Sago palm white fungus

Fixing White Spots On Sago Palms: How To Get Rid Of White Scale On Sagos

Sago palms are actually not palm trees but an ancient plant form called a Cycad. These plants have been around since the time of the dinosaurs and are hardy, tenacious specimens, but even the mighty may be laid low by tiny little pests. In this case, if a sago palm has white dots, you need to be ready for battle. White spots on sago palms are likely an introduced form of scale insect, which has become almost an epidemic in warm regions of the country where sagos naturally grow. To prevent the death of the cycad, you need to know how to get rid of white scale on sagos.

White Spots on Sago Palms

Cycad aulacaspis is only tempted by plants in the cycad family. Once you see it, you have an infestation that is very difficult to get rid of since it is likely on neighboring sagos and can be blown onto plants with each gust of wind.

The appearance of white fuzzy stems, leaves and trunks signals a huge problem. Scale is a tiny sucking insect and, in high populations, the bugs can sap the plant of much of its life-giving fluid

and kill it.

The insects have a protective waxy armor, which is white to yellow. They are so tiny that finding the problem before the plant is overrun is almost impossible. Once the population has bloomed, all parts of your plant can be infected and the pest’s presence is obvious.

How to Get Rid of White Scale on Sagos

Treating sago palm scale is crucial to rescuing the plant’s health, but it’s not an easy process. This is because the insects can just blow back onto revived plants and their ability to hide in cracks, and even the roots, prevents some controls from working completely.

First prune off any infested fronds. Then apply paraffin based horticultural oil to all parts of the plant. Mix 3 tablespoons of oil with water and spray the entire palm. Don’t forget under the leaves and the trunk. Apply two to three times with five days between each application. Neem oil can also be used.

For better control, use a systemic insecticide. These work best as soil drenches applied at the rate recommended by the manufacturer. The benefit of these is that the roots take up the chemical and the insects suck it out and die. It also can get the persistent scale on roots.

There is a beetle and wasp that are being studied for treating sago palm scale. As natural predators, they would be effective in reducing populations in a non-toxic manner. Unfortunately, they are not commercially available.

Persistence is usually the rule when treating sago palm scale. Don’t forget to spray consistently or the pests will make a grand return.

Avoiding Misdiagnosis When Sago Has White Dots

When a sago palm has white dots, it might just be a natural occurrence. It might be mistaken for scale insects but is not. This is instead called scurf on sago palms. It is a normal condition, and the scurf will eventually fall off as the leaf matures.

The appearance is white and forms in raised elongated bumps that line up along the rachis and the leaflets. There doesn’t seem to be any purpose to scurf on sago palms, but it doesn’t damage the plant and does not require treatment.

I’ve recently received calls about sago palms and “some white stuff” on them. Others have described it as a “snow-like dusting” or even “a white fungus like film.” In most cases, the problem is an insect called Cycad Scale.

Cycad is the scientific name for sago palms. Tiny and white, cycad scales cover and leech on sago palm fronds. The technical name of this troublesome insect is Cycad aulacaspis scale, which is also known as Asian Cycad Scale.

These insects were inadvertently brought here from Thailand and were first found in Florida in the early 1990s. Recently, they made a devastating impact in the Rio Grande Valley here in Texas.

Cycad scales are easily controlled with insecticidal sprays or a homemade organic scale control. However, the problem is that the average homeowner fails to notice the condition and take the proper course of action before the infestation is beyond repair.

In Texas, cycad scale problems emerged in 2001. I discovered the insects on my sagos last year, and I treated the condition by using Malathion on the entire plant. I haven’t seen the problem since.

If you have a serious infestation, prune off fronds that are heavily coated with cycad scales. To help prevent re-infestation, dispose of cuttings in double-sealed plastic bags. For the earliest onset of these pests, chemical controls like Malathion work wonderfully. Other products for control are Acephate or Carbaryl (Sevin).

Organically, there are two ways to get control. You can use a dormant oil spray in December and January, or you can use our homemade version of the scale. The formula listed below came from our friends at Condon Gardens, one of the few, truly organic landscapers in Houston. control.

