- 1 Prepare Growing Medium
- 2 Take Your Cuttings
- 3 Trim the Leaf Stem
- 4 Dib and Plant
- 5 Close the Clamshell
- 6 Keep Moist
- 7 Watch for Growth
- Here Are Some Results
- 8 Congratulations, You Did It
- How To Propagate African Violets
- Rooting Leaves in Soil
- Propagating By Division
- Supply List:
- Rooting hormone
- Moist Planting Mix
- Propagating African Violets: Tips For Easy African Violet Propagation
- Propagating African Violets from Seed
- Growing African Violets from Leaf Cuttings
- Dividing African Violet Plants
- Garden Gnome Wanderings
1 Prepare Growing Medium
I use a combination of vermiculite and perlite. You can also add in some potting mix for African violets. The goal is to have a light-weight growing medium that retains moisture without being too damp or dry.
Fill a 2-inch pot for each cutting. Soak the growing medium and allow to drain thoroughly.
2 Take Your Cuttings
For best success, take your leaf cutting from the third row of leaves from the center of the plant.
Looking from above, you can see that the leaves grow in circles around the middle.
- The youngest leaves are small and often unsuitable for propagation.
- The oldest, outer leaves often have tough or woody stems that make it difficult to root.
- Choose your leaf cutting from the middle of the plant, ensuring that the stem is still tender and not tough.
See more tips for growing beautiful, healthy houseplants
You can root cuttings from leaves that have broken off the plant, if they are healthy, or twist them off at the base of the stem, if you can reach in there without damaging the rest of the plant.
I like to use a scalpel, getting a nice, clean cut. The tool you see here is marketed as a quilting tool, used to remove tight stitches.
Always clean the blade with rubbing alcohol between uses.
Tag, You’re It
If you want to keep track of your cuttings, be sure to write plant tags with the name and date or use tape like I do.
I mark the mother plant pot with a code on a piece of tape, and write a duplicate one to place on the little pot used for the cutting. This is particularly handy when I do not know the name of the hybrid but want to track how well each plant propagates.
3 Trim the Leaf Stem
Place the leaf cutting on a table with the fuzzy side facing up.
Cut the stem at approximately one-inch in length.
Next, make an angled cut down the stem, removing a wedge-shaped piece with the deepest cut at the base.
This is the section of the plant that will produce the new plantlets.
Also see: How often should I water my houseplants?
Should I Trim the Leaf?
You may have seen tutorials where the leaf is also reduced in size, by cutting off the top two-thirds or one half. The idea is that you want the plant to put its energy into growing new babies, not maintaining a big leaf.
My choice for this is kind of goofy. I just can’t stand how it looks when leaves are cut in half so I don’t do it. The plant still propagates fine without cutting of the leaf top, so we’ll say this is fine either way. I’ve seen professional growers do it both ways (chop the leaf versus keep it intact).
4 Dib and Plant
Using a dibber (or the end of a pencil), create a hole in the growing medium to accommodate the leaf stem. You want it on an angle so the cutting will sit at 45-degrees with the fuzzy side up.
Insert the leaf cutting, ensuring that the bottom of the leaf is just above soil level.
5 Close the Clamshell
A clamshell creates a terrarium-like environment for the cuttings. You can also sit a plastic bag over top or simply ensure that your growing space has decent humidity.
Place under grow lights for 12 hours per day or provide gentle, east-facing natural light.
Maintain consistent conditions the best you can, avoiding any drastic temperature, light, or moisture changes.
6 Keep Moist
How often you water the growing medium will depend entirely on the humidity levels and other growing conditions in your home. Water droplets should form on the inner side of the clamshell lid. If they are present, no watering is necessary.
7 Watch for Growth
In 2-3 months, you should notice little green balls appearing at soil level. These will grow into new stems and leaves.
When there are at least four strong leaves, you can repot into African violet growing mix in a tiny pot (they do not like big pots), or you can wait it out if everything still looks strong and healthy.
Sometimes I have had the original cutting die off naturally during this time, other times it hangs in there.
Also, not every new stems may survive or you may need to reduce how many you keep to ensure that they each have adequate growing space. There are several videos on YouTube showing this separation and potting process in case you need it.
Here Are Some Results
These are how the potted cuttings look almost 4 months later:
8 Congratulations, You Did It
Around 6-7 months you should have enough new growth from a crown to pot up your new plant. Blooms may arrive in these next few months, if your growing conditions encourage it.
Should I Use Fertilizer?
