Tree bark damage repair

Repairing Tree Bark Damage

Trees are often thought of as towering giant that are difficult to kill. Many people are often surprised to find out that removing tree bark can actually harm a tree. Tree bark damage is not only unsightly, but can be deadly to a tree.

Tree Bark Function

For all intents and purposes, tree bark is the skin of the tree. The main tree bark function is to protect the phloem layer. The phloem layer is like our own circulatory system. It brings the energy produced by the leaves to the rest of the tree.

How Removing Tree Bark Affects a Tree

Because the tree bark function is to protect the layer that brings food, when tree bark is scratched or damaged, this tender phloem layer below is also damaged.

If the tree bark damage goes less than 25 percent of the way around the tree, the tree will be fine and will survive without a problem, provided that the wound is treated and is not left open to disease.

If the tree bark damage goes from 25 percent to 50 percent, the tree will suffer some damage but most likely will survive. Damage will appear in the form of lost leaves and dead branches. Wounds of this size need to be treated as soon as possible and should be watched carefully.

If the tree bark damage is greater than 50 percent, the life of the tree is at risk. You should call a tree care professional to help you repair the damage.

If the tree is damaged around 100 percent of the tree, this is called girdling. It is very difficult to save a tree with this much damage and the tree will most likely die. A tree care professional may try a method called repair grafting to bridge the gap in the bark and allow the tree to live long enough to repair itself.

Repairing Tree Bark Scratched or Damaged

No matter how much of the tree bark has been damaged, you will need to repair the wound.

If the tree is simply scratched, wash the wound out with plain soap and water to help reduce the amount of pathogens that may be in the scratch and that could cause further damage. Wash the wound thoroughly with plain water after this. Allow the scratch to heal in the open air. Do not use a sealant.

Method 1 – Reattaching lost tree bark

If the removed tree bark is still available after the tree bark damage, gather up as much as possible and reattach it to the tree. Use tape such as duct tape to secure the bark to the tree. Make sure that the bark is going in the right direction (the same direction it was on before it came off) on the tree, as the phloem layer can only transport nutrients in one direction. Perform this act as quickly as possible so that the bark does not die.

Method 2 – Clean cutting the wound

If the bark cannot be retrieved, say because an animal ate the bark, you will need to make sure that the damage to the tree will heal cleanly. Jagged wounds will interfere with the tree’s ability to transport nutrients so you will need to clean cut the wound. You do this by removing tree bark by cutting an oval around the circumference of the damage. The top and bottom of the wound there will be for the points of the oval. Do this as shallowly and as close to the wound as possible. Let the wound air heal. Do not use sealant.

Tree bark

As their name suggests, bark beetles (family Scolytidae) are among the insects that use bark. The larvae burrow beneath the bark of various tree species, with the larvae of each beetle species making distinctive galleries, or passages in the wood. These beetles can break through the bark’s defences, carrying in fungal spores that the bark would usually repel.

Even after a tree has died, bark can be a haven for all sorts of wildlife. Bats, such as the brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), sometimes roost beneath loose bark, and a multitude of invertebrates also live out their lives in this hidden world.

In the Caledonian Forest, perhaps the most obvious demonstration of the life that bark can support is in the lichen and plant communities on the surfaces of trees. Plants that live upon other trees, without actually causing them any harm, are known as epiphytes – mosses are a good example. The texture of bark influences the species that live upon it. In an old pinewood it is not uncommon to see many other plants such as blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) growing in the thick crevices of pine bark. Similarly, the fissured bark of oak can support many species of fern such as common polypody (Polypodium vulgare).

The texture of bark, and therefore the lichen communities, can alter during the lifetime of a tree. Young hazel (Corylus avellana) has fairly smooth bark, and so attracts lichens that prefer this texture, particularly the Graphidion lichens. (These ‘script’ lichens are distinguishable by the tiny ‘squiggles’ on their surface). As the tree grows older, the bark gets rougher and becomes more suitable for other species, including the leafy, frogskin-like lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria).

The lichen community can also vary on different parts of the same tree. Aspen bark has rough areas, which support various species of strap-like Ramalina lichens, while the smoother areas are host to completely different species, such as the crust-like Pertusaria spp.

