warms the soil.Early morning watering, to a depth of 6 to 8 inches, is recommended. The ideal watering method for mums is one that applies moisture directly to the base of the plants. This prevents moisture from becoming trapped in the thick foliage. Soaker hoses can provide even, consistent moisture directly to the ground, and a water timer saves you the hassle of having to remember to manually water.
  • Should Chrysanthemums Be Pruned?
    Don’t worry about how to prune chrysanthemums. Mums aren’t exactly “pruned,” but are instead pinched throughout the growing season. This helps the plant branch out, become fuller and offer more blooms. When your plant reaches 6 inches tall in the spring, simply pinch off 1 inch of each shoot. Repeat this every 2 to 3 weeks until early summer.Deadhead spent blooms throughout the fall for an extended bloom time. Once the plant has died in the winter, resist cutting it back. Research reveals that allowing it to die back naturally over the winter produces a stronger plant. Simply clean up the dead stems and foliage in the spring.
  • Is Fertilizer Necessary for Mums?
    All plants require nutrients. Fertilizing your mums gives them an added boost of essential nutrients for the best growth. The primary growth of chrysanthemum plant varieties takes place in spring and early summer. Growing chrysanthemums are heavy feeders. Consistent applications of quality fertilizers will help your mums grow larger and produce more blooms.Choose a balanced, water-soluble fertilizer for monthly application from early spring through July. If you plant fall mums, wait to begin their fertilization until the spring. Fall fertilization can actually reduce the hardiness of chrysanthemums to survive cold winters.
  • How Can You Increase Winter Hardiness?
    The key to winter survival is a consistent soil temperature. Frequent freezing and thawing cycles damage the roots and confuse the plant. Adding a thick layer of mulch – up to 4 inches – can help maintain an even soil temperature throughout winter.Spread mulch under your mums as soon as the surface of your soil begins to harden and the thermostat begins to dip into the 20s. Using a loose mulch, like straw, can reduce compaction and increase the insulation of the ground.
  • Can Chrysanthemums Be Divided?
    Like many other perennials, chrysanthemum benefit from dividing every three to four years. You may notice your mums begin to look thin in the centers and oddly shaped. Over time, the center roots of the plant may become old and woody, while the outside roots are younger and healthier. If you notice your mums no longer grow full and round, they may simply need to be divided.Spring is the best time to divide your mums. Gently remove the plant from the ground and break it up into smaller sections. You can discard the woody center of the plant, since it won’t perform as well as the younger, outer sections. Replant in garden soil rich with organic matter.

Chrysanthemum FAQs

Can You Grow Chrysanthemum from Seeds?

Although most mums are purchased from garden centers as already-established plants or propagated from cuttings and division, you can grow chrysanthemums from seed. It can be a bit of an adventure, because many chrysanthemum seeds do not stay true to the parent plant. This means you can end up with a wide variety of flower colors and sizes.

Mums have a long growing season. Growing chrysanthemums from seeds requires planning in areas with short growing seasons. Start the seeds indoors six to eight weeks prior to the last frost date. Transfer to the garden when the chrysanthemum seedlings are 6 to 8 inches tall. Expect to see blooms the first year after planting.

Can You Grow Chrysanthemum in Pots?

Growing chrysanthemums in pots is a perfect garden solution for apartments and small gardens. Most garden mums grow to 2 to 3 feet in size and require at least a 12-inch container for the best support. Rich potting soil with good drainage is essential.

To encourage root growth, water container mums from the bottom of the container. Add a water-soluble fertilizer on a weekly basis. Because mums require the proper sunlight to set blooms, placing your plant in a south-facing window and away from artificial light produces the best results. Storing in a protected garage during the winter months can help your plant rest for new spring growth.

How Long Does It Take for Mums to Grow?

The chrysanthemum growing rate depends on many variables. Different varieties feature different growth rates and mature size. Plants grown from seed may take several years to reach their full growth potential. Mums grown from already-established garden center plants and division have a head-start on the growing season. Taking proper care of mums through watering, fertilizing and pinching increases the fullness and growth capabilities of the plant.

How Long Do Mums Last After They Bloom?

Although we generally think of fall as being chrysanthemum season, there are actually three different types of blooming mums: early bloomers, early fall bloomers and late fall bloomers. Early bloomers often begin flowering in late July, early fall bloomers show off blooms in September and late fall bloomers start their stunning display of colors in October. Each variety differs, but most mums will continue to bloom for four to eight weeks.

There are many ways to extend the flowering of chrysanthemums. Deadheading spent blooms, fertilizing in the spring and avoiding overcrowding will help your mums produce more blooms over a longer period of time.

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum, (genus Chrysanthemum), genus of about 40 species of flowering plants in the aster family (Asteraceae), native primarily to subtropical and temperate areas of the Old World. Chrysanthemums are especially common in East Asia, where they are often depicted in art. Cultivated species, often called mums, are grown as fall-blooming ornamentals and are important in the floral industry. Florists’ chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ×morifolium) has more than 100 cultivars, including button, pompon, daisy, and spider forms.

ChrysanthemumA to Z Botanical Collection/Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Most plants of the genus are perennial herbs or subshrubs. Many have simple aromatic leaves that alternate along the stem. Some have both disk and ray flowers in the heads, but others lack ray or disk flowers. Cultivated species and hybrids usually have large flower heads; those of wild species are much smaller.

chrysanthemumHybrid “daisy mums” (Chrysanthemum ×morifolium). The red ray flowers surround the centre of yellow disk flowers.AdstockRF

The taxonomy of the genus is contentious and has undergone a number of revisions. Species formerly included in the genus Chrysanthemum include corn marigold (Glebionis segetum); costmary (Tanacetum balsamita); feverfew (T. parthenium); tansy (T. vulgare); Marguerite, or Paris daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens); and Shasta daisy (hybrid forms of Leucanthemum maximum).

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