I have ready all sorts of contradictory advice about using fertilizers during the propagation phase. Personally, I do not use any so I have no experience to share.
Once mature, African violets can benefit from modest doses of liquid fertilizer made for this species of houseplant, as well as Superthrive. Over-use of these products can harm or kill the plants so do follow the instructions on the product labels carefully.
I would research them first before making a selection. The ones I see recommended in the U.S. are not readily available to me here in Canada so I haven’t checked them out.
~Melissa the Empress of Dirt ♛
- African Violet Society of America | Good resource for growing tips, community, plant sales, and local chapters
- African Violet Society of Canada | Good resource for growing tips, community, plant sales, and local chapters
- African Violets (Saintpaulias) | Wikipedia
- African Violet Blooming Tips | PDF format | avsa.org
- The Houseplant Guru – African Violets | Lisa Eldred Steinkopf | Wonderful resource for houseplant growing tips
Summary: African Violet propagation from leaf cuttings is an easy way to expand your collection. Propagation can be done by placing leaf cuttings in water or soil. Learn the propagation techniques in this article and videos.
Growing African violets – botanically Saintpaulia ionantha is very simple. Their care is pretty easy and they propagate readily through division or leaf cuttings. However, propagation by leaf cuttings is probably the most popular.
How To Propagate African Violets
The two most practical methods for rooting divisions or leaf cuttings is by placing the African violet plants in either soil or water as both methods are practical.
Rooting An African Violet In Water
When selecting a leaf cutting, choose middle-sized leaves, cut them with about an inch of leaf stem (called the petiole).
Make sure to watch the below video on how to grow African violets through leaf cuttings.
To give the leaves the best conditions, prepare a clear glass, a transparent plastic jar or plastic pots with a top that’s wider than its bottom part.
This will allow you to easily monitor the water and roots.
If you doubt the cleanliness of the water, boil it for three minutes and let it cool down before using.
Warm water and cold water will harm the young roots.
Cover a water-filled glass tumbler or mason jar with wax paper held in place with a rubber band.
Pierce the paper in three places. Insert the leaf stems in these holes and deeply enough for the stems to reach into the water.
Set glass or jar where the leaf-cutting receives about the same light your growing plants do – indirect light or sunny window. I root and grow under florescent grow lights.
Speed the rooting process by dusting the cut end in rooting hormone powder.
If you use faucet rather than rain water, let it stand uncovered for twenty-four hours beforehand so that all chlorine may be released.
In two to four weeks, depending on variety and location, roots should appear at the ends of the stems. Change the water then.
By the end of another week or so small green leaves may appear at the base of each parent leaf.
If the parent leaves began to deteriorate, you can now make a transfer of rooted leaves by potting into 2-inch pots of light soil or pure sand with drainage holes.
If the parent leaves remain firm and healthy, wait until a cluster of leaves about one inch long appears before transplanting African Violets.
Transplant cuttings into solid media (moistened vermiculite or 50% bagged African violet plant soil mix – 50% perlite) when the leaves of plantlets unfold and the pot plants are about an inch high.
A two inches small pot soil is right for this first shift.
Place transparent plastic bags (or use plastic bottles) over the new plants to ward off shock. These can be removed within a week.
After six weeks of growing, the plants can then be shifted into three-inch pots and given regular African violet care.
You can let them flower in these pots, and as they mature, move them into four-inch pots.
Transferring from Water To Soil…
To make the transfer from water to soil with the least possible danger and best possible results to the developing plants, try this suggested system:
Use a small butter tub cup containing a small amount of water.
Place the rooted leaf in the vessel, spreading the roots.
Sift fine soil (moist not wet) around them until all the water has been absorbed.
Then both the soil and leaf may be lifted out with the aid of a spoon.
Expect some little setback from watering to soil transfer while roots are adjusting to the new medium.
African Violets propagation time varies. The leaves of some varieties root very quickly, while other varieties certainly take their time.
No leaves can be depended upon to produce roots quickly as long as the parent leaf or mother remains healthy and does not soften and decay, the growth of roots and new leaves will eventually occur.
Sometimes it actually takes months before you see the African Violet leaves sprouting from the small plant.
When quite a cluster of new leaves appears, cut the parent leaves away.
Remove the parent leaf sooner if it shows signs of deterioration but often it is not necessary to discard it for a long time.
If a variety is scarce or your supply limited, you may be able to grow a second or even a third crop of saintpaulias from the same treasured leaf.