It is not only the texture that determines what can survive on tree bark. The chemistry of bark is also surprisingly influential. Aspen bark is not as acidic as that of some other trees such as pine and birch. This feature means that it can support species of plants and lichen that might not otherwise be present in a pinewood, such as the orange Xanthoria parietina. This illustrates how the diversity of certain species (in this case trees) in turn increases the number of other species present.

Food for wildlife

While bark does an excellent job of protecting the tree, there are some very determined creatures that are keen to get to the nutritious cambium, or the wood beneath it. Many mammals eat bark, and by looking at the height of the damage, we can find out what mammals are present in an area. While this is a natural process, it does cause problems for individual trees, allowing fungi and other organisms to enter. Voles often eat the bark at the base of young trees, killing young saplings. Deer also strip bark (as well as damaging it by ‘fraying’ their antlers on it to shed the velvet coating). The bark of aspen and willow is an important food source for the European beaver. This is obviously damaging to a tree, but from an ecological perspective it shows how bark can support a wide range of different species. Also, when a tree is killed or harmed by bark damage, valuable dead wood habitat can be created for fungi, insects and many other organisms. Beavers usually coppice trees before eating the bark. By felling a broadleaved tree, they actually encourage it to send up new growth, which eventually provides young bushy habitat for nesting birds, and allows light to reach the forest floor.

While bark’s main purpose is to protect the tree, it also serves as a good example of how every surface, nook and cranny in woodland can provide food, shelter, or both, for myriad living things, thereby increasing the overall biological diversity in the forest.

Written by Dan Puplett.

Sources and further reading

Brown, R.W., Lawrence, M.J. & Pope, J. (2004) Animals – Tracks, Trails and Signs. Hamlyn: London.

Mitchell, A. (1982) Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins: London.

Steven, H.M. & Carlisle, A. 1959. The Native Pinewoods of Scotland. Oliver & Boyd: Edinburgh.

Trunk wounds and decay


Urban and suburban trees are more likely to have wounds and decay than trees in native stands because people cause most wounds. These wounds are usually unintentional, such as automobiles, construction equipment, or lawn mowers bumping the tree trunk or surface roots, or improper pruning. Naturally occurring events, such as storms, fires, or damage by birds or other animals, may also cause wounds.

Trunk wounds that penetrate the bark will damage the cambium layer, a thin layer of vascular tissue, which is vital to movement of water and nutrients. If less than 25% of the bark around the trunk has been damaged, the tree will probably recover. When fresh wounds occur on the trunk, the injured bark should be removed carefully, leaving healthy bark that is sound and tight to the wood. A wound dressing (tree paint) is not necessary. You will be able to observe the wound closing from the edges each year as the tree grows. When an older wound is discovered, remove the dried and loose bark back to the area where the new wood can be seen along the edges of the wound. Trunk wounds that are not addressed could potentially be a hazard in the future.

Once a wound occurs, decay-causing fungi can enter the heartwood and the decay process begins. Trees have a unique defense. The wood around the wound begins to produce special compounds in the wood cells that set up a wall or barrier to isolate the infected area. This is called compartmentalization. In a vigorous tree, new growth continues to form and add to the sound wood Once compartmentalized, discoloration and decay will spread no further unless one of the barriers is broken. Cleaning decayed wood from cavities is not recommended since the compartment wall might be breached and further decay of the trunk could result. Storm-damaged branches should be properly pruned to expedite the healing process. Avoid pruning directly against the trunk since flush cuts can lead to extensive decay. Prune hazardous branches immediately.


Years ago, filling cavities was an accepted practice. The wound would be cleaned and scraped down to sound wood and filled with cement, mortar, or bricks. These practices frequently penetrated the tree’s natural defensive barrier, allowing decay to spread. Fortunately, this practice has decreased, along with flush cuts and tree wound paints.


In most cases, it’s best to do nothing. A tree will seal over a small cavity eventually, and the tree’s new wood is stronger than anything put into the hole. Large cavities may never close, but as long as the tree does not sustain further damage, a basal cavity may not be a problem. A certified arborist can determine if the tree is a safe or if it should be removed.


When is a tree a hazard?

  • When an inspection reveals a structural weakness, internal decay, or poor branching structure.
  • When there is a “target”(someone or something that could be hurt or damaged if the tree or limb falls).
  • If decay or structural problems are suspected, contact a professional arborist. Trees located in areas where people frequent should be inspected regularly.