Mix in a gallon sprayer:

– 1 ounce of Molasses (Medina & GardenVille Molasses are great examples)

– 1 ounce of Garlic Oil (Garlic Barrier is the most widely recognized)

– 1 ounce of Liquid Seaweed (GardenVille Liquid Seaweed is well known)

– Then fill the rest with water.

If you have an inordinate amount of insects, such as aphids or whiteflies, you can also mix in a couple of ounces of liquid Pyrethrum and keep the spray organic, but create an instant “knockdown” of heavy infestations.

J.C. and Carter at Condon Gardens both agreed that if you just use the mixture occasionally, not only do you keep any insects from generating damaging populations but you get some natural disease control on landscapes with the Garlic Oil and Seaweed. If you were wondering about the need for the Agricultural Types of the Garlic and Molasses, the reason is pretty simple: The Agricultural ones haven’t been overly processed, and all the natural sugars and microbes etc. are still there and needed in the overall scheme of organic controls.

Obviously, you are not going to find all these products at your average garden center, especially mass merchandisers and big-box stores. But there are many independent nurseries and garden centers that carry all of these products. In fact, even if the list below doesn’t have any of the noted products on the shelves, they can easily order them in less than one week from the local distributors. These are just a few retailers that I know either carry such products or can get them for you in a matter of days. Again, just ask your local garden retailer if these are products that they can order for you if you don’t see a garden center near you on this list:

– Condon Gardens (Hammerly 2 blocks East of Wirt )

– RCW Nurseries (249 @ Beltway 8)

– Southwest Fertilizer (Bissonet & Renwick)

– Cornelius Nurseries (3 locations)

– ABC Country Store (In Katy, near Katy High School)

– Buchanan’s Native Plants (On 11th St. in the Heights)

– Maas Nursery (5511 Toddville Rd. in Seabrook)

Licensed applicators, such as pest control companies or certified landscaping services, can also use products containing dimethoate, pyriproxyfen and dinotefuran.

The best way to prevent cycad scale infestation is to check your sago palms once a week or at least once every two weeks. That way, you can look for anything out of the ordinary and catch these pests in their earliest of stages.

Sago Palms: Cycad Scale

I’ve recently received calls about sago palms and “some white stuff” on them. Others have described it as a “snow-like dusting” or even “a white fungus like film.” In most cases, the problem is an insect called Cycad Scale.
Cycad is the scientific name for sago palms. Tiny and white, cycad scales cover and leech on sago palm fronds. The technical name of this troublesome insect is Cycad aulacaspis scale, which is also known as Asian Cycad Scale.
These insects were inadvertently brought here from Thailand and were first found in Florida in the early 1990s. Recently, they made a devastating impact in the Rio Grande Valley here in Texas.
Cycad scales are easily controlled with insecticidal sprays or a homemade organic scale control. However, the problem is that the average homeowner fails to notice the condition and take the proper course of action before the infestation is beyond repair.
In Texas, cycad scale problems emerged in 2001. I discovered the insects on my sagos last year, and I treated the condition by using Malathion on the entire plant. I haven’t seen the problem since.
If you have serious infestation, prune off fronds that are heavily coated with cycad scales. To help prevent re-infestation, dispose cuttings in double-sealed plastic bags. For the earliest onset of these pests, chemical controls like Malathion work wonderfully. Other products for control are Acephate or Carbaryl (Sevin).
Organically, there are two ways to get control. You can use a dormant oil spray in December and January, or you can use our homemade version of scale control. Licensed applicators, such as pest control companies or certified landscaping services, can also use products containing dimethoate, pyriproxyfen and dinotefuran.
The best way to prevent cycad scale infestation is to check your sago palms once a week or at least once every two weeks. That way, you can look for anything out of the ordinary and catch these pests in their earliest of stages.

Sago Palm White Spots

Tom,
Sago palms can be attacked by several different species of scale and also by mealybugs. Your description sounds like it may be cycad or aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui) that you are seeing but I can’t know for sure without seeing a sample. If you will cut off a frond or section of a frond with the pests on it, place it in a plastic bag, secure the bag closed and then drop it off at the Harris County Extension Office at the address below we can examine it, identify the pest and prescribe a course of action to control it. There is no charge for this service.
In the absence of a postitive identification, you may have success controlling the pest with sprays of horticultural oil directed upward to coat the undersides of all fronds and the trunk. Repeat sprays weekly for a month or more. Combining the oil sprays with a systemic insecticide product containing the ingredient imidocloprid may also enhance your control efforts. However I suggest you start by dropping off a sample so we can know for sure which pest we are dealing with.

