Transplanting a lemon tree

Question: I have a lemon tree that was planted in partial shade one year ago. My gardener claims it’s in too much shade. I was thinking I needed to wait for winter to transplant it to a sunny spot. Is this true?

— Marlene de Valera, Simi Valley

Answer: You want to avoid citrus transplanting — or planting, for that matter — in winter because of the danger of frost. Citrus trees are evergreen, which means they are constantly putting out new growth, even if during the winter new growth slows down. In any event, you do not want to risk killing new growth from frost damage on a newly transplanted citrus since there is always some shock associated with transplanting, and you do not want to add to it.

Ideally, you would transplant in spring or early fall, just before or just after the onslaught of summer heat. Early morning is the best time to transplant as a precaution against desiccation of the root ball.

That being said, you really can transplant any time in our area as long as you take precautions when extreme weather is forecast. For instance, if a freeze was forecast soon after you transplanted your citrus tree in winter, you would want to cover your tree that evening with an old blanket that reached all the way to the ground, making sure to remove it in the morning. Or, if you planted this time of year and a sudden heat wave occurred, you would want to make sure to give your tree a nice shower with a hose several times during the day.

If you are moving from shade to sun, you have to be especially concerned about transplant shock. If you could initially provide some sort or screen or shade cloth canopy for the tree while it acclimated to the sunnier exposure, that would help it adapt to its new surroundings.

Anti-transparent sprays are also available. Anti-transparent spray covers foliage with a thin film that does not interfere with critical gas exchange between leaves and atmosphere even while it prevents transpiration or water loss from leaf surfaces. Aside from reducing transplant shock, anti-transparent spray is used for keeping needles on Christmas trees and for extending the longevity of cut flowers and vase arrangements. Anti-transparent spray is widely available through online vendors.

Application of root hormone, mixed in water, is another measure recommended to reduce transplant shock. Superthrive is a popular product, found in just about every nursery and garden center, that contains NAA (naphthyl acetic acid), a naturally occurring plant hormone that stimulates root growth.

Mulch is another safeguard for successful transplanting. Apply several inches of wood chips, hedge clippings, fallen leaves, or other garden debris between the trunk and drip line or canopy perimeter, making sure your mulch does not touch the trunk since mulch that covers tree bark can bring on fungus problems.

More important than any of the above measures is making sure that you dig up as much of the root ball as is physically possible to carry. If your tree has been in the ground only a year, assuming it was planted from a 15 gallon container, the root ball should still be of manageable size, so no more than two people would be needed to carry it. Before digging, give the tree a good soaking. This will make it easier to dig up the tree and also minimize transplant shock.

Before digging up your tree, you will want to dig the hole where the tree is to be placed. That way, you minimize the danger of the root ball drying out before it can be placed in its new home.

Dig a hole that is the same diameter as the circle corresponding to the drip line or canopy perimeter and at least 2 feet deep.

Ideally, you will start digging the tree destined for transplanting at its drip line and dig down to a 2-foot depth, making a circular trench, as wide as you need it to be to stand in it. Once you can step down into the trench, you can start digging underneath the block of soil that you plan to remove. Keep in mind that the most important roots, the ones that take up water and minerals, are in the top several inches of soil so you do not want to disturb these.

Now, you will want to prepare a burlap tarp to enclose the root ball. This tarp, available at any lawnmower shop, should be thoroughly soaked. The moment the last of the tree’s roots are severed from the ground, slip the tarp under the root ball and wrap it around, tying it off at the trunk. It’s important that the root ball be completely enclosed by the tarp or tarps (you may need to tie two or more of them together at the corners, depending on the size of the root ball) and moved completely intact. Before moving the tree, soak the burlap again.

Once the tree has been moved, water it copiously in its new location. If, despite your best efforts, the foliage begins to wilt, do not despair. Where leaves are wilting on the shoot of any plant, the best practice is to remove the lower leaves on that shoot. Your first impulse when seeing wilted leaves will probably be to cut off the terminal end of the shoot. This is a mistake because root hormone is manufactured in the shoot terminals or newest leaves on any shoot so that removal of these leaves depresses growth of new roots.

Question: I have three orange trees that I’m guessing were planted when my house was built since everyone on the street has the same tract home set up with orange trees. That would make the trees 52 years old.