  • Large dead or detached branches
  • Cavities or decayed wood
  • Signs of internal decay – mushrooms at the base of the tree or carpenter ants
  • Cracks or splits in the trunk where branches are attached
  • Many branches arising from one point on the trunk
  • Roots that have been cut or covered

Evidence that the tree was “topped” in the past


  • Remove the target
  • Prune the tree
  • Cable the weak branches
  • Remove the tree

Keep Deer from Rubbing Antlers on Trees and Fix Damaged Trees

At first, a pleasant deer nuzzling up against your tree in winter may seem sweet. But it doesn’t take long before you notice the ugly damage left behind by that heartwarming scene.

Deer rub up against tree bark to smooth out their growing antlers. But that process can wreck trees, especially the young, thin-barked species deer favor.

Take, for example, Jean’s tree in Massachusetts. She planted a maple in the spring, and when she checked up on the tree in winter, she noticed chunks of bark missing. Jean said, “Deer have rubbed antlers against my tree’s bark and removed quite a bit of it on one side. Will this young tree survive?”

When deer get too close for comfort, the result is not so pretty. Here’s what to do if your young tree is damaged by deer.

How to Stop Deer from Scraping Antlers on Trees

Deer love trees that are easy targets, so the best way to protect your plant is to make it hard to reach.

Why do deer rub their velvet off their antlers onto trees?

Every spring, deer trade in their old antlers for new ones. New antlers, coated with a furry, velvet-like cover, start to form in the spring.

By fall, the antlers are fully grown, but the velvet coat starts to itch. So, deer look to our trees to smooth out their new crown.

In winter, deer rub their antlers against trees to scrape off the velvet cover. In the end, they have clean, tough antlers and marked their territory on trees just in time for mating season.

How can I fix my trees that were damaged from deer rubbing?

When deer rub their antlers on trees, they strip away the tree’s cambium. That’s the layer between the inner bark and the outer wood that helps nutrients move throughout the tree.

Unfortunately, when the cambium layer is stripped off all sides of the tree, the damage is done. Now, there’s a good chance the tree won’t survive many more winters.

But if the damage is only partial, your tree may be able to seal over the damaged area. Over time (several years or more), new bark will grow in and slowly cover the wounded wood.

How well your tree will be able to repair itself depends on how many sides of the trunk the deer damaged and the depth of the wounds. Even if the tree does not die, the damage may be so extensive that it may never fully recover or even break off.

If the damage is minimal, you can aid your tree’s recovery by doing what we arborists call bark tracing. You essentially cut out the damaged bark, which leaves a smooth wound that trees can repair a bit easier. With a super sharp and disinfected knife, cut about an inch wider than where you see damage, and you should be good!

But if you’re unsure what to remove, have a local arborist do it. Because if you do this the wrong way, it can actually damage your tree further. Tricky stuff!

In the meantime, you can help make sure deer don’t get their antlers on your tree again.

How can I keep deer from rubbing antlers on trees? Do tree guards work?

The best way to protect your tree is to physically block off deer with a fence or tree guard.

Plastic or mesh tree guards are a quick fix. They wrap right around your tree’s trunk and prevent deer from rubbing up against the bark. Or you can wrap your tree loosely in chicken wire or burlap if you’d rather.

If you’re serious, opt for a protective fence. You should aim to make the barrier about six feet tall, so the deer can’t easily hop over.

How can I revive a tree that’s been stripped of bark?

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Tree Wounds

Wayne K. Clatterbuck Associate Professor Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries University of Tennessee

Tree wounds are common and the causes include: broken branches; impacts, abrasions and scrapes; animal damage; insect attack; fire; etc. Wounds usually break the bark and damage the food and water conducting tissues. Wounds also expose the inside of the tree to organisms, primarily bacteria and fungi that may infect and cause discoloration and decay of the wood. Decay can result in structurally weakened tree stems and can shorten the life of a tree. Decay cannot be cured. However, proper tree care can limit the progress of decay in an injured tree. This fact sheet discusses tree responses to wounding and what can be done after wounding to keep the tree healthy.

Tree Response to Wounding:

Trees respond to wounding or injury in two ways: compartmentalization and the development of barrier zones (Shigo 1986).