Each time you will, of course, be working with a shorter, sharply cut petiole until a third planting is made perhaps with no petiole at all and only the leaf base to insert in the soil.
Even so, you can expect success as many have found from experience that the same leaf will produce as fine a third crop as it did a first.
In less than five months, however, you will have well-established plants which should in less than a year produce flowers.
African Violet Propagating From Leaf Cuttings Video
Rooting Leaves in Soil
Propagating leaf cuttings in water is one way to increase your collection.
Another method enthusiasts use is to start their leaf cuttings or plant divisions directly in soil – in either pots or trays.
They use jars, pots, terrariums, aquariums and even plastic soda bottles which help make an excellent makeshift greenhouse for propagating.
Using a potting soil media of moistened vermiculite or 50% bagged African violet soil potting mix – 50% perlite insert the leaves just deep enough for them to escape the soil surface.
If the leaves rest on it, rot often starts. Firm the soil mixture well around each stem
Set the “mini greenhouse” away from direct sunlight. Over the top cover with a piece of cellophane secured by a rubber band. Little attention will now be needed for several weeks.
The first few days after planting inspect the soil to be sure you moistened it well enough at the start for it to stay damp. If moisture collects on the sides of the glass, remove the cover long enough to wipe away the excess and reduce some humidity.
In-room temperature and not so sunny place such attention will hardly be necessary.
In four to six weeks the rooted leaves will be at the new-plant stage and ready for potting separately.
Video on Separating African Violet Leaf Cuttings
Variation – Starting Plants Grown In A Pot-in-Pan Method
Then there is the pot-in-pan method. Use moist sand, sand and peat moss, moistened vermiculite or 50% bagged African violet soil mix – 50% perlite for a rooting mixture
Fill a large porous bulb pan with this and into the center insert a small stoppered clay flowerpot.
Keep the small center pot filled with water. The amount of water will decrease because of slow seepage through the walls of the inner pot
This seepage provides the surrounding soil area with adequate and even moisture
Insert the leaf stems in the soil at a slight angle, the upper surfaces to the front
In two to four weeks roots will form and in the course of another month new sprouts will push up to the surface
In three months’ time, well-developed plants will form and be ready for separate potting.
Any one of these methods – water glass, aquarium, pot-in-pan – or your own variation of them, will start a violet plants collection for you or increase the valued number already in hand.
Some use Rootone to advantage and with it developed flowering plants in a four-month period. Others report that root-growing substances with rooting their African violets (Saintpaulias).
In any case, rooting and flowering of African violets seem to be hastened by a spring rather than an autumn start.
Some amateurs, indeed, have reported late September flowering from early May propagating.
Perhaps the former idea that leaf-to-blossom took a year was based on autumn and winter propagating.
Even so, flowering in less than eight months is fairly unusual.
Propagating By Division
With a little time and experimenting, you’ll soon be a pro at propagating African violets and expanding your “blooming” collection.
There are many diseases that can affect African Violets. They include bacterial blight, botrytis blight, foliar nematode, phytophthora crown rot, powdery mildew, pythium root rot, rhizoctonia crown rot, and ring spot. Bacterial blight shows up as dark reddish brown to black rotting areas on the roots and crown. Infected petioles have a greasy appearance. This can be avoided by not taking infected cuttings, avoiding high temperature and humidity conditions, and keeping new plants separate from old plants. Botrytis blight appears as small, water-soaked lesions on damages petioles and then they spread to leaf blades and infected flowers fade prematurely. This can be prevented by spacing plants and providing proper ventilation, removing fading flowers and yellowing leaves, and applying fungicides to protect healthy tissue. Foliar nematodes appear as small, tan sunken areas on the lower surfaces of leaves. These spots become dry and dull black as they grow larger and plant growth is stunted. Infected plants must be destroyed. Water plants so that the leaves stay dry and no water splashes from plant to plant. Phytophthora crown rot is dark and water-soaked in appearance. It spreads to the petioles and leaf blades and leaves remain firmly attached as the plant collapses. This can be prevented by not propagating infected plants and applying fungicides to healthy tissue. Powdery mildew is a white, mealy fungal growth on the leaves and flowers and it causes them to dry out and die. This can only be prevented by applying fungicide to healthy tissue. Pythium root rot turns roots a dark brown color and plants become wilted and yellow. Do not propagate infected plants and apply a fungicide to protect healthy tissue. Rhizoctonia crown rot causes plants to wilt, collapse, blacken, and die. Reddening of infected tissue may occur at the soil line and leaves readily detach from collapsing plants. You must destroy infected plants and apply a fungicide to protect healthy tissue. Ring spot causes a bright yellow or bleach ring to form on dark green leaves. This can be prevented by keeping irrigation water off of the foliage and using water that is room temperature (“African Violet Diseases”, 2016).
