Peach tree oozing sap

How to treat the oozing fruit tree condition called gummosis

Question: This morning there were clear-to-amber-colored jellylike substances on our peach tree, in the various cracks on the trunk. One gob was about the size of a golf ball, but the rest (several dozen) were far smaller. Since we’ve had plum-curculio-type infestations of the fruit (with similar but smaller oozings), is it the same thing, or is this from the tree and it’s using this to cover the cracks in the growing/splitting tree bark? I know that the problems of the plum curculios are almost definitely from being planted too deep in the ground (ahem, by me) years ago. I’ve got to get a little more of the root flare exposed, but is there anything else I should do (tree trunk goop)? — V.P., Dallas

The jellylike substance oozing from this peach tree is called gummosis and can result from environmental stress, mechanical injury, or disease and insect infestation.(Reader Photo)

Answer: Gummosis is the oozing of sap from wounds or cankers on fruit trees. It can result from environmental stress, mechanical injury, or disease and insect infestation. Cytospora canker, or Valsa canker, the fungal cause of gummosis, affects stone fruit trees such as apricot, cherry, peach and plum. Cytospora infection is distinguishable from insect damage and mechanical injuries because sawdust or pieces of bark are not mixed in the sap, as it would be with insect or mechanical damage. Cytospora canker is also known as perennial canker. The oozing sap from fungus, bacteria, physical damage (lawn mowers, weed eaters, hail, etc.) or environmental stress will be amber and opaque. Gummosis caused by peach tree borers will be mixed with frass (excrement) created by the insects.

The solution for any of these situations and resulting gummosis is to get the tree back into a healthy condition. The entire Sick Tree Treatment needs to be applied, with the root flare being the most important step. Tree Trunk Goop should be applied to any wounds or cankers.

Question: I’ve had a bay laurel in a large pot for 20 years that is about 8 feet tall. I’m in West Plano and the low here was around 15 degrees. It had put on some new growth in late summer/early fall and had not had enough time to harden off, and this growth is definitely damaged. I am curious whether yours has fared better, worse or the same? Any other damage is not apparent at this time. — R.G., Plano

Answer: My huge bay has some foliage burn but it looks mostly cosmetic. I’ll wait awhile and cut the dead foliage off all at once. You should plan the same. I think both plants will be fine. Our organic programs have provided impressive protection.

Question: Is there a cultivar of ginkgo that has a horizontal branch pattern rather than upright branches? — J.H., McKinney

Answer: Not that I know of, but some trees do have more horizontal branching than others. If you pick a young tree with strongly horizontal branching, it will probably continue. A little selective pruning will help as well. My tree has a mix of horizontal and upright growth.

Anytime during the dormant season is fine to transplant peonies, but fall is best.(Lee Reich / The Associated Press)

Question: When is it safe to transplant peonies? I have some old and some new plants that are now in shade because a tree has grown tall since I planted the peonies. I think it should have been done in the fall and I have a landscaper who wants to do it now, but I am afraid of a freeze in Dallas. — S.P., Dallas

Answer: There would be no problem transplanting the peonies now. Although the fall would have been the ideal time, anytime during the dormant season would be fine. Sooner, the better. Prepare the beds first with plenty of compost, lava sand, green sand, cornmeal and dry molasses. Then just get back to the regular management program you have been using.

A reader was advised to keep up the Tree Trunk Goop treatment on a 4-year-old red oak, and also to keep the root flare exposed, even in winter.(Reader Photo)

Question: My 4-year-old red oak has a problem. The bark split somewhat after the rains and I doctored it with Tree Trunk Goop for several months because I had heard you say it needed to be shielded from the sun. This part of the trunk faces west. Last year it seemed to be all right. This also happened to my Chinese pistache in the backyard that spring, but it also faces west so I doctored it with goop also. Do I just continue with the Tree Trunk Goop as needed (it faces directly to the west) or is there something else I can do? Otherwise, this tree was very healthy and beautiful. Will this cause the tree to die? The mulch is only close to the base because it’s winter. I always keep mulch about 6 inches away from the base throughout the growing season. — R.L., Dallas

Answer: Continuing to apply the Tree Trunk Goop would be the best thing to do. I would also expose the flare more dramatically and leave it exposed year-round. Mulching the base in the winter is not necessary and could cause problems.

