The effect of detergent on grape juice

Using Juice On Plants: Should You Be Feeding Plants With Fruit Juice

Orange juice and other fruit juices are said to be healthy beverages for the human body. If that’s the case, then is juice good for plants too? Seems like a logical conclusion, or does it? Mother Nature lets loose with pure water, not juice, but does she know best? Let’s investigate the effects of watering plants with fruit juices.

Is Juice Good for Plants?

Similarly to salt, sugar absorbs water and therefore, can prevent plant roots from taking up appropriate amounts of it as well as valuable nutrients. The result of introducing too much sugar into a plant’s root system can be inhibited plant growth or even death.

Most juices, from apple juice to orange juice, have varying sugar contents depending on the brand. While apples do contain sugar, using unsweetened apple juice on plants will have little negative effect on growing plants but probably no benefit either.

Citrus juices such as orange or grapefruit all

contain sugars in the form of disaccharides and polysaccharides, but citrus peels are often included in fertilizers. Both citrus juices are quite acidic. So which is it? Is citrus juice good for plants?

Feeding Plants with Fruit Juice

Feeding plants with small amounts of citrus fruit juice is unlikely to kill the plant over a short period of time. However, lengthy exposures to citrus fruit juice as fertilizer will undoubtedly kill your plant. There is too much acid in citrus juices, which will eventually break down the plant’s immune system, opening the door for mold, fungus and bacteria to infect the plant, not to mention the sugars it contains may attract insects.

That said, there is some benefit to using orange juice on plants in small amounts of a diluted solution. Combine water and orange juice in a watering can at a ratio of 2 tablespoons juice to one quart of water and mix well.

Then simply water the area around your plants. Try to water in at the base of the plant, avoiding the foliage. The residue left on foliage will be sticky and sweet, a sure way to attract every bug within a mile. Just use enough of the diluted orange juice mix to dampen, not saturate the soil.

Wash out the watering can with a mild detergent and rinse thoroughly. Wipe any orange juice off the foliage of the plants if you happen to drip any.

All in all, however, there’s really no need to replace watering with any type of juice. I suppose if you have an orange tree and the juice source is more or less free, you might give it a try. Just remember to dilute and use infrequently.

The other day, I was wondering if there is a natural way to lower the pH of water, without using harsh chemicals. I decided to do some research, and I came across the idea of using lemon juice.

So, can you use lemon juice to lower pH? Yes, adding lemon juice to water will lower pH. However, doing so may harm your plants in a hydroponic or traditional gardening system.

Remember that lemon juice acts as an antimicrobial agent, which means that it kills bacteria and fungi. This includes beneficial bacteria in your water or soil that help your plants to grow!

Let’s take a look at the science behind why you should not use lemon juice in a hydroponic system. Then, we’ll get into the way you should lower pH, what to look out for, and how to make your pH calculations.

Why Not Use Lemon Juice to Lower pH?

Lemon juice has a pH between 2.0 and 3.0, so when added to water, it will certainly lower the pH. However, the acidity of lemons is not what will kill bacteria.

Lemons contain flavonoids, which are a specific type of antioxidant. These flavonoids give lemons their antimicrobial properties. When you add lemon juice to your hydroponic system, you run the risk of the flavonoids killing the bacteria that live there.

(For more information about the study on antimicrobial activities of citrus juice concentrates, including lemon, .)

Furthermore, some of the bacteria living in your system are nitrogen-fixing. This means that they take nitrogen gas from the air and convert it into ammonia. The ammonia is then converted into nitrites, and finally into nitrates.

This is a critical function of bacteria, because plants cannot use nitrogen directly from the air. Instead, they need nitrates in order to obtain nitrogen for growth.

Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth. It is found in the compound chlorophyll, which is what makes plants green. Chlorophyll also helps plants to create energy (sugar) from water, carbon dioxide, and light.

Hydroponic lettuce – looks like this plant got enough nitrogen!

Now we’ve uncovered why you should not use lemon juice to lower pH in a hydroponic system. For the same reason, you should not use the juice of citrus fruits, such as lime, orange, or tangerine, to lower pH.

These substances also contain flavonoids that have antimicrobial properties. Again, this would be bad news for the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in your system.