African violets are a great “gateway drug” into flowering houseplants. There’s no shortage of different colors and flower forms available. Did you know you can create more plants for yourself with a single leaf? And these new plants may or may not look like the original? Read how below!
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I have vivid memories of my mom and African violets. She’s really a sort of “violet whisperer”– she’s had plants that I swear were in flower 365 days a year. Got an African violet that won’t flower? Give it to my mom and she’ll have it blooming in no time!
I guess I didn’t inherit my mom’s magic touch with African violets. I’ve killed more than a few in my life– mostly from plain old neglect, but occasionally mealybug infestations have been to blame.
But I’m not without an African violet super-power– one of my favorite projects is to propagate them and make more plants using leaf cuttings. Because who doesn’t want more plants?
In all honesty some of my African violet propagating talents were honed by some of my spectacular failures in keeping the original plant alive. Sometimes all I could do to salvage anything was to take leaf cuttings and start over!
My background is in plant genetics and breeding. So for those of you that share my plant geek tendencies, you will be thrilled to know that African violets for whatever reason, have a relatively high rate of mutation in their leaves. So there is a good chance that the flower on the plant you propagated will look different than the parent plant.
This is especially true for African violets with multi-colored flowers, whether they’re spotted, splotched or something in between. Flower color can vary over time even on the same plant in these cases.
So how do I do it?
My favorite resource book:
Choose a healthy unblemished leaf. If you don’t have many leaves to pick from, you can get by with a leaf that’s not perfect, but the petiole, or “stem” of the leaf should be unblemished, firm and green. Pass up any leaf with a brown squishy petiole, or spots on the leaf that you can’t remove.
With a little luck you can remove an entire leaf with an angled tug. To be perfectly honest, I’m not very good at this. I usually resort to using a paring knife or razor blade. Make sure you disinfect with rubbing alcohol ideally between cuts, but at least between plants.
In time African violet leaf cuttings should produce a new plant, but using rooting hormone will speed things along considerably faster.
I used a paring knife to remove this African violet leaf from the mother plant. I put a small amount of rooting powder into a small bowl to avoid contaminating all of my rooting powder with moisture.
The typical rooting hormone formulation is a white powder that comes in a small jar. It’s mostly inert powder, plus a tiny amount of plant hormone that will tell the leaf cells to start growing as root cells.
Other rooting hormones come as a liquid or gel.
To use rooting hormone, put a small amount on a plate or other container. Never dip plant cuttings directly into the jar! Moisture will ruin the contents. Rooting hormone is good for years if you keep it cool and dry. Plus if your cuttings happen to harbor disease, you are potentially spreading all of that mess around to future cuttings.
Dip the cut end of each leaf in the rooting hormone, paying most attention to the cut end. Tap the leaf to get rid of any excess powder.
Moist Planting Mix
You don’t need a large deep pot of soil for your leaf cuttings– actually you’ll have better luck managing a shallower container.
The thing to remember is the cuttings need constant moisture, but not too much. If they are too moist they will rot. Using commercial seed starting mix or even straight vermiculite are the best options for African violet cuttings. If you use regular potting mix, keep a close eye out for excess moisture.
Moisten whatever mix you’re using before you start. The moisture level should be similar to a wrung out washcloth. If your mix is super-dry to start with, it may work better to fill your pots, set them in a bowl or saucer, water them in, and let them sit for an hour or more to let the mix absorb the water before using. Empty any excess water remaining in the bowl of saucer and let the pots drain while you get the cuttings ready.
I used a pencil to make a hole for my leaf cutting. You only need to insert an inch or so of the leaf petiole in the planting mix.
Use a chop stick or pencil to make a small hole in moistened planting mix. This way you’re not removing the rooting hormone from the leaf cutting by inserting it in the mix. Carefully place the cutting into the hole, and gently push the soil in place around the cutting. You only need to insert about an inch of the leaf petiole into the hole. Covering more can lead to rot.
Depending on the container you’re using, you can anywhere from one to several cuttings per container. Leave a couple of inches between leaf cuttings. New plantlets will emerge at the point where the petiole meets the planting mix– so make sure you can see this point!
Keeping the cuttings from drying out is critical. Seal up the pot and cuttings in a plastic zip-top bag or another container that lets light in. The cuttings should get some bright light, but stay away from direct sunlight, which will cook your cuttings.