A reader asks about this mystery bush growing as his home: It’s a spindletree, says Howard Garrett.(Reader Photo)

Question: I enjoy your articles. I have a volunteer bush on the west side of my house in Corsicana. I recently noticed some interesting-looking seeds on it. I am attaching the photos hoping you may be able to identify the plant. — J.L., Dallas

Answer: Your plant is an Euonymus called spindletree. Here’s some information about the plant that should be helpful.


Botanical name: Euonymus europaeus. Synonym: Euonymus bulgaricus

Family: Celastraceae

Other common names: Spindle, spindle tree

Habit: A large shrub or small tree that reaches 30 feet in height. Leaves are opposite, simple, elliptical, 2 1/2 to 4 inches long, finely serrated, long pointed, green above, paler and may be pubescent below. Spring flowers are perfect, inconspicuous (one-third inch across), four greenish-white petals with purple anthers, appearing in late spring in multiple branched clusters. Fruit are four-lobed capsules, a half an inch across, pink to purple in color. They split open to reveal dark red seeds that ripen in the fall. Twigs are slender, green, turning brown with age, maybe four-sided, leaf scars are light brown (nearly white) and obvious against green twig; buds are green and sharp-pointed. Bark is thin, greenish-brown to reddish brown, shallow longitudinal splits. It becomes irregularly shreddy-ridged with age.

Culture: Hardy in zones 3-7. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semishade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Notes: Native from Europe to West Asia.

“My peach trees are oozing gel. What is wrong with them? Thanks, Gary”


Hi Gary,

Thank you for your question. Oozing gel could be one of two things. If the gel has fine sawdust on it, you have Peach Tree Borer. If not, the other problem the tree could have is cytospora canker.

The peach tree borer (also called the peach crown borer) is the most destructive insect pest of peach, cherry, plum and other stone fruits (Prunus spp.). The insect feeds under the bark of the tree, where it cuts deep gouges. When abundant, peach tree borers seriously weaken and even kill trees.

The entire life cycle of the peach tree borer requires one year to complete. The immature (larva) stage produces tree damage. Upon hatching from the eggs, young larvae immediately tunnel into the sapwood of the tree, usually through cracks and wounds in the bark. Larvae continue to feed and develop until the onset of cold weather. Most activity occurs a few inches below ground on the trunk and larger roots. The Insects spend the winter as partially grown larvae below ground under the bark.

With the return of warmer weather in early spring, the larvae again feed on the tree. Injury is most extensive at this time because the maturing Insects feed more. The larvae finish feeding and change to the pupal stage in late May through early July. Pupation occurs in a cell made of silk, gum and chewed wood fragments located just below the soil surface.

The pupal stage lasts almost one month. Adult borers then emerge. They often pull out the pupal skin in the process. This skin may be seen at the base of the tree. Adults are a kind of clearwing moth that fly during the day and superficially resemble wasps. Adult activity may begin as early as mid-June but primarily occurs during July and August. After mating, the female moth lays up to 400 eggs on the bark of the lower trunk and in soil cracks near the tree base. Eggs generally hatch in about 10 days.

External evidence of peach tree borer tunneling is a wet spot on the bark or the presence of oozing, gummy sap. The sap is clear or translucent and often dark from the sawdust-like excrement of the insect. Most injuries occur along the lower trunk beneath the soil line. Lower branches rarely receive injuries.

Peach tree borer can be difficult to control because insecticides cannot reach the damaging larvae after they move under the bark. The most effective controls are preventive insecticide applications at the vulnerable egg and early larval stages, while the insect is on the tree bark.

Egg laying occurs during the middle of the growing season. It may begin July 1 and continue into September. In general, peak egg laying occurs from mid-July to mid-August.

As a general guideline, apply preventive trunk sprays the first or second week in July and again in August if flights continue. Better determination of egg-laying occurrence is possible using pheromone (sex attractant) traps that capture adult Insects. Pheromone traps are available through some garden supply catalogs.

Peach tree borer is controlled in commercial orchards by insecticides that contain permethrin (Pounce, Ambush) or esfenvalerate (Asana). Insecticides containing these active ingredients (permethrin, esfenvalerate) are recently becoming available in some garden centers. Perhaps more widely available is carbaryl (Sevin). Some formulations of this insecticide allow use on fruit-bearing trees.