All the trees get full sun. All have the same issue of branches losing new green growth, turning brown and dying. My landscape guy has cut them back only twice in the four years we’ve lived here so not sure if that was a good or bad thing. I only have them set up for water using the sprinkler system, and I’ve never given them fertilizer. I’ve also never picked all the oranges off during the season, so older ones seem to be hanging on into the next year, which could be a problem as well.

I really love my trees and want them to thrive, so I’ll do whatever is necessary to fix the issue.

— Lynne Gilliam, Granada Hills

Answer: Orange trees usually do not live much longer than 50 years and, if they do, will not give you much fruit. Consider any oranges you see from now a special gift.

Mature backyard orange trees will typically produce heavy crops without fertilization, so your instinct in not fertilizing is correct. However, since your trees appear to be in decline, I would fertilize at this time with any fertilizer formulated specifically for citrus trees and apply it according to the directions given on the bag. That being said, I would not fertilize later than this week since you do not want to go into the fall with a lot of new growth that could be killed in a frost.

As for pruning, orange trees do not require it except to remove dead or broken shoots or branches. Commercial orange growers prune for the sole purpose of keeping trees lower so that harvesting is easier and thus less costly. When these growers prune, they bring in a gigantic hedge trimmer mounted on a truck that goes down the rows of trees, shearing the trees down to a more manageable height. It’s not a good idea to keep old fruit on a tree since it can attract fungus and insect pests, although, in your case, I think the decline you are witnessing is more a function of age than any other factor.

For more information about area plants and gardens, go to Joshua Siskin’s website at Send questions and photos to [email protected]

Tip of the week

To save an old tree, you may need to resort to inarching, which is the practice of grafting shoots from a young tree into an older one because the roots of the old tree are failing, usually because of disease.

You plant the young trees around the older one and bend shoots of the young tree toward healthy growth on the older tree, uniting them through grafting. Thus the healthy roots of the young trees sustain the older one.

The most famous case of inarching is found in Riverside, at 7115 Magnolia Ave., where California’s parent navel orange tree was planted in 1873. Several times since then, when the tree was dying from a root fungus, inarching was performed and the tree was saved. Every navel orange tree in California owes its origin to this tree.

A question for Dan Gill: I would like to transplant a young orange tree to a location with more sun. What time of year is best to do so, and how is this best done? I’ve been told to use a shovel to cut the roots around the tree out as far as the branches reach, leave the tree in the ground for six to eight days, and then dig it up and replant it in the new location. I have some potting soil, garden soil and humus to add to the planting hole, but I can get something else if better. I assume some type of mulch will be necessary, too. — Troy Vincent

Answer: I’d move the tree in early March when the weather is still cool, but the coldest part of winter is over. If you can dig a rootball as large as the area covered by the branches that would be great. (Position the shovel at the farthest reach of the branches as you go around the tree.) Dig down about 10 to 12 inches and then undercut the rootball. The width of the rootball is actually more important than the depth.

It’s OK if some of the soil falls away, but do not let the roots dry out before replanting. Have a hole prepared before you dig. The hole should be large enough to accept the anticipated size of the rootball.

You will want to replant the tree in its new location immediately after digging it up. Make sure it is planted at the same depth (no deeper) as it was growing previously. There is no need to add organic matter to the planting hole. Simply use the soil removed from the hole to fill back in around the rootball.

Water it in thoroughly, and mulch about 2 inches thick with your favorite mulch or whatever you have on hand. It will need some pampering this summer, so pay careful attention to providing water when needed during hot, dry weather.

The real trial will come when it gets hot. Don’t expect any production for a few years as it recovers.

Dan Gill is a horticulturist with the LSU AgCenter. Email questions to [email protected] or add them to the comment section below. Follow his stories at, on Facebook and @nolahomegardenon Instagram.

Transplanting a Lemon Tree

Growing your own lemon tree is a wonderful way to have fresh lemons in your home. Lemon trees like lots of sun and require shelter from the cold. The first location you chose for your tree might prove not to have the best characteristics for producing the best fruit. If so, there is no reason you cannot transplant your tree somewhere better.

Step 1 – Test the Soil

Test the soil in the tree’s current location and the location you want to move it to. The closer they are in soil type and pH, the less the chance of transplant shock. If the soils are different, supplement the soil at the new location with fertilizer and mineral supplements. Apply the supplements to a depth of 5 feet.