You can test whether your cuttings are “working” by giving a gentle tug after a couple of weeks. Cuttings that have some resistance are rooting in. In a few more weeks you should see tiny leaves of the new plantlet at soil level.
I put four leaf cuttings in this three-inch pot, sealed it in a zip-top bag and put it under my LED plant light.
Move plantlets to their own pot after they have at least 4 quarter-sized leaves. They will be more forgiving if you let them get fairly big before transplanting. Use good judgement if you have packed your cuttings in close though; you don’t want the plantlets so big you risk breaking them while untangling them from their neighbors. You may need to move them a little earlier to avoid too much entanglement.
Do you have an overgrown African violet with a bare “neck”? This same procedure for taking leaf cuttings will work for essentially treating the entire plant from the bare “neck” up as a leaf cutting.
It does take a healthy dose of courage, but you make a clean cut across the “neck”, dip that cut end in rooting hormone (optional), and pot it up just like a leaf cutting. In a month or so, it should form new roots.
My sister Deb cut this overgrown African violet off at the base, and stuck a couple inches of the bare “neck” straight into potting mix, no rooting hormone. She sealed the plant up in a clear bag for about a month and it rooted in perfectly by then.
Leave the stump of the original plant in it’s pot, keep the soil slightly moist and you should eventually see plantlets form around the base. You can let the plantlets grow as is, or separate them from the parent plant once they have roots.
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When I was an art student living in a tiny room, I had a beautiful white African Violet plant on my east facing window sill. It never stopped blooming. The early morning sunlight dancing on the little plant would always put a smile on my face.
African violet is one of the most loved indoor plants. Most indoor plants are foliage plants, but African Violet blooms all the time and comes in so many colors. They are easy to grow and propagate. You can root a new plant easily from a single leaf cutting!
I tried 2 ways to do this, and got 100% success! Let’s look at both ways and the pros and cons of each, so you can start your beautiful African Violet collection for every room and to share as gifts!
The first method is similar to how we root tomatoes, as described in this post from last year-
Find a healthy leaf, use a clean and sharp knife to slice it off at the base. Take care not to harm other parts of the plant.
Fill a bottle with room temperature water. the opening of the bottle should be a little smaller than the leaf so the stem of each leaf can be in water, while the rest of the leaf is above water.
Put the leaf cuttings out of direct sun, in a bright and warm spot. After 2-4 weeks, you will see roots forming. Now carefully plant each leaf in moist potting soil, and let the little plants grow!
The second propagation method is simply to plant the leaves directly in moist potting soil. You can bury each leaf about 1/3 of the way, if the stems are too short to be stable.
No rooting hormones needed. No need to water them either because of a humidity tent – a clear plastic bag propped over the pot. Roots will start growing in 2-4 weeks.
I planted all these leaf cuttings thinking I would get one or two to root, but they ALL rooted!
After 4 weeks, remove the humidity tent, and water as the soil starts to become dry.
A couple of weeks later, buds grew from the base of the rooted stems to become clusters of new leaves, and flowers eventually! I separated these leaf cuttings into additional pots so each plant has more room to grow.
Comparisons of the 2 methods and growing tips:
- The soil method is easier since it’s only one step.
- The water method gives us more assurance because we can see the roots growing.
- African Violet loves bright shade or some early morning sun.
- They are easy to care for. Just don’t them dry out or sit in water for too long.
Please feel free to share any great tips you have in the comments! =)
Can’t get enough indoor plants? Check out these bullet proof plants that also clean indoor air!
And this easy to build tropical living wall from pallet wood!
Happy growing! xo
Propagating African Violets: Tips For Easy African Violet Propagation
Delicate, fuzzy-leafed African violets are exotic, agreeable plants with flowers that come in a wide range of pinks to purples. They always lend a soft touch of bright color and coziness to any room. Do you find yourself wanting more African violets? No need to go buy new plants…they’re easy and fun to propagate. Once you understand how simple it is to propagate African violets, it’s easy to become a bit obsessed with them.
Propagating African Violets from Seed
You can propagate African violets from seed, but it does require a couple of specific conditions. To sprout these tiny seeds, it’s good to use a light soil mixture of peat, vermiculite and greensand. A bit of Epsom salt can help to lighten the soil even more.
It’s important that you have a warm space, so make sure your room temperature is between 65- and 75-degrees Fahrenheit (18-24 C.). This should also be the temperature of your soil for optimal sprouting. Your seeds should germinate in 8 to 14 days.