12 Diseases of Palms In South Florida Landscapes [Prevent It!]

There are 12 known diseases of palms in South Florida and the ones that kill your palms are not curable but most are preventable. 8 of the palm diseases in South Florida have no cure yet.

How Do Diseases of Palms Infect Your Palm Trees & What You Can Do To Prevent It!

All disease pathogens need 2 things to infect a palm tree, they need the right palm species and the right conditions in order to infect the palm. Pests and Diseases are opportunistic they take advantage of a weakness or opportunity to cause the damage. with proper palm tree care and by properly selecting, installing and caring for your palms you can help prevent palm diseases.

Palms suffer from leaf, crown or bud, trunk and root disease. Lots of time palm diseases are missed diagnosed as deficiencies and vice versa.

The most important part of dealing with palm disease prevention is proper cultural practices, what are cultural practices?

Cultural practices are things we can do correctly to prevent palm tree diseases and pests, such as proper selection of palm species for our landscape in the correct place if a palm tree is expected to grow 30 feet tall with a frond span of 12 fee you should not plant it 10 feet from your two story home, the fronds will always touch the walls.

Most palms do not need to much water once established, if you have a low laying are that floods all summer this can cause root rot and eventually kill it. Avoid hanging plants from palms such as orchids that require daily watering can cause palm tree trunk rot. The green fungus on palm tree trunk could be algae which is a clear indication the trunk is getting wet to often.

Palm trees in poor light or the wrong light are more susceptible to palm diseases.

Cold or frost can mimic or allow diseases to cause damage to palm, a cold frost can kill a palm in south Florida because most palms cant handle temperatures bellow 50 degrees for prolonged periods of time, a cold frost that lasts only one night can cause damage that becomes apparent 6 months later with yellowing and trunk deformation or twisting.

Wind can increase the spread of diseases of palms spreading spores around entering wounds.

Improper pruning with un-sterile equipment like pruning saws and chain saws and transmit a disease from am infected palm in your landscape when landscapers trim. You should have your landscapers sterilize their equipment between every palm they trim.

Avoid opening wounds with line trimmers at the base and roots or at the trunk level with trimmers, sheerer, saws or with nails or screws which wounds are permanent and never heal, having an open wound will allow diseases to enter palm. Even trunk injections should be avoided and used as a las resort to save the tree.

Do not over trim or pencil top palms which leads to deficiencies making palm trees more susceptible to diseases.

Lastly fertilize correctly and at the right frequency with the appropriate amount for the specific palm species and size, avoid banded fertilizer and don’t allow it to pill up around the exposed roots or trunk.

A palm tree fungus spray with a fungicide are effective primarily for foliage diseases such as leaf spot, or blight of palms to prevent further spread of the disease to healthy tissue but it does not remove the spots, damage from diseases on palm fronds are permanent until the frond falls off or is removed. Spots on palm leaves by diseases or by false smut can be misdiagnosed as deficiencies.

Confirming The Presence of Diseases of Palms

Palm tree diseases pictures do not help in actual diagnosis of the disease because so many other factors such as site, light, fertilizer could be the actual cause and not a disease only a laboratory test by submitting to the Tropical Research and Education Center Laboratory can confirm the presence of the disease.

List of 12 Palm Diseases in South Florida.

Bud Rot of Palm (NO Cure)

Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) Leaf Spot of Palm

Fusarium Wilt of Canary Island Date Palm (NO Cure)

Fusarium Wilt of Queen Palm and Mexican Fan Palm (NO Cure)

Ganoderma Butt Rot of Palms (NO Cure)

Graphiola Leaf Spot (False Smut) of Palm

Leaf Spots and Leaf Blights of Palm

Lethal Yellowing (LY) of Palm (NO Cure) Prevention with Oxytetracycline hydrochloride Trunk Injections every 4 months for life before palm becomes infected.