Step 2 – When to Transplant

Lemon trees are best transplanted while dormant. If putting out new leaves or growing fruit, the tree will be overstressed by the move and go into shock. Transplant your tree in the early spring or fall, after the tree has fallen dormant, but while the weather is still mild.

Step 3 – Prepare the Tree

Trim back the branches of the lemon tree by 1/3. This will give the roots less to support, structurally, and nutritionally.

Water the tree well the night before transplanting.

Step 4 – Dig up the Tree

To ensure the bulk of the roots are maintained, provide a large root ball. The recommended size of the root ball is determined by the size of the tree. For every inch of diameter of your lemon tree’s trunk, provide 9 to 12 inches of root ball diameter (side to side) and 6 inches in depth.

Once you have separated the root ball from the surrounding soil, provide a way to keep everything together during transportation. Burlap or a tarp can be slid under the tree and then wrapped around the root ball. It can also become a sliding surface to facilitate moving the tree.

Step 5 – Prepare the New Location

Dig a hole in the new location. The hole should be larger than the root ball and just as deep. Loosen the soil around the edges of the hole so that the tree roots can more easily expand when they begin growing anew.

Step 6 – Place the Tree

Place the lemon tree in the new hole. Center it and ensure the trunk is straight. Remove the root ball covering as you slide the tree into place. The trunk should be at the same level relative to the ground as it was before.

Fill the hole in stages, watering the soil well. This will remove air bubbles that could cause root rot as well as provide needed moisture to the tree.

Step 7 – Followup Care

Cover the soil with a layer of mulch to retain moisture, but keep it away from the trunk itself. Mulch too close to the trunk can cause rot. Provide an appropriate fertilizer to encourage root growth if you haven’t already incorporated it into the soil.

Continue to water well on a regular basis after transplanting it. Lemon trees prefer a deep watering weekly to a little water every day.

Q: I have Meyer lemon tree that needs to be moved because it now has a tree has gradually shaded it. Can it be transplanted?

Q: I have Meyer lemon tree that needs to be moved because it now has a tree has gradually shaded it. As a result, it has gradually leaned, grasping for the maximum sun it can get; it only produces fruit in years of maximum sun and less rain. Question: can this tree be transplanted? If answer is yes, then 1) When?, 2) With what precautions?, 3) How much pruning? 4) What fertilization at time of transplant? Thank you again for your assistance.

A: You have seen the results of a true experiment on this plant’s need for full sun. It can be transplanted and as you can see it will produce better if given full sun exposure. The best time to transplant citrus is in the spring. Get as much of the root ball as possible, dig the hole wider than deep and add nothing to the hole. Set the plant in the ground slightly (1/2-1 inch) higher than it grew in the ground. Re-fill the hole around the plant about 1/3 to 1/2 full, then water and gently tamp the soil thoroughly to remove air pockets. Allow the water to settle, fill the hole 2/3 full of soil, re-water and tamp again. Finish filling the hole and pack the soil firmly around the tree. Form a water basin around the tree at least 3-4 inches high and 30 inches in diameter. Do not put mulch over the root ball. Water 3 times a week for 2 weeks, and then taper off gradually to once a week during periods of little or no rainfall. The basin should stay in place until the tree is well established. Avoid pruning the tree prior to transplanting (this would apply to any tree or shrub); you want to encourage the tree to put its energy into growing roots. Pruning citrus should not be necessary except to shape the trees or remove water sprouts or suckers. Do not leave stubs as they may be attacked by rotting organisms which could damage the tree. Fertilization could be done in June and then again in the fall between Oct. and November. The recommended 3 applications per year can be made in January – February, May – June and October – November although timing is not especially critical. Good luck.

Transplanting A Lemon Tree – Best Time To Transplant Lemon Trees

If you have a lemon tree that has clearly outgrown its container or you have one in the landscape that is now receiving too little sun due to mature vegetation, you need to transplant. That said, whether in a container or in the landscape, transplanting a lemon tree is a delicate task. First, you need to know when the right time of year is to transplant lemon trees and, even then, lemon tree transplanting is a tricky prospect. Keep reading to find out when the right time is to transplant lemon trees and other helpful information of lemon tree transplanting.