When a tree is wounded, the injured tissue is not repaired and does not heal. Trees do not heal; they seal. If you look at an old wound, you will notice that it does not “heal” from the inside out, but eventually the tree covers the opening by forming specialized “callus” tissue around the edges of the wound. After wounding, new wood growing around the wound forms a protective boundary preventing the infection or decay from spreading into the new tissue. Thus, the tree responds to the injury by “compartmentalizing” or isolating the older, injured tissue with the gradual growth of new, healthy tissue.

Barrier Zones

Not only do trees try to close the damaged tissue from the outside, they also make the existing wood surrounding the wound unsuitable for spread of decay organisms. Although these processes are not well understood, the tree tries to avoid further injury by setting chemical and physical boundaries around the infected cells, reacting to the pathogen and confining the damage.

If the tree is fast and effective with its boundary-setting mechanisms, the infection remains localized and does not spread. However, if the boundary-setting mechanisms are not effective, the infection will spread. Most vigorous or actively growing trees are fairly successful in coping with decay-spreading mechanisms.

Care for Tree Wounds:

Proper care of tree wounds encourages callus growth and wound closure.

Physical Repair

Tree wounds often appear ragged where the bark is torn during the injury. This is common during branch breakage and when the trunk of the tree has been scraped. To repair this type of damage, cut off any ragged bark edges with a sharp knife. Take care not to remove any healthy bark and expose more live tissue than necessary. If possible, the wound should be shaped like an elongated oval, with the long axis running vertically along the trunk or limb. All bark around the wound should be tight.

Wound Dressings

Research indicates that wound dressings (materials such as tar or paint) do not prevent decay and may even interfere with wound closure. Wound dressings can have the following detrimental effects:

  • Prevent drying and encourage fungal growth
  • Interfere with formation of wound wood or callus tissue
  • Inhibit compartmentalization
  • Possibly serve as a food source for pathogens

For these reasons, applying wound dressings is not recommended. Trees, like many organisms, have their own mechanisms to deter the spread of decay organisms, insects and disease.

Cavity Filling

Filling large holes or hollows in the tree is generally done for cosmetic reasons. There is little data to indicate that a filled tree has better mechanical stability. However, fillings may give the callus tissue a place to seat, thus stopping the in-roll (folding) of the callus (Shigo 1982). Almost any filling can be used as long as it does not abrade the inside of the tree.

Filling a tree cavity is generally expensive and not recommended. Filling does not stop decay and often during the cleaning of the cavity, the boundary that separates the sound wood or the callus growth from the decayed wood is ruptured. Thus, this cleaning for cavity filling can have more detrimental effects on the tree than if it were left alone. Care must be taken not to damage the new callus tissue that has formed in response to the tree damage and subsequent decay.

Pruning Wounds

Proper pruning should be used to remove dead, dying and broken branches; to remove low, crossing or hazardous branches; and to control the size of the tree. However, pruning of any kind places some stress on the tree by removing food-producing leaves (if the branch is alive), creating wounds that require energy to seal, and providing possible entry points for disease.

Pruning cuts should be made to maximize the tree’s ability to close its wound and defend itself from infection. When pruning, make clean, smooth cuts. Do not leave branch stubs. Leave a small collar of wood at the base of the branch. The branch collar is a slightly swollen area where the branch attaches to the trunk. Cutting the limb flush with the trunk will leave a larger area to callus over and a greater chance of decay organisms entering the wound. The optimal pruning time is in the winter (dormant season) when temperatures and infection rates are lower and when trees are not actively growing.

Conclusion. Healthy trees usually recover from wounding quickly. Try to keep wounded trees growing vigorously by watering them during droughts and providing proper fertilization. This will increase the rate of wound closure, enhance callus growth and improve the resistance to decay mechanisms.

Shigo, A.L. 1982. Tree health. Journal of Arboriculture 8(12):311-316.

Shigo, A.L. 1986. A New Tree Biology. Shigo Trees & Associates, Durham, NH. 595 p.