So, if you shouldn’t use citrus juices to lower pH, what should you use? It’s time to talk about the right way to lower pH in your system.

What Should You Use to Lower pH in a Hydroponic System?

To lower the pH in your hydroponic system, you should use something called pH DOWN. As the name suggests, you simply add pH DOWN to a hydroponic solution to lower the pH. As an example, the General Hydroponics pH DOWN solution has a pH of 1.2 (more acidic than lemon juice).

Generally, pH DOWN contains food grade phosphoric acid, along with citric acid and mono ammonium phosphate. Food grade simply means that pH DOWN is safe to use for growing hydroponic plants intended for human consumption.

You can purchase pH down at hydroponic supply stores, either online or in-person. You can save money by purchasing in bulk quantities. However, if you are just starting hydroponics as a hobby, it might be better to start with a small bottle until you get your bearings.

What to Watch Out for When Adjusting pH

Remember that pH DOWN contains a strong acid, so you need to be careful when handling it. Don’t get it on your skin, in your eyes, or in your mouth. Also, be careful not to splash it on the leaves of your plants, or you will burn them.

In addition, the pH DOWN solution is buffered, meaning that it resists changes in pH. This helps to keep the pH of your system stable.

However, from the planet natural website, you should be careful “when pH unstable media – such as rock wool or gravel products – are used, or when high plant growth rates destabilize the mix”. (I will go into more detail about how high plant-growth rates can change pH later in the article).

When you add pH DOWN to your nutrient solution, make sure to do it gradually. A large drop in pH in a short time can stress and damage your plants.

Start off by adding a small amount to your water – less than you think you need, since pH DOWN is very acidic. I am talking about a fraction of a teaspoon to start with. Mix thoroughly, wait a bit (perhaps 30 minutes), and see how much the pH changes before you add more.

If you happen to overshoot with pH DOWN and the pH becomes too low, you can always add pH UP to counter the effect. However, this is a waste of both products, and it takes time to seesaw back and forth. Also, your plants might not like the swings in pH, so try to get it right the first time!

Finally, remember that the ideal pH range will vary by plant, but a good general range is 5.5 to 6.5 (slightly acidic).

What Else Can Affect pH?

There are some other factors that can affect the pH of your system, so keep these things in mind as you monitor and adjust your pH from day-to-day.

Adding Nutrients to Your Solution

The first factor affecting pH is the concentration of nutrients in your solution. The nutrients are acidic, so when you add them to your system, they will lower the pH. To counter this, make sure to add nutrients before you try to balance pH, or you will end up with a solution that is too acidic.

Plants Using Nutrients from the Solution

The second factor affecting pH is the uptake of water and nutrients by your plants. When plants use dissolved nutrients from the water, the pH of the nutrient solution can move up or down. This is known as pH drift.

As your plants grow, they will use both water and nutrients from the solution. Ideally, the plants will use water and nutrients in such a way that the pH and concentration of nutrients stays roughly constant. However, you will often see plants using one resource (water or nutrients) at a faster rate than the other.

Hydroponic growing at NASA

When plants use water faster than they use nutrients, the solution becomes more concentrated with nutrients, leading to a higher TDS (total dissolved solids) or EC (electrical conductivity).

When plants use nutrients faster than they use water, the solution becomes less concentrated, leading to lower TDS or EC. In this case, you will need to add nutrients to the system.

In both cases, you will need to add water to the system to replenish what the plants have used for growth. Distilled water or reverse osmosis water is the best choice, since it has few dissolved solids in it.

Also, distilled water does not contain chlorine, which is often found in municipal tap water. As you might guess, cities and towns use chlorine to kill microbes in the water supply. While this is good for public health, it is not good for the bacteria in your system!

Of course, you can leave your tap water sitting in a bucket for a day or so to allow the chlorine to evaporate out. However, tap water can still contain other solids, including iron, copper, or various trace minerals. Make sure to test the PPM (parts per million) of the water to get an idea before you use it in your system.

Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

The third factor affecting pH is temperature and carbon dioxide in the air. Carbon dioxide gas will dissolve in water to form carbonic acid, which will lower the pH of your system. Remember that as the water gets colder, more carbon dioxide will dissolve in the water, leading to more carbonic acid and a lower pH.

