Shag bark hickory trees

The tree discussed here is specifically a shagbark-hickory, one of the many subspecies of hickory.

Key Attributes

Bark: Hickory trees have plates of vertical, rectangular bark. As the tree ages, the bark starts to lift at the bottom of each plate, somewhat resembling a piñata, hence the name shagbark-hickory.

Leaves: The leaves are very distinct with as many as 5-15 leaves growing along one stock. They grow in pairs opposite to each other with one leaf sticking off the end. The edges are sharply pointed around each leaf like a saw blade, turning bright yellow to brown in autumn.

Fruit: Hickory nuts start out green and turn brown as they ripen. There is a seam around the middle of the nut with white or tan meat inside. The husk separates into four parts at maturity. The seed is sweet and ripens in the fall.

Commercial Value:

We rate hickory trees as a second class tree based on its current demand in markets. The wood is very hard and springy. It is commonly used to make flooring, furniture, tool handles and sporting goods. It is also excellent for firewood, charcoal and smoking meats.

Benefit to Forest:

The nuts are an important food source for deer, birds and raccoons. In fact, they are arguably the favorite nut of a squirrel. The shaggy plates of the bark provides occasional cover for bats and frogs in the summer.


There are 10 species of hickories found in the midwest and 13 in North America. Other common species, aside from shagbark-hickory, found in Indiana include Bitternut-hickory, Mockernut-hickory, red-hickory, pignut-hickory, pale hickory and black hickory. Several features are unique to hickories that help aid in their recognize. Firstly, the nuts have a 4-part husk that looks different from other nuts. Furthermore, hickories often have leaf scars which are large and shaped like a shield.

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Shellbark Hickory

Additional information:
The genus name, Carya, is from the Greek name for the walnut tree (karya); its species name, laciniosa, means shredded or cleft into narrow divisions, referring to the loosening plates of bark. Although only a few hickory species exist outside of eastern North America (in eastern Asia), fossils indicate that hickories were once found in central Europe, China, the former Soviet Union, the western and southwestern U.S. and Alaska. Shellbark hickory has the largest nut of the hickories. Native Americans stored massive quantities of these hickory nuts, as “hickory milk” was a nutritious staple of most of their cooking. The wood of shellbark hickory is heavy and tough, yet flexible and shock-resistant. Because of these qualities, it is used in sporting goods, such as skis, and for tool handles. It is also used for furniture, veneer, fuel and charcoal. American pioneers were also aware of hickory’s excellence as a source of fuel and used the wood to heat their drafty cabins. Shellbark hickory, abundant at settlements on bottom lands, was overused. Native populations were nearly eliminated and today are still rare.Wild hickories have deep tap roots that make them difficult to transplant. All hickories leaf out late in the spring. Shellbark hickory was introduced into cultivation in North America in 1800.The 139-foot national champion is in Greenup, Ky.

Shagbark Hickory

Additional information:
Shagbark hickory was introduced into cultivation in 1629. It is the most commonly cultivated hickory today and native populations are rare. Although only a few hickory species exist outside of eastern North America (in eastern Asia), fossils indicate that hickories were once found in central Europe, China, the former Soviet Union, the western and southwestern U.S. and Alaska.

Shagbark hickory has a sweet, white nut that Native Americans stored in massive quantities and used to make “hickory milk,” a nutritious staple of most of their cooking.

The wood of shagbark hickory is famous for being heavy and tough, yet flexible and shock-resistant. Because of these qualities, it is used in sporting goods and tool handles. It was once used to make wheels and spokes for carriages and wagons, as well as for automobiles. Today it is used to make shafts and wheel spokes in horse-drawn vehicles, and for furniture, ladders and flooring. The wood is also used as fuel and to make high-quality charcoal to smoke bacon, ham and other meats.

The genus name, Carya, is from the Greek name for the walnut tree (karya); its species name, ovata, is Latin for ovate, referring to its egg-shaped nut husk, buds and leaves. The common name refers to the way the bark peels away from the trunk in long strips.