Pestalotiopsis (Pestalotia) Diseases of Palm (NO Cure)

Petiole (Rachis) Blight of Palm

Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (NO Cure)

Thielaviopsis Trunk Rot of Palm (NO Cure)

Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_diseases

Blog Headline: 12 Diseases of Palms In South Florida Landscapes Blog Description: 12 known diseases of palms in South Florida, with the right care most are preventable. 8 of the palm tree diseases in South Florida have no cure yet. Author Name: Franklin Hernandez Image URL: https://naturepest.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/12-Diseases-of-Palms-In-South-Florida-Landscapes.jpg Publisher Name: Nature Pest

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Brown or dried leaf tips

One of the most common symptoms but which can have many causes. First of all, it is necessary to check whether all the natural needs of your palm species are met: water, light, humidity and temperature. For a detailed explanation of the general care of palms, please take a look at this page: palm trees care.

If the problem is not the wrong care, it may be due to one of the following causes:
Pest? See further below
Frost damage? See further below
Growth? When only the lower leaves dry out, but the other, newer leaves and spear still look good, you don’t have to worry, this is part of the natural growth process. Once the lower leaves have completely dried out, remove them.

Brown ‘rusty’ stains on the leaves

Rusty colored stains are visible on the leaves, often the finer leaflets. This indicates sunburn. Check the location of your palm and move the palm if necessary. Palm seedlings and palms that have been indoors for a longer period of time (including those from garden centres!) must slowly get used to the sun. In other words, the number of hours of direct sunshine must be gradually increased. The places that have already been burned do not recover.

Black / brown dots on the leaves

These stains indicate root damage. The soil is often too wet. Check the correct needs of your palm and adjust the conditions accordingly. This condition often occurs after the winter months when it was logically far more humid for several months. Always ensure proper drainage to prevent root rot.

Leaves turn yellow

This discoloration may indicate a lack of nutrition and in particular a lack of iron. The application of special palm fertilizer gives the plant all the necessary nutrients. In extreme cases iron chelate can also be used which specifically addresses iron deficiency. Use liquid fertilizer for quicker action or a pellets for a more natural and longer lasting effect.

Winter / frost damage

Palms that have suffered from too cold temperatures (frost) show dark green striping in the leaves. These are the first signs of leaf damage. When the leaf freezes too far, these strips turn into brown/yellow spots afterwards. In extreme conditions, even the whole leaf crown can dry out.To check if the palm is still alive, gently pull the spear. If it is still tightly attached, the palm will survive, even though it will take some time before the palm has a new beautiful crown of leaves. If you can pull the spear (spear rot) the palm is basically dead.

You can however still try 2 things. First you can fill the gaping hole in the heart of the palm with a Bordeaux mixture to prevent further rotting. Cover to hole from rain.
This will counteract the spear rot. You can also cut the trunk down to the solid part, slice by slice so that the rotten part is removed.

Also see How to treat spear rot

Leaves dry out

When the leaves dry out, and this could not be due to:

  • winter damage
  • sunburn
  • pest

the cause must be sought at the roots! It is therefore advisable to check the roots of the palm thoroughly. There are several possible causes:

  • the root ball / soil is too moist
  • the roots are clay potted
  • fungal infection (fusarium)

The roots must be nice and fresh colored and should certainly not feel soft or smell mushy. If the roots are not in good condition, the rotten parts must be cut away. Then plant the palm in drier potting soil and limit water gifts until the growth resumes. Sometimes young palms are dug out to only be potted a few days later on for selling. The palm has been temporarily unable to absorb sufficient moisture while the leaves have been continued evaporating water. These palms will show quickly their difficulties. It is advisable to confront the seller with this problem as the natural recovery takes a long time (sometimes up to 2 years without evolution!)

If the roots are black, a fungal infection is at the cause. Fusarium is mainly found in Northern Africa, where it is called “Bayoud” and affects entire date plantations. This fungus that loves warm humid conditions lives underground, from 0 to 100 cm deep and climbs through the roots to the palm leaves where it causes the leaves to die off slowly by preventing water absorption. There is no treatment against this infection and the palm dies completely between 6 months and two years. The affected specimen is best insulated and destroyed, the garden equipment must be thoroughly disinfected. Replanting in that place is strongly discouraged as the fungus can survive underground for up to 8 years.