ABC’s of Gardening: Maple tree, missing bark, seems beyond repair

Q: I have a maple tree at my summer home that has a large area of bark missing and the underlying wood is soft. The tree is alive, but I am concerned about the “open wound.” This started about two years ago with the bark falling off. We put an insecticide on the area, but I don’t think it helped. We had an arborist look at it and he said to take it down. We really want to keep it if we can. Can it be saved? H.G., Kauneonga Lake

Q: I have a maple tree at my summer home that has a large area of bark missing and the underlying wood is soft. The tree is alive, but I am concerned about the “open wound.” This started about two years ago with the bark falling off. We put an insecticide on the area, but I don’t think it helped. We had an arborist look at it and he said to take it down. We really want to keep it if we can. Can it be saved? H.G., Kauneonga Lake
A: This is not a good situation. A tree’s bark is like our skin. If it comes off, it exposes the inner layer of live tissue to disease and insect infestation. It does not grow back. A tree will heal around the edges of the wound to prevent further injury or disease, but it will not grow back over a large area.
There are several reasons a tree may lose its bark: insects feeding, disease, lightning, etc. If it were a small area of damaged tree trunk, I would recommend you have an arborist look at it to determine if the tree is still sound, what may have caused the problem and how to treat it. However, what you are describing sounds beyond repair. I strongly recommend you take the tree down and plant another in its place. It sounds like a real danger to people and property.
Q: I planted pumpkin seeds and now I am getting cucumbers. There is no way that I planted cucumbers. I saved the seed myself. They are growing in containers with fresh soil, etc. How could this have happened? Could it have cross-pollinated with my neighbor’s cucumbers?
A: Even though cucumbers and pumpkins are in the cucurbit family, they cannot cross-pollinate. Squash can cross with other squash, and cukes with other cukes, but not with each other. Think of it this way: Cardinals and blue jays are both birds, but they cannot mate with each other. Somehow cucumber seeds got into the pots where you planted pumpkin seeds. Did you use compost. Do you have squirrels, chipmunks or mice around? Any old soil left in the pots that may have contained other seed? Someone playing a joke on you? It is a mystery, but the pumpkin seeds did not produce cucumbers.
Q: The leaves on my tomato plants are turning yellow. I sprayed it with Sevin, but it did not help. What is wrong? M.B., Glen Spey
A: First, do not spray plants with anything if you don’t know what the problem is. If you use an insecticide and the problem is a disease, it won’t help. You will just put unnecessary chemicals in the air, water and earth. That said, I am not able to identify the problem with your tomato plants without seeing a sample of the leaves. There are many reasons that leaves turn yellow. Are there spots? Is it yellowing from the edge of the leaf inward? Are the older leaves turning yellow and working its way up the plant? You can go to the Web site for some very good pictures that may help you identify the problem.
Q: I have a problem with mice and want to trap them before the winter sets in. Last year they made a nice nest at the bottom of a shrub and did a lot of damage to the bark. What kind of bait should I use? R.F., Thompsonville
A: Mice can carry ticks and other diseases up close to our homes. They also can chew the bark of trees and shrubs while under the snow cover during the winter, often girdling them, resulting in the tree or shrub dying. Contrary to popular belief, cheese is not good mouse bait. It’s not in their normal diet. Mice feed on grains and seeds. I have had very good luck using peanut butter along with some birdseed sprinkled on it to really entice them.
“The ABC’s of Gardening” is submitted by the master gardeners of the Cornell Cooperative Extensions of Orange, Sullivan and Ulster Counties, on a rotating basis, in response to questions from callers to the Master Gardener Volunteer Helpline. Marianna Quartararo is the community horticulture educator at the Cornell Cooperative Extension of Sullivan County.
Upcoming events
“Going Underground”: Root cellars. 10-11:30 a.m. Aug. 23.
Maple Confections II Workshop: 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Sept. 6. Lunch provided.
“Baking With Herbs”: 6-8 p.m. Sept. 11
All of the above are being held at the Cornell Cooperative Extension of Sullivan County office, 64 Ferndale Loomis Road, Liberty. For more information or to register, call 292-6180.

Tree First Aid After a Storm

In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service and the International Society of Arboriculture

In the aftermath of a major storm, the initial impulse of property owners is generally along the lines of “let’s get this mess cleaned up.” But hasty decisions can often result in removing trees that could have been saved.