Paradichlorobenzene (PDB) moth crystals, used as a fumigant, may help control infestations of peach tree borer within a tree. After clearing away leaves and other debris from around the tree base, place the crystals in a band 1 to 2 inches from the base of the tree trunk. Cover the crystals with enough soil to create a 5- to 10-inch packed mound around the plant. The crystals release a gas at temperatures above 60 degrees F. The gas penetrates the trunk to kill peach tree borer larvae. Applications of PDB crystals are best made in late September or early fall but also can be applied in late spring.

PDB can injure plants. To avoid plant injury, follow these precautions:

1. Do not allow the crystals to touch the tree bark.

3. Remove the soil mound three weeks after the application.

With some effort, many larvae can be dug out of the tree or killed by puncturing them with a strong, thin wire. Be careful with these methods because they may cause more mechanical injury to the tree than the borer itself.

Maintaining tree vigor through proper tree care (water, fertilization, pruning, etc.) can greatly affect how well the tree can tolerate borer injury. Avoid any unnecessary wounding around the lower trunk; this area is often attacked. Extra care of already damaged trees is particularly important.

The use of insect parasitic/predator nematodes has given inconsistent control of peach tree borer larvae. If they are used, it is suggested that they be applied in a large volume of water to adequately moisten the soil. Also, use them only if soil temperatures are at least 50 degrees. insect parasitic nematodes are available through many nursery catalogs and some local nurseries.

Cytospora canker is a destructive disease of tree fruits. Although most common on stone fruits, the disease can be encountered on apple. Also known as peach canker, perennial canker, and Valsa canker in some areas, the disease occurs wherever stone fruits are grown. The disease is general in occurrence in peach, nectarine, prune, plum, and sweet cherry orchards. Cytospora canker is associated with winter-injured or mechanically wounded twigs, trunks, and scaffold branches.

Cytospora canker is caused by either of two fungi species, Cytospora leucostoma or Cytospora cincta. These two fungi are very similar morphologically and can be definitively separated only by microscopic examination of the sexual fruiting structures. These structures, called perithecia, are not frequently found.

The Cytospora fungi are vigorous wound invaders that grow throughout the bark and cambium and to a lesser extent into the structural wood of the tree. Common infection sites are bark that has been killed or injured by low winter temperatures or sunburn, pruning cuts, or insect damage. Winter injury is frequently an important predisposing factor to infection. Once established in dead or weakened tissue, the Cytospora fungi will invade adjacent healthy tissue, causing dieback and stem cankers.

As cankers enlarge, the fungus produces pinhead-sized, black, pimplelike, spore-producing structures, called pycnidia. These structures produce millions of spores, called conidia. During wet weather, spores ooze out of the spore-producing structures in reddish to orange colored gelatinous masses. Spores are carried to other infection sites (that is, wounds on the same or nearby trees) by splashing and windblown rain, insects, or people. These spores are not adapted to wind dispersal. Spores germinate at wound sites, resulting in infection and eventual cankering. Spore-producing structures ultimately form in the new cankers, producing more spores for subsequent infections. The spore-producing structures generally form 4 to 6 weeks after a cankered branch dies. The fungus overwinters in diseased tissue of living hosts and in stem debris on the ground.

If cankers are allowed to remain for several years, a second spore-producing structure, the perithecium, develops in the diseased tissue and produces ascospores. Ascospores are wind-disseminated; infection can result if moisture is present when ascospores are blown against wounded host tissue.

Infection can occur anytime during the year, except during very hot and dry, or cold weather. In Idaho, most infections occur during spring and early summer when temperatures are mild and moisture from rainfall is high.

Usually, the first symptoms of infection are dead twigs and dieback. Leaves above stem infections droop and discolor through shades of green to various shades of brown, and often remain attached, sometimes through the winter. These “flags” are caused by stem invasions and girdling or near-girdling cankers immediately below the flag.