When to Transplant Lemon Trees

If either of the above mentioned situations applies to you, then you’re wondering “when should I transplant a lemon tree.” Owners of citrus trees know that they can be persnickety. They drop their leaves at the drop of a hat, they hate ‘wet feet,’ they get premature blossom or fruit drop, etc. So anyone who needs to transplant a lemon tree is no doubt going at it with some trepidation.

Smaller potted lemon trees can be transplanted once a year. Be sure to choose a pot that has adequate drainage. Potted trees can also be transplanted into the garden with a little prior TLC. Mature lemon trees in the landscape will generally not fare well being transplanted. Either way, the time to transplant lemon trees is in the spring.

About Transplanting a Lemon Tree

First, prep the tree for transplanting. Prune the roots prior to transplanting the lemon to encourage new root growth in its new growing location. Dig a trench half the distance from the trunk to the drip line that is a foot (30 cm.) across and 4 feet (1.2 m.) deep. Remove any big rocks or debris from the root system. Replant the tree and fill in with the same soil.

Wait for 4-6 months to allow the tree to grow new roots. Now you can transplant the tree. Dig a new hole first and make sure that it is wide and deep enough to accommodate the tree and ensure the site is well draining. If it’s a big enough tree, you will need large equipment, such as a backhoe, to move the tree from its old location to the new one.

Prior to transplanting the lemon tree, prune the branches back by 1/3. Transplant the tree to its new home. Water the tree in well once the tree has been planted.

Horticulture: Can I transplant a lemon tree?

Definitely. You’re in a warm area that doesn’t have a severe winter, which is perfect, and it isn’t too huge.
I would definitely recommend giving it a try yourself as you don’t really have anything to lose. If it doesn’t work, then buy a new tree, but otherwise you’ve got a good sized specimen that will fruit sooner than a new tree in a pot. Some sellers can overfeed trees to sell with sappy growth on top as they look more attractive to home buyers but they really need some time in the ground outside to harden up so yours will be tougher.
Prune it back by one to two feet on top (for a 6ft tree) and a little on the sides. Dig as wide around the rootball as possible – at least a foot each side of the trunk, ideally more. If you’re going straight to your new place, dig a hole there asap, fill it with water and let it drain away twice first – this will stop the water leaching into surrounding soil as soon as you plant it and keep it near the roots where its needed. Then dig up your tree, wrap up the root ball (you can wash off some of the soil to reduce the weight, but be careful to keep the roots moist and cool! Burlap is great, or even wet paper towels if that’s all you have and put the rootball in a big plastic bag). Plant your tree as soon as possible – it will wilt and won’t be all that happy about being moved in hot weather but if you’re moving house then you don’t really have a choice on the timing. (fall or late winter would have been ideal)
Citrus like organic matter and compost in the soil so dig some into your new hole. If you’re moving it to a pot, try to get a big one and use good quality potting mix. Don’t use soil in a pot – it changes texture in containers, can bring diseases that will take over a pot and does a terrible job in general.
Water the tree in well and mulch the surface to keep moisture in – lemons aren’t fond of drying out and keep water up to it over the summer.
FInally, if you can get your hands on some seaweed tonic, water it in at planting. We have a product called Seasol in Australia that is brilliant. Its not a fertiliser but a root growth stimulant and really helps transplanting plants of all kinds. I like to use it every couple of weeks after planting for the first 2 months. Don’t feed your tree with fertiliser at planting but wait at least 2 weeks and give it a low strength liquid feed to keep it healthy (balanced, but ideally with a slightly higher than usual phosphorus concentration). You really want to encourage it to grow new roots rather than leaves or fruit, which is why the low fertiliser and remove any fruits that start to grow for the rest of the year. It should settle in nicely but don’t expect a lot of action until next season.

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Answer: Ten feet away from another tree is likely too close and the California pepper tree is known for its competitive roots so I am glad you are thinking of moving the lemon. One of the first things to consider when planting is the mature size of the tree so there will be plenty of room between the tree and anything else. There are some basic guidelines when transplanting. Moisten the area where you intend to plant a few days prior to digging to make it easier. Dig the planting hole twice as wide but only as deep as the root ball. The edges of the excavated area should be rough and sloping. A shallow hole prevents the tree from sinking and burying the trunk. One of the most common mistakes is planting too deep. Since your tree has already been in the ground for three years the roots will be growing. You may have to prune some of them back to extract it from the original planting hole. This is a good opportunity to check the root system for matted or circling roots. If needed you can cut and separate roots that are circling or heading in the wrong direction. Place the tree carefully into the planting hole. Remove just enough soil from the top of the root ball to expose the root collar, which should be level or slightly above the surrounding soil. The root collar is where the trunk flares out just above where the roots begin.