Growing African Violets from Leaf Cuttings
Propagating African violets from leaf cuttings is the most popular method because it’s so easy and successful. Plan to do this project in the spring. Using a sterile knife or scissors, remove a healthy leaf along with its stem from the base of the plant. Trim the stem down to about 1-1.5 inches (2.5-3.8 cm.).
You may want to dip the tip of the stem into some rooting hormone. Place the cutting in a one-inch deep (2.5 cm) hole in potting soil. Press the soil firmly around it and water thoroughly with tepid water.
It’s a good idea to create a little greenhouse environment for your cutting by covering the pot with a plastic bag and securing it with a rubber band, being sure to give the cutting some occasional fresh air. Place the pot in a sunny location, keeping the soil just moist.
Roots will usually form in 3 to 4 weeks. The leaves of new little plants usually appear in 6 to 8 weeks. You should see several plants form at the base the cutting. Separate the small new plants by carefully pulling or cutting them apart. Each of them will give you a brand new plant.
Dividing African Violet Plants
Separating plants is another method of easy African violet propagation. Using the division technique involves cutting the crown from the plant or separating the pups, or suckers, from a plant, making sure that each portion you’ve cut away has a piece of the main plant’s root system.
This is great if your African violets have grown too large for their pots. Each piece can be planted its own pot with suitable African violet potting soil mix to instantly multiply your collection of African violets.
It’s fun to see your home propagated seedlings turn into full sized, flowering plants. Propagating African violets is a great pastime for people who love them. It’s fun to add to your houseplant collection with these attractive and easy-care plants. They’re so simple to propagate, you can easily fill a sunlit room or office space with them.
Garden Gnome Wanderings
Yesterday I mentioned that the geraniums I had bought had propagation prohibited on the tag. Essentially the plant developer holds the rights to that plant so you are not supposed to propagate the plant by asexually means such as cuttings or divisions. You can however propagate the plant through pollination meaning you can collect seeds it produces. On the surface the Plant Holder’s Rights offers protection to the plant developer for their intellectual property. However, it is up to the plant developer to enforce their rights. They must go through the court system for damages if someone infringes on the Plant Holder’s Rights. Herein lies some of the problems with the Plant Holder’s Rights.
- The only policing of Plant Holder’s Rights is the person (company) who owns the rights to their protected plant. The onus is on them to provide evidence that you are asexually propagating their protected plant and selling or otherwise distributing it. Unless the plant has been rendered sterile through the hybridization it would be difficult to determine visually if propagation had been asexual or sexual. Genetically suspected plants could be tested but the reality is this is costly and not really feasible unless a lot of money is at stake.
- They cannot legally enter onto your property to see if you are propagating their protected plant. In extreme cases where there is sufficient evidence that you are selling their protected plant in amounts that would indicate that you were propagating large numbers of them, they might be able to get a warrant.
- Plant tags get lost all the time. As a home gardener it is easy to remember the names of plants but whether one is protected or not is a detail easily forgotten especially over the years. In a mature garden tags more than likely are non-existent. Adding to this problem is people often move inheriting whatever plants the previous owner planted in the gardens. Without plant tags the new homeowners have no idea whether a plant in the garden at the house the just moved into is a protected plant or not so may easily propagate the plant via cutting or division.
How does the Plant Holder’s Rights affect you as a home gardener in Canada? Essentially as long as you are not propagating a protected plant for the purposes of selling it you are fine. Taking a cutting or dividing the plant for your own personal use if fine especially as some plants must be divided otherwise they become too crowded and you end up losing the entire plant. I would not recommend trading any plant from your cuttings or divisions and certainly do not sell any. Trading does seem to be a bit of a grey area though as does giving away plants from cuttings or divisions. Again it goes back to the problem that you may not even know a plant in your garden is protected. You can certainly collect the seeds but realize that hybrids do not breed true. This in itself can be an interesting experiment just to see what you do end up with and you might like the resulting plants even though they don’t resemble the parental plant. You have a better chance of getting a parental type if you cross pollinate two of the hybrid plants. Some plant developers recognize this so have developed the plant to be sterile. If you want to avoid the whole issue of Plant Holder’s Rights then don’t buy any hybrid plant marked with PP, propagation prohibited, asexual propagation prohibited or PPAF (propagation prohibited application filed). Technically PPAF has no bearing on the home gardener since the plant is not and possibly might not be granted protection. Older heirloom varieties are another option for your gardens.