Description: This tree is typically 60-80′ tall at maturity, forming a straight trunk 2-3½’ across and an oblongoid-ovoid crown. Larger branches in the upper part of the crown are ascending, while those in the middle part are widely spreading, and those in the lower part are descending. Smaller branches and twigs are crooked. Trunk bark is light to medium gray, rough-textured, fissured, and shaggy from narrow plates that peel away from the trunk at their tips and/or bottoms. Branch bark is light gray and more smooth, while the glabrous stout twigs are light gray, light brown, or reddish brown with scattered white lenticels. Young shoots that develop from the twigs are light green and usually pubescent. The compound leaves are odd-pinnate with 5 leaflets (less often with 3 or 7 leaflets) and about 8-14″ long (see photo of Compound Leaf). The rachis (central stalk) of each compound leaf is light green and either glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent. At maturity, individual leaflets are 3-8″ long and about one-half as much across; the terminal leaflet is the largest, while the lowest lateral leaflets (first pair of a compound leaf) are the smallest. The leaflets are obovate or broadly elliptic in shape and their margins are serrated; tiny tufts of hair occur along the teeth of the margins, although these tend to fade away with age. For mature leaves, the upper leaflet surface is medium to dark green, shiny, and hairless, while the lower leaflet surface is pale green, dull, and hairless (or nearly so). Sometimes the lower leaflet surface of mature leaves has short fine hairs along the veins. At the base of each leaflet, there is a short petiolule (basal stalklet) that is light green and either glabrous or short-pubescent. The petiolules of the lateral leaflets are about 1/8″ (3 mm.) long, while the petiolule of each terminal leaflet is about ½” long. The petioles of the compound leaves are 3-6″ long, light green, and either glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent.
Shagbark Hickory is monoecious, producing separate male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on the same tree. The male flowers are produced in drooping yellowish green catkins near the tips of twigs; these catkins are arranged in groups of 3 (catkins in each group sharing the same basal stalk) and they are 3-6″ long. Individual male flowers are less than 1/8″ (3 mm.) across, consisting of several stamens and an insignificant calyx; each male flower is partially hidden by a 3-lobed bract. The female flowers are produced in short greenish spikes (about 1/3″ or 8 mm. long) at the tips of young shoots; there is typically 2-3 female flowers per spike. Individual female flowers are about 1/8″ (3 mm.) long and ovoid in shape, consisting of a calyx and a pistil with spreading stigmata at its apex. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring as the leaves develop. The flowers are cross-pollinated by the wind. Fertile female flowers are replaced by nearly sessile clusters of 1-3 fruits that develop during the summer and mature during autumn of the same year. Individual fruits are 1½-2″ long and 1½-2″ across (or a little less); they are globoid to ovoid-globoid in shape. The thick hairless husks of the fruits are light green while immature, becoming brownish black at maturity. Each husk is divided into 4 segments that are indented at their margins, providing the fruit with a ribbed appearance. The nut of each fruit is light tan, ovoid-globoid in shape, slightly 4-angled, and somewhat compressed; the meat of each nut is edible and sweet. The root system has a deep taproot with spreading lateral roots.
Cultivation: Shagbark Hickory prefers full or partial sun, mesic conditions, and deep loam or clay-loam. Conditions that are either moist (but well-drained) or dry-mesic are readily tolerated. It can be difficult to transplant this tree because of its deep taproot. Growth and development are rather slow. Individual trees begin to produce nuts at about 40 years of age and they may live up to 200-300 years.