On the other hand, keeping your water warm will result in less dissolved carbon dioxide, which means less carbonic acid, and a higher pH. Before adding pH DOWN, make sure to check the temperature of your system, and adjust downward if appropriate. Just make sure that the new temperature is within the range that your plants can tolerate.

If you find that the temperature of your water is consistently too high, make sure that your grow lights are not giving off too much heat. Another option is to use a water chiller for your system.

Other Questions About pH

There are a couple of other questions about pH that we should address. We already talked about lowering pH, so let’s briefly touch on raising pH.

Can I Use Baking Soda to Raise pH?

Baking soda will raise pH when dissolved in water. However, this will also increase the sodium content of your water. This is not a recipe for success when growing plants! Sodium can restrict the uptake of calcium, which a necessary nutrient for plant growth.

Baking Soda, or sodium bicarbonate

The right way to raise pH is to use pH UP, which contains potassium hydroxide and potassium carbonate. The pH of the General Hydroponics brand is 11.4 to 11.9. You can check the price of pH UP on the planet natural website.

As with pH DOWN, you should avoid getting pH UP on your skin, in your eyes, or in your mouth. A strong base can burn you just as badly as a strong acid!

In addition, be careful not to splash it on the leaves of your plants, or you will burn them.

Finally, be sure to add only a small amount of pH UP at a time, to gradually raise the pH of your solution to the desired level.

What Does pH Mean?

The term pH means potential of hydrogen, or the concentration of H+ (positively charged hydrogen ions) in a solution. A higher concentration of hydrogen ions means a lower pH, and a more acidic solution.

A pH has a range from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered chemically neutral. Anything below 7 is an acid, and anything above 7 is a base.

One key thing to remember about pH is that it is based on an exponential (or logarithmic) scale. So, a solution with a pH of 6 has ten times the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 7.

Similarly, a solution with a pH of 5 has one hundred times the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 7.

You can imagine how quickly this grows: a solution with a pH of 1 has one million times the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 7.

Conclusion

Lemon juice or other citrus juices are not suitable for lowering pH in your system, due to the potential to harm bacteria in your system. Similarly, baking soda is not suitable for raising pH, due to the sodium content.

The key takeaway is to start slowly, using a little pH DOWN or pH UP to gradually change your pH. Otherwise, you run the risk of overshooting the target pH range and damaging your plants.

I hope this article was helpful in explaining a bit about pH, and the factors to consider when adjusting your system. Please leave any questions in the comments below.

Just Say No: Leaf Shine

Because plants should look like plants. Not plastic.

First things first: We do not recommend using leaf-shining products on your houseplants. EVER.

There are many commercial plant shine products are on the market and many retailers who use it to beautify their plants today. Not us! Leaf shining products are not beautifying, they’re bad! Plants breathe through their leaves through little pores called stomata and many leaf shine products end up clogging these stomata with either oil or wax. It’s just like your skin – you get blemishes when you have too much residue blocking your pores. The difference is, plants don’t get pimples. Their clogged pores mean suffocation and maybe even death.

The high shine look is not a good one. It’s very artificial and you may be inclined to forget that your plant is a living thing, not plastic decorum. Aside from looks, the upkeep is a headache. The oils and waxes from shine products end up sticking to dust in a clumpy way that au naturel leaves do not. Dust build up makes it more difficult to clean your plant and you’re in an endless cycle of cleaning and reshining.

Of course, plants are already gorgeous. To help our plants look their best, here are a few better, safer ways to enhance your plants’ beauty without sacrificing your plants’ health.

Damp cloth

This is an oldie, but a goodie. Wet your cloth (or sponge) and wring out any excess water. Support each leaf with one hand gently from under and wipe down, away from the stem very carefully with the other hand. Make sure you get to the undersides too, which is where pests usually like to hide. For delicate or very small leaves, try using a soft brush.

Shower

For all plants, but particularly for plants with delicate leaves that are difficult to wipe, showering is a great option. Remember to draw a lukewarm shower. Plants don’t like their water as warm as we do, but not cold either. Run your hands through the foliage and hold the plant at various angles to make sure that the shower hits the undersides of the leaves too. This method works great for ferns, orchids and palms. Just be wary that you don’t lose too much mix down the drain. Your plants need that and you don’t want clogged pipes.