Cankers are dark and depressed areas of dead bark and wood on main leaders and branches. Canker margins are sharp and distinct on the bark and discolored wood. Cankers are frequently perennial and may assume a zoneate appearance. Young cankers usually exude gum at the margin and may have a sour, sap odor. The surface of the cankers may develop raised pinhead-sized pycnidia in the bark. The spore-forming structures are rarely produced on cherry stems. After rainy weather, tendrils of dried reddish-orange ooze are sometimes visible coming from pycnidia.

Small at first, cankers slowly enlarge elliptically; sometimes they streak rapidly up and down the stem without girdling it immediately.

There is currently no cure for infected trees. Prevention and sanitation practices are the best management approaches. Use the following three steps concurrently.

1. Minimize injuries. Winter injuries are the most common infection sites. Painting tree trunks white before winter has reduced Cytospora infections. Take other measures to reduce winter injury and maintain good tree vigor.

2. Remove and destroy infected wood. Prune out infected branches, flags, cankers, and maintain good orchard sanitation. Cytospora has been isolated from apparently healthy tissue on cankered branches. Make pruning cuts at least one foot below the infected area.

3. Prune correctly. Make cuts that leave a raised collar of tissue at the branch junction rather than flush cuts or cuts that leave a stub. Pruning in the spring when wounds heal most rapidly has effectively reduced disease incidence in some areas.

Do not establish new orchards close to badly diseased orchards. Treetop or other hedgerow pruning and overhead irrigation favor the disease. Maintain trees in good vigor, but with maximum hardiness. Trees under water stress or grown in potassium-deficient soil are susceptible to infection. Weakened trees easily become victims of the Cytospora fungi.

I hope this information helps you out. If you have any other questions, please feel free to ask.


© Mertie Mae Botanics LLC and Horticulture Talk!, 2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Mertie Mae Botanics LLC and Horticulture Talk! with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.


1. Q. I have a genetic dwarf peach tree which I purchased at a local nursery two years ago. I have been spraying it according to your recommendations. This included a copper spray immediately prior to leaf fall to prevent bacterial canker infection. Last year, I noticed sap on the branches. You advise that if no holes are present when a peach tree oozes sap, it has bacterial canker. What can I do and where did I go wrong?

A. Your diagnosis of bacterial canker disease would be exactly correct if the symptoms which you are describing were on a regular peach. The genetic dwarfs are different critters. The appearance of gum or sap on the branches, will occur at times when the tree is young. This results from the roots taking more moisture than the top requires. The only way the plant can expel the unused moisture is through its branches. The problem corrects itself as the plant matures and stabilizes its growth. While at times unsightly, this “gumming” does not injure the plant. This is not caused by any insects or disease, but is instead a cultural characteristic of genetic dwarf trees. This may be partially controlled by reducing the moisture given the plant. When possible, avoid planting in heavy soils which hold too much water. This is a good example of why professional horticulturists hesitate the use of the term “always” – – in the plant kingdom, nothing is for sure.

2. Q. What is wrong with my peaches? My trees look ragged with leaves thick in some areas of the canopy yet missing in other areas. I pruned and fertilized.

A. Not only did your tree enjoy a mild winter but the winter or cold weather the area had was interrupted by periods of abnormally warm weather. These periods of warm weather negated much of the accumulated chilling (temperatures below 45 degrees F.) required for normal bloom and foliation to occur. Thus a portion of your poor tree thinks that winter is still with us and some of the same tree knows that spring has sprung. The situation should eventually correct itself. In severe cases though, this lack of foliation can result in tree damage. This is why it is critical to select varieties which have the proper chilling requirement for your area.

Unfortunately this lack-of-adequate-chilling situation also affects fruit set so even though your tree may have bloomed properly don’t count your fruit before the harvest–some may yet abort. To determine if your fruit is “sound” cut several, randomly selected, marble-size fruit and examine the soft center which will eventually harden into the seed. If the center is dark or black the ovule is dead and the fruit would have eventually fallen off. If the center is green the fruit will not abort. Q. What causes a jelly-like substance to gather around the base of my peach and plum trees?

The gummy, jelly-like mass you find on the trunk of a peach or plum tree near the soil line might be caused by a worm-like insect that is the larval stage of the either the peach tree borer or the lesser peach tree borer. The peach tree borer attacks the trunk of the tree and the lesser peach tree borer feeds in the scaffolding branches. It is also possible that the deposits oozed out naturally from bark cracking or mechanical injury locations. When gummy sap is mixed with sawdust-like particles it is evidence of borer infestation. If the gummy material is clear, without any signs of sawdust in it, the bark may have cracked for some unrelated reason.