Eco OutdoorAustralia website

Not only will it add to your space visually with its glossy green foliage and fragrant blooms, lemon tress can also be planted in small or large outdoor spaces. If you nurture your lemon tree, it will be incredibly productive supplying you with an ample supply of delicious, zesty fruit.

Here are our tips on how to grow a lemon tree that thrives.

Choose your stock wisely

There are many varieties of lemon trees that will survive in most climates around Australia, except in those areas with severe frost. The most popular tend to be Meyer, Eureka and Lisbon.

Whatever variety you choose, it’s important to select one with good rootstock. Rather than growing your lemon tree from seed, select a grafted variety. These will produce a crop much earlier and tend to offer more reliable results. If you’re limited on space or want to plant the tree in a pot, select a ‘dwarf’ variety grafted on dwarf rootstock.

Look for the right position

Citrus trees love the sun and need maximum exposure to grow fruit. Look for a spot that gets at least 6 hours of direct sun per day. If you’re located in a cooler climate, growing the lemon tree against a wall can be a solution or transporting the pots indoors at times of frost.

Whether you choose to espalier, plant in a container or directly into the garden bed, ensure there is ample room for the trees to spread. This is typically up to 2 metres depending on the variety.

Avoid planting your tree in an area of your garden that’s exposed to strong winds. This can cause the plant to stress and disrupt the growth of the fruit.

Improve your soil quality

Lemon trees require well-drained, sandy soil of a pH between 6-7.5 to thrive. Poorly drained soil can cause damaging root disease and inhibit growth.

If you have heavy soil you can improve it by mixing in a quality compost and gypsum. If your soil is acidic, add lime to achieve the preferred pH. Mounding the soil can help to improve the drainage and reduce the risk of root and fungal infection.

For more tips on improving your soil quality .

Planting guide

If you’re planting a young citrus tree, wait until the severe frost has passed and the soil has warmed up. Spring is ideal. More advanced stock can be planted in spring, summer, and autumn. Avoid planting at the end of summer because the root growth of the tree will stop due to the cooling temperatures.

Whether you are planting your lemon tree in a pot or into the ground, soak the tree well by sticking it a bucket of water before you plant.

Then, lightly tease the roots and place it into a hole about twice the width of the container. Gently backfill around the tree with soil but avoid piling it on so as not to damage the root system.

Water the tree thoroughly and mulch around the tree to conserve the moisture and protect the roots. Keep the mulch away from the trunk to protect the stem from rot. Avoid planting ground cover around the base as lemon trees don’t like competition.

Feed your lemon with quality well-balanced citrus fertiliser monthly throughout each season, adjusting the quality to suit the maturity of the tree. You can use an organic composted chicken manure or liquid seaweed to boost the activity of the soil.

Look for signs when watering

Your lemon tree will tell you when it needs more water. If the leaves are glossy, firm and cool to touch, then your plant is well watered. If you’re noticing a change in the leaves or the fruit is suddenly dropping, water it!

Depending on the weather, a good guide is to water the tree deeply once a week in its first year. Once established, you can back this off to once every two to three weeks.

Shape, don’t prune

Lemon trees typically don’t need much pruning, but shaping the tree will encourage more growth. Use shears to shape the top of your tree to the preferred size. It’s best to limit your tree growth to two metres otherwise your lemon yield may slow.

Harvest time

Most grafted lemon varieties will start to produce a crop in their second or third year. You’ll be able to tell when the fruit is ready to harvest as it will have developed the full colour and flavour. Don’t leave the fruit on the tree for too long as it will deteriorate. Gently remove the fruit so as not to damage the tree and enjoy the fruits of your labour!