Soap & water

Another foolproof method is to try a mixture of liquid dish detergent and water. There are two ways to do this: you can either dip a soft cloth in a soap/water solution and wipe the leaves carefully, or lather your hands with soap/water and gently apply it to the plant. Either way, be sure to clean both the top and bottom of the leaves, because it will also help to remove pests like spider mites. Be sure to thoroughly rinse the plant of all soap.

Vinegar or Lemon Juice & Water

Mixing vinegar with water is especially effective at getting rid of residue buildup on leaves. However, do not overdo it. This one is not meant to be part of routine plant maintenance, but instead only when needed. Start by mixing one teaspoon of vinegar with about a gallon of water. Then dip the cloth in your mix and apply to gently to your plants. An added bonus, the vinegar scent is great at repelling pests or your naughty pets. As an alternative to vinegar, you can use lemon juice, about ½ lemon squeezed per pint of water. Lemon juice and vinegar act as an acid and dissolve mineral salts. Unlike vinegar & water, lemon juice and water won’t rid you of pests, but it’s the trick for dissolving mineral deposits from hard water drying on your leaves.

Dusting feather

Use a dusting feather to gently sweep through your plants’ leaves. Obviously, this one will only work on larger, leafy plants. For example, a Monstera deliciosa, ZZ plant or Bird of Paradise. Make sure you get the undersides as well. We do not recommend this method with a fern, since you may disrupt its spores. Try using a soft makeup brush or paint brush for smaller, more delicate plants.

Takeaway

Keep in mind that it is imperative that you treat plants as carefully as possible when implementing any of the methods above. Steer clear of leaf-shine products, which will clog leaf pores. Keeping your plant’s leaves shiny and clean the natural way will also help to keep pests at bay. You can use this maintenance time to inspect the plant for damage, disease or any early signs of an unhappy plant.

Keep growing your plant knowledge.

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What Are the Effects of Sugar Water on Plants?

lump sugar image by Maria Brzostowska from Fotolia.com

Plants need sucrose to survive. If your plants look in need of a quick boost, you might be tempted to supplement the sucrose they make by watering them with a sugar solution. Sugary drinks certainly give us an energy jolt; why not plants? But things aren’t quite that simple. The effects of sugar water on plants are complicated and not altogether beneficial.

Water Deprivation

Plants receive water by a passive process called osmosis. This is the passage of water from across a semi-permeable membrane from the side where water is in higher concentration to the side where it’s in lower concentration. Wherever the ratio of water to “stuff” is lower, that’s where osmosis makes the water wants to go.

If you feed your plant a strong solution of sugar water, you create a situation in which the water outside its cells has a higher percentage of soluble material than does the water inside. The direction of osmosis reverses, causing water to exit plant cells or not be able to enter in the first place. The plant begins to die.

If dilute enough, sugar water may not cause this effect at first. In fact, California Science Fair participant Mary M. Karcher discovered that bean plants watered with 50 grams of sugar per liter of water grew stronger and larger than bean plants fed pure water over a period of 28 days. However, sugar molecules, being too large to pass through cell walls, remain behind in the soil. Continue watering with that same sugar solution and eventually the sugar will reach too high a concentration for water to continue entering plant cells.

Increased Microbe Activity

The increased sugar content in the soil serves as food for any number of microorganisms. Depending on which microbes are present, this can have beneficial or harmful effects on the plant. Beneficial effects include all the activity that goes on in hot compost: nitrogen fixation, toxin decomposition and nutrient production. These desired effects are the reason for adding sugar to a fertilizing agent, as described in U.S. Patent Application 20090266125. But some microbes excrete toxins that poison the plant, with whom they may also compete for necessary nutrients.

Photosynthesis Alternative

Though sugar can’t cross plant cell walls, it can enter the plant’s vascular system in other ways. In 1942, Dr. Herman Augustus Spoehr experimented with albino corn plants, which, lacking chlorophyll, cannot produce their own sucrose. They do not normally survive long. Spoehr cut the tips off the leaves in order to open up the veins, then submerged the leaf ends into small vials of a .3 molar sugar water solution. His plants survived for 3 to 4 months and even produced small ears of corn.

Cut Flower Preservation

Floral preservatives such as the product Floralife mainly consist of sugar. They work in a manner similar to Spoehr’s sugar water vials, providing sucrose to the vascular system of cut flowers to keep them “alive” and fresh longer.