Small mechanical injuries require no treatment. However, if the injury is recent you may want to spray the wound with a fungicide such as captan, which will prevent fungal infection while the tree heals. Take precautions to avoid further mechanical injury. If you have been nicking the tree with the lawn mower, remove the turf from around the trunk and apply a mulch to prevent regrowth.

The insecticide endosulfan, sold as Thiodan or Thiogard, is recommended for peach tree borer sprays. The treatments must be timed properly for adequate control. When applying pesticides follow the label carefully. Immediately after harvest {about mid August) apply the insecticide to the trunks and large limbs to control lesser peach tree borer and peach tree borer. CAUTION: Do not spray any fruit itself with this chemical. Also, do not apply within 21 days of harvest.

An alternative control for the peach tree borer is the use of PDB (paradichlorobenzene) moth crystal. This procedure will not control the lesser peach tree borer. In late summer or the fall, remove grass and weeds from the base of the tree for a distance of 1 foot. Scatter PDB crystals in a band 1 to 2 inches wide, at least 2 inches from the tree trunk. Use ounce for trees under 3 years, 3/4 oz. for trees 3 to 6 years, and 1 and oz. for trees over 6 years old. Cover the tree base and crystals with 4 to 6 shovelfuls of soil packed down with the shovel. Crystals placed against the tree may cause injury. Remove the crystals and the mound of soil from around the trunk prior to regrowth in the spring, to avoid injury to the tree.

Borers feed throughout the winter and spring, so if you think your trees are currently infested, you can try to kill individual borers by inserting a flexible wire into their holes.

3. Q: Why are peaches falling off the tree while they are still green? There are no pests evident.

A: Mother Nature’s way of thinning. This is normal for a tree that is loaded with fruit. Often it is a lack of pollination or some other damage to the seed or embryo.

4. Q: How soon can fruit be eaten after spraying?

A: Every product has a pre-harvest interval. Once this time has passed the fruit is totally safe to eat. Check the label of the product to see how long this period is. Generally speaking, most insecticides last only 3 to 5 days at the most.

5. Q: Can the seeds from a neighbors plum tree, which is a nursery- grown hybrid, be used to start a plum tree?

A: Yes, but it will not come back exactly as the same cultivar.

6. Q: When should you plant peach pits to start a new tree?

A: Starting peach trees from seeds is not recommended because the seed will not exactly produce the same variety as the tree the pit came from. However, if you wish to try, they will either need to be stratified artificially or by Mother Nature. Place the seeds in moist paper towels in January and then in a zip-lock plastic bag and place in the refrigerator until April. At this time they will be ready to plant in a pot or in the ground. Or place the seeds in a pot of loose potting soil in early winter and allow Mother Nature to do the job for you.

You will need to keep the pots watered during the winter months if it doesn’t rain occassionally. The seeds should sprout naturally in the spring once the weather conditions become favoraable.

7. Q: Are peach pits poisonous?

A: All parts of the peach except the fruit pulp and skin are toxic. These parts contain cyanide-producing substances. Symptoms – difficulty in breathing, coma; may be fatal.

8. Q: What is cause and remedy for sap that is coming from the trunk of a 10 year old apricot tree?

A: It could either be borers or bacterial canker. Spray Dursban in mid-August for borers and Zineb for canker in late October.

9. Q: What causes peaches to rot on the tree?

A: Usually brown rot, a fungal disease, which attacks the fruit just prior to harvest. Spray with an approved fungicide such as benomyl.

10. Q: Is lichen forming on a plum tree harmful?

A: The lichen itself is not harmful, but it usually indicate a decline in vigor by the tree. Try to get the tree actively growing again with extra fertilizer and water. If the tree fails to respond, replace it with a new tree.

11. Q: Birds are starting to work on peaches. Can the peaches be picked before they are ripe? How do you get them to ripen after they are picked?

A: Peaches stop ripening once they are picked. Hence the only answer is to protect the fruit from the birds. Nets are the only sure fire way to prevent this damage.