Also see: Phoenix roebelenii: why the leaves are dry?

PESTS

Aphid or Plant lice

The aphid is not always immediately noticeable, but is easy to recognize during more thorough inspection. These insects of half a millimeter are usually green, but sometimes also black or red. They are located on the youngest parts of the plant and propagate quickly, so you will soon have to deal with a real plague. Small numbers can be manually removed. However, this will no longer suffice in the case of larger numbers. The natural enemy of the aphid is the ladybug. But using them as control agents is only effective in a small and closed area like a greenhouse. The plants can also be treated with a solution of water and green soap. You can also make a solution of water with a some of tobacco. After a night soaking, pour the product into the potting soil. The plant will incorporate this solution in the sap flow and thus remove the aphids itself. Eventually you can also opt for a standard pesticide. There is a large range of both chemical and biological products against aphids.

Scale insect

These small brown to black insects with a flat scale shield hardly stands out because they are immobile on the plant. They stick to protect their vulnerable base. The sticky separation (honeydew) that occurs on the leaves is more striking. The palm is suffering a lot from the suction damage. Scale insects are note caused by a wrong care but occur mainly by coincidence. Small numbers can be removed manually.

If necessary, they can be tipped with a cotton swab soaked in spirit. Or the plant can be sprayed with a solution of soap and spirit (mix 2 tablespoons spiritus, 2 tablespoons of green soap and put them in the sprayer), thanks to their shield they are relatively resistant to regular products. So choose a product that is specially designed to treat scale insects which often containing effective oils. Pesticides that are absorbed by the sap flow are also effective. Preventive measures can be taken to mix some tobacco in the top layer of the potting soil. This will be included in the sap flow when watering and will thus repel the insects. Pills are also sold that are placed in the potting soil for prevention. This preventive approach also works through inclusion in the sap flow but isn’t effective enough for treatment once already infected.

Mealybug

Mealybug can be recognized immediately as small groups of white fluff, almost similar to mold. This is one of the most stubborn pests for the plant that can hardly be removed. When you see these insects at the time of purchase, you better avoid the plant. Infected plants are also best removed from other healthy plants. Treatment is absolutely necessary where only a strong product will have the intended effect. Repeated treatment is certainly necessary to eradicate future generations. Thoroughly treat all parts of the plant. Each garden centre offers suitable products.

Spider mite

These very small red or white spiders, the size of a pin button, are difficult to see with the naked eye. But the palm itself clearly shows that there is something wrong. Usually it starts with silver-colored speckles on the leaves. Eventually the leaves become dry and withered. Wooly spider webs can be found on the petioles. In general, spider mite indicates that the location has a humidity that is too dry. This is why they generally occur in palms kept indoors. During the winter months, the central heating system ensures low humidity. To compensate for this, you can regularly spray the leaves with a plant sprayer. A summer rain shower will also be a virtue for the palm. Spider mite forms a persistent pest. Spraying alone will not always be enough. The best way to remove contaminated plant parts is to remove them. You can also chemically fight the spider mite.

Palm butterfly (Paysandisia)

This moth, called the Paysandisia archon, was introduced in Europe by the importation of palms from South America. Its originates from Argentina. In Europe, for the time being it is only spotted in southern regions (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal,…) Luckily it is not a great traveler but palms that are close to the infected palm certainly form a potential host. The eggs in the size of a grain of rice are laid in the petioles by the moth that can grow about 11cm in size.

Because the hairy trunk makes it easier for eggs to be deposited, Trachycarus and Chamaeropses are the main victims of this insect. The larvae can reach a length of 8cm. They eat their way through the palm, making holes in the trunk visible. The leaf also shows a typical damage of the gnawing. At the base of the palm and on the trunk there is also a kind of sawdust, the material formed and rejected by the gnawing larva. When the contamination is too advanced, the palm will have to be destroyed by the complete combustion of the palm.