Range & Habitat: The native Shagbark Hickory is occasional to common in Illinois, occurring in every county of the state (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland woodlands, drier areas of floodplain woodlands, lower wooded slopes, bluffs, and edges of limestone glades. This tree is often found in upland habitats that are dominated by oaks, but it also occurs in more mesic habitats where maples and other trees occur. These habitats usually consist of old-growth woodlands that are little disturbed, although some old trees have persisted in more disturbed areas. Shagbark Hickory is more resistant to fire than maples, but less resistant to fire than oaks. Sometimes young seedlings pioneer in burned-over areas.
Faunal Associations: A large number of insects feed on the wood, foliage, plant juices, and other parts of hickories (Carya spp.). Caterpillars of the butterflies Satyrium caryaevorum (Hickory Hairstreak) and Satyrium calanus falacer (Banded Hairstreak) feed on these trees, as do caterpillars of many moths (see Moth Table). Among these moth species, Catocala angusi (Angus Underwing), Catocala judith (Judith Underwing), and Catocala residua (Residua Underwing) feed on Shagbark Hickory exclusively (Wagner et al., 2009). Larvae of several beetles bore through the wood or bark of these trees (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table). Examples of these species include Lepturges discoidea (Hickory Saperda), Megacyllene caryae (Hickory Borer), and Scolytus quadrispinosus (Hickory Bark Borer). Larvae of the weevil Conotrachelus aratus (Hickory Shoot Curculio) feed on the shoots of hickories, while larvae of the weevil Conotrachelus hicoriae (Hickory Nut Curculio) feed on the meat of nuts. A large number of treehopper species have been observed to feed on Shagbark Hickory (Dennis, 1952); see the Treehopper Table for a list of these species.
Other insect feeders include the leaf beetles Cryptocephalus guttulatus and Xanthonia striata, the leafhoppers Eratoneura era and other Eratoneura spp., the aphids Monellia caryella and Monelliopsis nigropunctata, the plant bugs Lygocoris caryae and Plagiognathus albatus, and the lace bug Physatocheila plexus. For a more complete list of insect species that feed on hickories, see the Insect Table. Vertebrate animals also use Shagbark Hickory and other hickories as sources of food. The sweet edible nuts of Shagbark Hickory are an important source of food for the Fox Squirrel, Gray Squirrel, Red Squirrel, Southern Flying Squirrel, and Eastern Chipmunk; these nuts are also consumed by the Black Bear, Raccoon, and White-Footed Mouse. Among birds, such species as the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Wild Turkey, Crow, Blue Jay, and Red-Bellied Woodpecker eat the nuts. These animals help to distribute the nuts to new locations. White-Tailed Deer browse on the foliage and twigs of hickories sparingly, while the Cottontail Rabbit gnaws on the bark of young trees during the winter. Because hickory trees attract so many insects, they attract many species of flycatchers, vireos, chickadees, gnatcatchers, warblers, tanagers, and other insectivorous birds that prefer wooded habitats. Because of the crevices provided by its peeling bark, Shagbark Hickory in particular provides protective cover for many insects, particularly during the winter. These bark crevices also provide summer roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana Bat and nesting habitat for a small bird, the Brown Creeper.
Photographic Location: Crystal Lake Park in Urbana, Illinois.
Comments: Among the several hickories (Carya spp.) in Illinois, Shagbark Hickory is one of two species that has older trees with very shaggy bark. The other species, Kingnut Hickory (Carya laciniosa), usually has 7 leaflets per compound leaf, while Shagbark Hickory usually has 5 leaflets. A third species, Carya ovalis (Sweet Pignut Hickory), occasionally has somewhat shaggy bark, but it has smaller fruits (less than 1½”) than the preceding two species. The commercially important wood of Shagbark Hickory is highly regarded for its strength and hardness: It has been used to make furniture, flooring, tool handles, baseball bats, and other sporting equipment. It is also an excellent source of firewood. With the possible exception of Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory), the range of Shagbark Hickory extends further to the north than other hickories and it has considerable resistance to the harsh conditions of winter. This interesting tree should be cultivated in parks and yards more often than it is.