12. Q: Should peach trees that sprouted from seeds of a now dead tree be kept?

A: If the owner desires a true cultivar, it is recommended trees from seed be avoided as they will not be true to type. However, if the tree makes a satisfactory rootstock it is ok to be used. Such trees are easily “t” – budded to a new variety.

13. Q: What can be used to spray hybrid Bermuda grass in a peach orchard that will get rid of the grass but not hurt the trees.

A: There are several good products which will work. The glyposate products will do an excellent job, however one must be careful to not let the spray contact the trees as it will cause severe damage. Poast and Fusilade will also kill the grass but they will not harm the tree.

14. Q: How should fruit of peach trees be thinned?

A: Thin by hand, one peach every 6 to 8 inches, four to six weeks after bloom. Start with the earlier maturing varieties first.

15. Q: My entire peach crop was destroyed by the many hard freezes we had this winter in Oklahoma. What should I do different in maintaining the trees this year without a peach crop?

A: You are not alone in this disaster of a fruit crop year. Few if any peaches will be harvested in the whole state of Texas this year. Hopefully you have gone to a split fertilizer application system, ie. apply your fertilizer in two or three applications over the growing season. If this is the case then do not apply the next applications. Also if you have not applied any fertilizer, do not apply any. Wait and see what kind of growth the trees make. If they take off and grow vigorously, then there will be no need to fertilize them. They should make 12 to 18 to 24 inches of growth a year. If it looks like the trees are weak in May or June, a small amount of fertilizer could be applied (maybe a 1/4 pound per tree trunk diameter or about 20 lbs per acre; I would just use Nitrogen fertilizer).

Irrigation will not be critical since there is no crop to size, however you need to reduce the stress to the trees in the fruit initiation months of June and July. The more stress in these months the greater the number of doubles the next year. A good weed control program may be all that is needed.

Since you won’t have a crop to harvest you will have ample time to do summer pruning. The most important function of summer pruning is to maintain the open center of the tree in order to maintain fruit production all over the tree.

Only minimal sprays should be needed. The most critical thing will be to maintain healthy leaves on the tree. So control leaf feeders as needed and make your borer spray in mid to late August.

16. Q: I have a peach tree that survived Winnipeg Manitoba Canada winter 1995/96, that had the longest, cold spell of 30 days at -30C. The tree was brought from the Detroit area. This spring the trunk, from about 3 inches above ground to 9 inches, developed 2 vertical bark cracks. Checks continued up till 20 inches above ground. I waxed the wounds, wrapped the trunk, and severily pruned all extending branches. Can you recommend some proceedure that will prevent or alleviate problems like this in the future? It is close to a miracle that this tree survived at all.

A: I too am amazed that the tree survived. However, the vertical cracks you are describing are the results of cold damage. You did good by treating the cracks and pruning heavily. In this way there is less demand for water and nutrients and hopefully the tissues will heal and allow the tree to fully recover.

The best way to prevent this type of damage is with mounding. In late fall mound up the soil around the trunk of the tree. Usually you are trying to protect the bud union, so in case the top freezes back you still have the desired variety from which to re-grow the tree. Try to mound the tree 18 to 20 inches high and about 8 to 10 inches around the perimeter; more if you can. Use native soil unless it is extremely heavy and then you may need to bring in some sandy loam. After winter is over the mound needs to be removed or the tree will slowly die. Many use a water hose to knock down this berm.

17. Q: I have two peach trees. There is a gummy-clear secreation coming from the fruit. Several peaches have prematurely dropped from the trees. There are also blistered places on the leaves. The trees are seven years old, grown from seed and this is the first year we’ve had fruit. What is causing these problems, and what are the solutions?

A: The fruit have been attacked by a stink or leaf footed bug of some type. The sap is oozing from the point where their mouthparts penetrated the fruit. Unfortunately, once you see the symptoms it is too late to do anything. The ones that dropped were probably stung too. Once the fruit is about the size of a quarter, they will usually stay on the tree, but the fruit will be misshapened. One will just need to cut the bad spot away. The only way to prevent such damage is to spray on 7 to 10 day intervals.

The leaf blister could be the result of a bacterial disease called bacterial leaf spot and/or a stress of some sort. The best prevention is to maintain a healthy tree with good fertility, weed control and water management.

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