What Type Of Root System Does A Lemon Tree Have Thorns

No, it?s not an anomaly; there are thorns on citrus trees. Although not well Thorns On Citrus Trees: Why Does My Citrus Plant Have Thorns? Fruit growers who graft trees should remove thorns from the rootstock when grafting. Okra Okra Plant Varieties: Lean About Different Types Of Okra Plants. If you want to grow lemon trees or any other citrus, you should be in U.S. Department of. You may have one of these types of lemon trees instead of the nearly thornless The rootstock can send up thorny suckers from below the graft union.

Weeds compete for nutrients with lemon trees and can damage the tree’s sensitive root system when you pull them out. To control weeds, apply a layer of mulch. A vigorous, thorny variety that is more cold-tolerant than Eureka and more Compared with most other citrus types, some varieties are hard to pick . The root system of citrus trees is usually concentrated in the top 30 cm of. The prolific Dwarf Meyer Lemon Tree is a small specimen that thrives in much For the Meyer Lemon Tree, you are looking for a sandy-loam soil type. The nutrient matter of the soil can have an impact on the tree’s overall growth. Be careful: Meyer Lemon Trees do produce thorns, and though these are.

Eureka produces medium-sized lemons with a smooth, yellow peel throughout the year. When it is laden with fruit it makes an eye-catching tree, especially in a Some types withstand cold winds and frost better than others, but you would be of thorns: this could be an indication that the root stock is beginning to grow . If you bought the tree it was most likely “grafted” which means two plants A rootstock is used because that rootstock plant is tougher in the root system and make About 18 inches from the ground and you may see a sort of irregular Thorns On Citrus Trees: Why Does My Citrus Plant Have Thorns?. Citrus trees grafted on dwarf rootstocks are perfect for container growing but can also be planted in the ground. If planted in In a pot, the dwarf trees will stay much smaller, especially with judicious pruning. Standard The root system can reach far beyond the drip line. . Juvenile fruiting wood will sometimes have thorns.

The raised area will hold the root system up and out of the saturated conditions. Remember, most types of lemon tree have a heavy layer of thorns lining the. Citrus trees growing outside the Valley are at a distinct disadvantage with regard to types of citrus come true-to-type, seedlings which do not usually are thorny, Most citrus types and varieties do not perform well on their own root system so . Citrus is very promiscuous and will cross-pollinate with any other kind of citrus fruit Many types of citrus have sharpt thorns can be cut off if desired (if the thorns are on shoots that originate from the rootstock, Potted trees often set much more fruit than the tree can support, so fruit drop is very common.

Jane is talking about how to select a good lemon tree at nurseries, and Jane explains how to get lemon trees off to a great start always dig a hole so it’s twice as wide as the pot and a good depth. and the surrounding soil will encourage those new roots to grow. Don’t sort of do it too dramatically.

Citrus trees have a shallow root systems, this means it is vital to have good Yates Thrive Concentrate Citrus Food is suitable for all types of citrus trees. Orange tree stems are frequently armed with thorns, which are most Citrus seedlings tend to exhibit a high degree of growth, erect habits and lots of Because they are technically branches, thorns are connected to the vascular system of the tree. Ideally, they should be removed from root stocks when trees are grafted. Australian finger lime is a thorny variety related to the citrus family, that produces Being crowded by other trees or plants with developed root systems like.

It grows wild in subtropical Australia and is often used as a rootstock for grafting. Fino: Smooth rind, thin skinned and thorny. Mainly Lemon trees have a fairly shallow root system but are sensitive to being water logged. The citrus trees you purchase at the nursery have all been grafted. That is, a desirable, named citrus variety, such as Owari satsuma or Meyer lemon, is grafted onto a rootstock that is a completely different type of is to provide a strong, vigorous root system that will produce a robust growing, citrus do produce thorns). Avocados and Citrus need Full Sun and. Space, this can Types of Grapefruit Grown in S. California. (Plant the Lemons. • Lisbon – some cold resistance, heat tolerant and thorny. Could we improve fruit set in a single tree in the backyard by The root system is shallow, % of the feeder roots are in the top

Mike Litvany stands by a month-old lemon tree in his grove near Orlando, FL. trees and all of mine are infected, but the root system is so vigorous, He says lemons are among the more tolerant citrus types that exist. One logistical challenge with lemons is working around big thorns during harvest.

In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, There can be found also spines or spinose structures derived from roots. Cacti often have a particular kind of spine (as found in areoles of Opuntia).

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