How Does Orange Juice Affect Plant Growth?

Watering a plant with orange juice can prevent the plant from absorbing the nutrients it needs to grow, stunting its growth or possibly killing it. This is due to the sugar that is found in orange juice. Much like salt, sugar absorbs water.

The effect of watering plants with juice depends greatly on the amount of sugar in the juice. For example, unsweetened apple juice, while still containing sugar, does not contain as much sugar as orange juice. As a result, unsweetened apple juice has less of a negative impact on plants.

The rule of thumb is to avoid using any kind of citrus juice on plants. This includes everything from orange to grapefruit juice. These types of juices have too much acid, which breaks down a plant’s immune system over time. A plant with a weak immune system is much more susceptible to fungus, bacteria and mold growth. The sugar that is in the citrus juice also attracts insects, some of which feed on plants.

According to Gardening Know How, there are some benefits to using orange juice on plants in terms of providing the plant with extra nutrition. However, the orange juice has to be used sparingly and heavily diluted. Only about 2 tablespoons of orange juice is recommended for every 1 quart of water.

Does Orange Juice effect the Growth Of A Plant? By Jonathan Novella.

Presentation on theme: “Does Orange Juice effect the Growth Of A Plant? By Jonathan Novella.”— Presentation transcript:

1 Does Orange Juice effect the Growth Of A Plant? By Jonathan Novella

2 Facts  Tropicana Orange Juice (No Pulp)  88% of Orange Juice is water.  It takes 12-16 medium oranges to make a 32.oz quart.

3 Purpose  The Purpose of this experiment is to find out if Orange juice can be used to increase the height of a plant.  If successful this would give many other option to use other than water to grow plants.

4 Methodology  There will be 7 similar plants with an approximated height of 5 to 6 inches. There will be a carton of Tropicana Orange juice with no Pulp. I will also have a measuring cup to measure the amount of juice I will be pouring on the plant. I will added ¼ of juice to each of the 7 plant everyday to calculate the length of the growth of all the plants. My goal is to see if there is an effect of the growth of the plant by giving it Orange juice. When I give them orange juice I will leave them near the window (4 in my mother’s room and 3 in my room). From their I will measure the height of all the plants each day by using a 12inch/ 30Cm ruler.  There will be 7 similar plants with an approximated height of 5 to 6 inches. There will be a carton of Tropicana Orange juice with no Pulp. I will also have a measuring cup to measure the amount of juice I will be pouring on the plant. I will added ¼ of juice to each of the 7 plant everyday to calculate the length of the growth of all the plants. My goal is to see if there is an effect of the growth of the plant by giving it Orange juice. When I give them orange juice I will leave them near the window (4 in my mother’s room and 3 in my room). From their I will measure the height of all the plants each day by using a 12inch/ 30Cm ruler.

5 Table: Height of Plants All Plants started within the height of 6in to 7.5in

6 Observation  All seven plants started with a healthy and soft soil.  All Plants except Plant E grew up to 0.3 inches within the 8 days.  In Day 3 and 4, all seven plant’s soil turn into a rough solid.  Also all seven plants had a horrible smell and if it would have continue all seven plant would have died within less than a week.

7 Conclusion  Does orange Juice effect the grow of a plant? Answer: All the plants except plant E had grew up to 0.2inches but didn’t really have a positive look on the plant. When I started the expirement all 7 plants had a soft and healthy soil but it took less then 3 days to change the soil into a rough solid. I also notice if their was more time. All seven plants would have died due to the roughness of the soil.

How Do Plants Use Sugar?

Plants use sugar for energy at night and as the building blocks for growth. Plants are able to store sugar in different forms, including maltose, sucrose, fructose and glucose. They can convert sugar into starches.

Plants use photosynthesis to make sugar, which serves as an energy source, and is used to help plant growth. This process occurs only during the daytime, as plants need sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. Excess sugar produced is stored in the plant until needed, such as at night or during the winter. During those times when the plant is unable to use photosynthesis for energy, those sugar stores help keep the plant healthy and allow it to continue growing.