Doing the right things after trees have been damaged can make the difference between giving your trees a good chance of survival and losing them unnecessarily. The Arbor Day Foundation urges home and property owners to follow a few simple rules in administering tree first aid after a storm:

  1. Don’t try to do it all yourself. If large limbs are broken or hanging, or if high climbing or overhead chainsaw work is needed, it’s a job for a professional arborist. They have the necessary equipment and knowledge needed, and are generally listed in the telephone directory under “Tree Service.”
  2. Take safety precautions. Look up and look down. Be on the alert for downed power lines and dangerous hanging branches that look like they’re ready to fall. Stay away from any downed utility lines, low-voltage telephone, or cable lines and even fence wires can become electrically charged when there are fallen or broken electrical lines nearby. Don’t get under broken limbs that are hanging or caught in other branches overhead. And, unless you really know how to use one, leave chainsaw work to the professionals.
  3. Remove any broken branches still attached to the tree. Removing the jagged remains of smaller sized broken limbs is one common repair that property owners can make after a storm. If done properly, it will minimize the risk of decay agents entering the wound. Smaller branches should be pruned at the point where they join larger ones. Large branches that are broken should be cut back to the trunk or a main limb by an arborist. For smaller branches, follow the pruning guidelines shown in the illustration so that you make clean cuts in the right places, helping the tree to recover faster (see Illustration D1).
  4. Repair torn bark. To improve the tree’s appearance and eliminate hiding places for insects, carefully use a chisel or sharp knife to smooth the ragged edges of wounds where bark has been torn away. Try not to expose any more of the cambium (greenish inner bark) than is necessary, as these fragile layers contain the tree’s food and water lifelines between roots and leaves (see Illustration D2).
  5. Resist the urge to overprune. Don’t worry if the tree’s appearance isn’t perfect. With branches gone, your trees may look unbalanced or naked. You’ll be surprised at how fast they will heal, grow new foliage, and return to their natural beauty.
  6. Don’t top your trees! Untrained individuals may urge you to cut back all of the branches, on the mistaken assumption that reducing the length of branches will help avoid breakage in future storms. While storm damage may not always allow for ideal pruning cuts, professional arborists say that “topping,” cutting main branches back to stubs, is one of the worst things you can do for your trees. Stubs will tend to grow back a lot of weakly-attached branches that are even more likely to break when a storm strikes. Also, the tree will need all its resources to recover from the stress of storm damage. Topping the tree will reduce the amount of foliage, on which the tree depends for the food and nourishment needed for regrowth. A topped tree that has already sustained major storm damage is more likely to die than repair itself. At best, its recovery will be retarded and it will almost never regain its original shape or beauty (see Illustration D3).

Illustration D1

Cutline: Because of its weight a branch can tear loose during pruning, stripping the bark and creating jagged edges that invite insects and disease. That won’t happen if you follow these steps:

  1. Make a partial cut from beneath, at a point several inches away from the trunk.
  2. Make a second cut from above several inches out from the first cut, to allow the limb to fall safely.
  3. Complete the job with a final cut just outside the branch collar, the raised area that surrounds the branch where it joins the trunk.

Illustration D2

Cutline: Smoothing the ragged edge of torn bark helps the wound heal faster and eliminates hiding places for insects.

Illustration D3

Cutline: Never cut the main branches of a tree back to stubs. Ugly, weakly attached limbs will often grow back higher than the original branches and be more likely to break off in a future storm.

How Redwoods Heal

New redwood bark spreads over this cut redwood stump at Armstrong Redwoods.

The ability of redwoods to heal themselves is almost as remarkable as how incredibly tall they grow. Amazingly, coast redwoods can heal over a wound when they are injured from fire, are damaged by the wind, or even are cut down by the ax.

A living tissue layer underneath the bark is responsibly for growing new bark over tree wounds. This tissue is called the cambium and it slowly spreads over exposed wood as cambial cells divide and transform into new bark that keeps water in the tree and keeps disease and pests out. Other parts of the tree send sugar to feed the cambium as it grows over the injury and this healing can take many years if it is a big wound.

New bark has complete covered this redwood stump at the Grove of Old Trees.

It’s mind-blowing to see this healing happen on large stumps of trees that seem like they should be dead. Even if when redwoods are cut down, we find evidence that their roots and clonal sprouts live on, able to provide enough energy to the stump for it to start healing itself.

Have you seen this in the forest? Tell me about it!

Tags: Armstrong Redwoods, coast redwoods, Grove of Old Trees, Healing

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