Shagbark Hickory Tree Info: Caring For Shagbark Hickory Trees

You won’t easily mistake a shagbark hickory tree (Carya ovata) for any other tree. Its bark is the silver-white color of birch bark but shagbark hickory bark hangs in long, loose strips, making the trunk look shaggy. Caring for these tough, drought-resistant native trees isn’t difficult. Read on for more shagbark hickory tree info.

Shagbark Hickory Tree Info

Shagbark hickory trees are native to the Eastern and Midwestern sections of the country, and are usually found in mixed forests with oaks and pines. Slow-growing giants, they can rise to a mature height of over 100 feet.

Shagbark hickory tree info suggests that these trees are very long lived. They are considered mature at the age of 40 years, and some 300-year-old trees continue to produce fruits with seeds.

This tree is a relative of the walnut, and its fruit is edible and delicious. It is eaten

by humans and wildlife alike, including woodpeckers, bluejays, squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons, turkeys, grosbeaks and nuthatches. The outer husk cracks to reveal the nut within.

What are Shagbark Trees Used For?

These hickories are interesting specimen trees because of the unusual shagbark hickory bark and their delicious nuts. However, they grow so slowly that they are rarely used in landscaping.

You might ask, then, what are shagbark trees used for? They are most often used for their strong wood. The wood of the shagbark hickory is prized for its strength, toughness and flexibility. It is used for shovel handles and sports equipment as well as firewood. As firewood, it adds a delicious flavor to smoked meats.

Planting Shagbark Hickory Trees

If you decide to start planting shagbark hickory trees, expect it to be the work of a lifetime. If you start from a very young seedling, remember that the trees don’t produce nuts for the first four decades of their lives.

Nor is it easy to transplant this tree once it is older. It quickly develops a strong taproot that goes straight down into the ground. This tap root helps it survive droughts but makes transplant difficult.

Plant your tree in well-drained soil. It grows in USDA plant hardiness zones 4 through 8 and prefers fertile, rich soil. However, the tree can tolerate almost any type of soil.

Caring for your shagbark hickory tree is a snap since it is resistant to insect pests and diseases. It requires no fertilizer and little water. Just make sure to allow it a large enough site to grow to maturity.

Carya Ovata: Shagbark Hickory1

Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2


Shagbark hickory reaches a height of 60 to 80 feet and spreads 25 to 35 feet. The tree has a picturesque, oval outline with the lower branches somewhat drooping, the upper branches upright, and the middle branches just about horizontal. Probably the best ornamental hickory due to the open branching habit and shaggy, gray bark.

Figure 1.

Mature Carya ovata: Shagbark Hickory


Ed Gilman

General Information

Scientific name: Carya ovata Pronunciation: KAIR-ee-uh oh-VAY-tuh Common name(s): Shagbark hickory Family: Juglandaceae USDA hardiness zones: 5A through 8A (Fig. 2) Origin: native to North America Invasive potential: little invasive potential Uses: specimen; shade Availability: somewhat available, may have to go out of the region to find the tree Figure 2.



Height: 60 to 80 feet Spread: 25 to 35 feet Crown uniformity: symmetrical Crown shape: oval Crown density: moderate Growth rate: slow Texture: coarse


Leaf arrangement: alternate (Fig. 3) Leaf type: odd-pinnately compound Leaf margin: serrate Leaf shape: oblanceolate, oblong, lanceolate Leaf venation: pinnate Leaf type and persistence: deciduous Leaf blade length: 4 to 8 inches Leaf color: green Fall color: yellow Fall characteristic: showy Figure 3.



Flower color: green Flower characteristics: showy


Fruit shape: oval, round Fruit length: 1 to 3 inches Fruit covering: dry or hard Fruit color: brown, green Fruit characteristics: attracts squirrels/mammals; showy; fruit/leaves a litter problem Figure 4.


Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: branches don’t droop; showy; typically one trunk; thorns Pruning requirement: little required Breakage: resistant Current year twig color: brown, gray Current year twig thickness: thick Wood specific gravity: 0.72


Light requirement: full sun, partial sun, or partial shade Soil tolerances: clay; sand; loam; acidic; slightly alkaline; well-drained; occasionally wet Drought tolerance: moderate Aerosol salt tolerance: none


Roots: not a problem Winter interest: yes Outstanding tree: yes Ozone sensitivity: tolerant Verticillium wilt susceptibility: susceptible Pest resistance: resistant to pests/diseases

Use and Management

Growth rate is slow and the tree is somewhat difficult to transplant due to a coarse root system but the tree is adaptable to many different soils. There is usually a tap root on trees grown in well-drained soil. The nuts are produced in abundance and are edible and used by birds and mammals but must also be cleaned up from the ground in a maintained landscape. They can damage cars when they fall from the tree, so do not locate them near streets or parking areas. Shagbark hickory grows best in a sunny location and light well-drained soil. It grows naturally in moist river bottoms, not inundated flood plains.