Plants also convert sugar into starch, which is a core component of plant cell walls. These starchy walls surround the plants photosynthetic cells, serving as protection and structural support. Starch is made up of chains of sugar molecules, sometimes thousands of these molecules. There are some plants that have more starch than others, and usually these are plants that have tubers like potatoes, but also include rice and wheat. These plants can also break down their starches for fuel when needed. Starches provide a large amount of energy because they are made up of so many simple sugar molecules.

Fermented Fruit Juice or FFJ is made from sweet ripe fruits, fruit vegetables and root crops. Thoroughly blended with crude sugar or molasses and stored for a short period of time, the fermented extract is applied to the plants to promote flowering and fruit setting.

Choosing the materials for Fermented Fruit Juice

You must choose materials that are:
locally produced
free from insect pests and diseases
not fit for human consumption

Materials needed in making Fermented Fruit Juice

* Locally produced sweet ripe fruits like mango, banana, papaya, strawberry and chico; ripe squash fruit and matured carrot; and root crops particularly camote, cassava and gabi. Citrus fruits are not recommended.You can make Fermented Fruit Juice from single material or a combination of materials. The extract from the combination of banana, papaya, and squash have been proven to be effective in flower induction and fruit setting by many organic farmers.
* You can use either crude sugar or molasses or whichever is available or can be purchased at lower cost.
* You will also need ceramic pots or plastic pail, basin, net bag or cloth bag, paper or cloth for cover, string, stone as weight, bolo, chopping board, marking pen, and glass jars for storage.

Steps in Making Fermented Fruit Juice

1. Collect ripe fruits or vegetables that are already available or in season, for example, if squash is available, then make fermented squash juice. There are plenty of materials to be used so you can make different kinds of Fermented Fruit Juice. Use any materials that are free from insect pests and diseases.

2. Chop the materials into small pieces so that the juice can be easily extracted.

3. Put 1 kg chopped materials in a basin, add 1 kg crude sugar or molasses, and then mix thoroughly with your bare hands. You must make sure that all chopped materials are coated with sugar or molasses so that the juice can be extracted easily.

4. Put the mixture in a net bag or cloth bag. This is done so that the extracted juice will ooze from all sides of the bag. Put the bagged mixture in a ceramic pot or plastic pail, and put weight to compress the mixture. Stone is a good material used to weigh down the mixture.

5. Cover the pot or pail with paper or cloth and secure with a string or rubber band. Paper or cloth is used as cover to allow some air to get inside the pot or pail and for the gas that is being produced during the fermentation process to escape. On the cover, write the date of processing and the expected date of harvest.

6. Store the container with the bagged mixture for 7 days in a cool dry shady place. Make sure that the storage area is not infested with cockroaches or mice, because they might feed on the mixture and contaminate the extract. In 7 days, plant juice is extracted and fermented. The fruit extract will change its color from yellow orange to brown, and will smell sweet and alcoholic. After 7 days, lift the bagged mixture and squeeze hard to get the remaining extracts.

7. Collect the fermented extracts and preserve in dark colored glass jar. To cover the jar, use paper or cloth to allow the gas to escape during further fermentation, then, store in a cool, shady place. You may add the fruit residue to compost pile to hasten decomposition or you can apply it to the garden plots as source of organic matter. You can use your Fermented Fruit Juice more effectively if it is stored for another one week after completion.

Uses and rates of application of Fermented Fruit Juice

* As flower inducer and fruit setter – Fermented Fruit Juice made from a combination of ripe fruits of banana, papaya and squash have been proven by many organic farmers to be effective when sprayed on the leaves at the rate of 2 to 4 tbsp/gallon of water at the onset of flowering up to fruit setting. These ripe fruits contain phosphorous and potassium which are necessary during the flowering and fruit setting stage.

* As soil microorganism activity accelerator – Fermented Fruit Juice is applied directly to the soil at the rate of 1tsp/liter of water. The carbohydrates and sugar content of Fermented Fruit Juice serve as source of energy of soil microorganism, thereby, accelerating their activity. Increased microbial activities result to the availability of nutrients for plant’s uptake.

* As spray to animal beddings to hasten manure decomposition – Fermented Fruit Juice contains beneficial microorganisms that help in the decomposition process.

* As a nutritious drink – a 20% Fermented Fruit Juice solution makes an excellent drink for both human and livestock.

Source: e-extension.gov.ph

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