Red palm weevil

Originally from India, the Rhynchophorus ferrugineus caused a great deal of damage in the Middle East in the early 20th century. Meanwhile, there have also been cases in Spain and southern France. All stages of this pest, egg, larva and pupa are spent inside the palm. The female lays up to 300 eggs in a wound or cavity of the palm. After 2 days the larva comes out of the egg that eats its way right through palm for 1 to 3 months. Chemical control comes often too late in many cases. In that case, the only solution to prevent further contamination is to remove and burn the palm.

Please refer to this article for a complete description: The palm moth & Red Palm Weevil: everything you need to know!

Caterpillar

In general, palms are not so often affected by gnawing. The stiff leaf will be partly responsible for this. Young seedlings sometimes become a caterpillar victim however. The traces of gnawing are easy to recognize due to large irregular pieces of the leaves being cut. Sometimes the caterpillar is already nestled in the cocoon. The leaf segments are then glued together with its webbing. When you see traces of gnawing, check the whole plant for the presence of caterpillars. Simply remove the caterpillars by hand. Also the caterpillars that are already nestled in the cocoon. This problem is hardly ever widespread and therefore there is no need for further control.

Cat

The fact that cats and palm seedlings are not a good combination has been proven many times. Cats like to chew on grassy plants for the hairballs to run out. This damage is recognizable by the winky remains that remain after chewing. If the cat has also broken the spear or the small stem, the seedling can no longer be saved. Only preventive measures can help to tackle this, such as removing or protecting the seedling. Putting the pot in a big glass jar can be a simple and aesthetic solution.

OTHER INSECTS

Springtails

We regularly receive the question what can be done against the small white insects in the potting soil. However, these springtails are not harmful to the plant at all. On the opposite, they live on fungi and thus prevent the formation of mold on the potting soil. They are therefore very much appreciated in the seed trays kept on high temperatures and high humidity will otherwise quickly mold.

Dark-winged fungus gnats

This little fly, closely resembling the fruit fly but slightly smaller lays its eggs in moist soil. The flies are not so much harmful as annoying. They propagate very quickly, which make you find these flies about everywhere in the house quite quickly. However, the larvae can be harmful to weaker plants. To combat the flies, yellow catch strips can be placed in the potting soil. The flies are attracted by this and then will stick to the strip. The vacuum cleaner can also be used to suck up all flies. When knocking against the pot, most flies usually will fly up from the ground. Make use of this to catch as much as possible. If this is repeated daily during one week, the problem will largely be resolved. The potting soil can also be poured with a extract of tobacco. This is harmless to the plant but kills the larvae. Eventually you can also use an effective chemical control.

Of course, this is not an exhaustive list of all possible diseases and pests. The phenomena discussed are the most common. If there is a disease or plague that you would like to add in the list, please let us know!

© La Palmeraie

Sunbelt Research produces plant care products and, tree care products that provide tree pest and tree disease control. Our plant disease control sprays provide citrus tree pest control and encourage the maximum yield of fruit and growth potential. Our plant disease control products are formulated with an environmentally friendly all natural vegetable oil base. They are developed to be both plant pest control products that are also shrub care products. C.S.S. Citrus Spray Solution addresses the problems that face the citrus industry and most home citrus tree owners. Our plant sprays were developed to control, protect and treat bacterial, viral and vector related diseases and harmful insects. We have been tested and provide a viable organic alternative to standard insecticides and sprays. We are the best: Citrus Tree Disease Treatment for Control Greening Disease, aphids, pest, canker, bacteria & fungus P.T.S. Palm Tree Spray can be used as a palm tree bug spray and a palm tree fungus spray. It is also an effective palm tree pest control. It is developed for palm tree bacteria treatment and the control, protection and the palm tree disease treatment of bacterial infections and harmful insects such as: Ganoderma Butt Rot, Fusarium Wilt, Bud Rot, Fusarium Wilt, Lethal Yellowing, Ganoderma Root, False Smut, Leaf Spots, Scale, Pestalotiopsis, Petiole, Trunk Rot, Whitefly, Mealybugs, Cabbage Palm Caterpillar, Giant Palm Borer, Palm Budworm, Palmetto Weevil.

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