The tree has two ornamental characteristics: peeling, shaggy bark, which peels off in long strips, and a golden yellow fall color. The light grey bark is quite striking. Not a tree for general use, shagbark hickory is best saved for an occasional specimen on golf courses and parks and in other open areas.


Aphids of various types feed on hickory causing distorted and stunted growth. The hickory leaf stem gall causes the formation of hollow green galls on leaves, stems, and twigs. The galls form in June and turn black in July. The galls are up to a half inch in diameter.

Hickory bark beetles mine the bark and sapwood. The boring causes wilting of young twigs, or trunks may be girdled and trees killed. Keep trees healthy by fertilizing regularly and by watering during dry weather. It can kill trees of low vigor.

The twig girdler larva girdles twigs causing weakened twigs to break off and drop. The larva is about a half-inch-long and rides the branch to the ground where it overwinters. Gather the fallen twigs and destroy them.

June beetles eat the leaves of hickory at night. The injury is usually not severe but can be mysterious since no insects are seen during the day.

Caterpillars of various types feed on hickory.

Scales of various types attack hickory but can be controlled with sprays of horticultural oil.

Spittlebugs can be a nuisance.


Hickory anthracnose or leaf spot is caused by a fungus. In wet years the disease causes severe defoliation. The symptoms are large reddish brown spots on the upper leaf surface but brown on the lower surface. The spots may not have distinct marginal markings. The disease overwinters on fallen diseased leaves so dispose of infected leaves in the fall. A large number of fungi cause leaf spots on hickory. Severe infections can cause defoliation. Many of the fungi overwinter on diseased leaves, dispose of infected leaves when they fall.

Witches broom can follow a leaf spot disease. Symptoms are yellow blotches on the upper sides of the leaves but white on the undersides. Severe infections may cause defoliation, and when the fungus invades the stem a witches broom forms. Leaves on the stems of the witches broom are yellowish, small, and fall prematurely. Prune out witches brooms when they form.

Powdery mildew causes a white powdery growth on the leaves. If the disease occurs late in the season, no chemical control will be needed.

Try to prevent cankers by keeping trees healthy through watering during dry weather and regular fertilization. Avoid wounding the trees unnecessarily and prune out weak or dead branches.

Verticillium wilt kills individual branches or sometimes entire sections of the tree. Foliage on affected branches wilts and later turns brown. Keep trees healthy and prune out small infected branches.


This document is ENH282, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Reviewed February 2014. Visit the EDIS website at

Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county’s UF/IFAS Extension office.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.

hickory species growth rate/fall color

About deer. When we were looking for a lot to build our home, I saw a deer grazing on the one we decided upon. I realized then that I would have frequent visiting deer. I was right. She’s had many fawns since then, sometimes twins and the whole lot of those use our lot as part of a path they do each day, so I see them in the morning working their way north. Evening they are back working their way back to wherever it is that they go for the night. I asked a professional what they like, she told me of 3 choices, among those I chose yellow stick dogwoods. So I planted a whole row of them from the street to where the property ends and they continue their journey. Only once in ten years have they strayed from that path. Special circumstance of a splendid large pot of flowers meant as a gift the next day placed in my courtyard (I’d NEVER had the knowledge that deer would come in through the garden entrance before that! Obviously highly desirable tasty bits!!!) . The deer trimmed about a fourth of it during the night. 🙁 Other than that they’ve left the rest of the garden untouched.. Nice part about the grazing path is they help keep those bushes trimmed! Granted ten years later as the bushes have grown they’ve had a hard time keeping up with the growth!!! I don’t begrudge the deer their need to eat. They were here before I was. This was part of their route. A simple row of tasty bushes leads them on their way, and allows for their requirements as well as mine. Curiously a neighbor has screened his roses, while the deer ignore mine. I’ve seen them behave in a remarkably intelligent manner. Some two year old males go through an insubordinate phase. I’ve come to wonder if they recognize my effort to live in peace with them and they respect me in return. While that might seem overly animistic, I did watch mama deer teach her fawn to stop at the red stop sign and wait, when they could hear a car coming. (Car was not visible) as soon as that car arrived and passed that spot, doe and fawn crossed the street, neither showed a bit of interest in terms of eating at all while they waited. Clearly the pause was done due to car approaching from the other side of the hill we live on, and were aware of the difference between noise of car approaching vs leaving. Imagine that, deer get Doppler Effect. Maybe the most important aspect might be one I came to without realizing it. Dogwoods taste better than anything else in my garden. Mostly, I find, some sharing works best. Not difficult to do a strip for wildlife along the edge that is agreeable that allows us to share space with the animals that require so little. Happier still is we have lots of choices of what they do prefer so we can still enjoy the look of your wildlife strip. You want the wildlife strip to have plantings that wildlife finds tastier than what you put in your garden meant for your own enjoyment. The happiest aspect of my yellow stick dogwood bushes is those have a very high priority for deer when it comes to edibles! Red stick are as good to eat as well if you happen to be a deer. As for beauty…. they are green and will trim into nice large rounds. (At least the ones furthest from beginning points. Those still have yet to reach needs trimming size in terms of human help. Deer do a great job! They’ve been in the ground for 10 years, so you might get an idea of how efficient they are! Or the reverse viewpoint, 2 bushes seem adequate to their needs, the rest is up to you in terms of what you want from an esthetic aspect. Deer are deer and they have fairly well defined routes. Thus all those deer crossing signs you see! One of my favorite bits of ignorant lore is the fellow who called his city to ask them to move the deer crossing sign from his yard as he didn’t want all the deer crossing into his yard and asked the city to move the sign so they’d cross elsewhere. If you are on the route, you will have deer. You can fight the fight of course, but I think its smarter to pick one easier to win. You likely have things in your yard that they love to eat, so its pretty much saying, welcome for dinner then complaining that they came. Sometimes its your yard is on the way between 2 desirable locations, but that would mean they are just walking through, to complain implies they are doing plant damage, also known as grazing on tasty bits. The human equivalent would be if you give your neighbor’s children a cookie every time they see you, they’ll soon be knocking on your door asking for cookies when they want one. Deer simply wander by and take what’s already out for them. The only lore I’ve heard about that I’ve heard has a high success rate is in the awkward category. Typically predators (meat eaters) mark their territory. (Yes it is a free commodity, no need to go to the hardware store.) I’ve heard if you mark the greenery you don’t want them to eat they will avoid it. First rain its all washed away so it will need another application. If you drink a few glasses of water along with your morning bacon or sausage you should be well stocked up within a couple of hours. My guess is, you are not going to care for the smell in your garden any more than the deer do with this natural deer repellent. If it rains a lot in your area…… I think my live in harmony is easier by far! Its worked very well for me for ten years! Those bushes do a great job! Can’t remember what I paid for the bushes. Worth every penny and they just get more value by the year! You might think of that as a one time buy lifetime solution. Or you already have a very good choice for your wild strip to share! I put in nearly 20 bushes of yellow stick dogwood. The deer are not all that greedy! I’ve wound up with so many yellow stick dogwoods that the majority need to be trimmed. Even what began as a single doe and now has about 10 of her offspring using the same route, its still way beyond what they’ll eat.

SelecTree: Tree Detail

General Notes

A common hickory in the eastern United States and southeast Canada. Related to Black Walnut, this tree produces juglone but to a lesser degree. Juglone is an organic compound that is harmful or toxic to other plants.

Has fragrant Leaf.

Native to Eastern United States and Southeastern Canada.

Family: Juglandaceae

Additional Common Names


Tree Characteristics

Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space.

Oval or Umbrella Shape.

Has Deciduous foliage.

Height: 80 feet.

Width: 50 feet.

Growth Rate: 12 to 24 Inches per Year.

Longevity Greater than 150 years.

Leaves Pinnately Compound Odd, Gray Green or Medium Green, Bronze or Gold, Deciduous.

Flowers Inconspicuous. Flowers in Spring. Has separate male and female flowers on the same tree (monoecious).

Brown Nut enclosed in a Husk, Large (1.50 – 3.00 inches), fruiting in Fall Edible.

Bark Dark Gray or Light Gray, Exfoliating or Scaly.

Shading Capacity Rated as Dense in Leaf.

Shading Capacity Rated as Moderate out of Leaf.

Litter Issue is Wet Fruit.

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