Passion of christ plant

PASSIONFLOWER

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  • Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 1, Subchapter B, section 172.510: Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=172.510 (accessed 02/22/16).
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  • Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;78:165-70.. View abstract.
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  • Medina JH, Paladini AC, Wolfman C, et al. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem Pharmacol 1990;40:2227-31. View abstract.
  • Meier S, Haschke M, Zahner C, et al. Effects of a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185) to an experimental acute stress setting in healthy men – An explorative randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2018 Jan 15;39:85-92. View abstract.
  • Miroddi M, Calapai G, Navarra M, et al. Passiflora incarnata L: ethnopharmacology, clinical application, safety and evaluation of clinical trials. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:791-804. View abstract.
  • Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BG. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(1):CD004518. View abstract.
  • Mori A, Hasegawa K, Murasaki M, et al. Clinical evaluation of Passiflamin (passiflora extract) on neurosis – multicenter double blind study in comparison with mexazolam. Rinsho Hyoka (Clinical Evaluation) 1993;21:383-440.
  • Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, Nejatfar M. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg 2008;106:1728-32. View abstract.
  • Ngan A, Conduit R. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (Passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother Res 2011;25:1153-9. View abstract.
  • Nojoumi M, Ghaeli P, Salimi S, Sharifi A, Raisi F. Effects of Passion Flower Extract, as an Add-On Treatment to Sertraline, on Reaction Time in Patients ?with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Iran J Psychiatry. 2016;11(3):191-97. View abstract.
  • Ozturk Z, Kalayci CC. Pregnancy outcomes in psychiatric patients treated with passiflora incarnata. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Feb;36:30-32. View abstract.
  • Patel SS, Mohamed Saleem TS, Ravi V, et al. Passiflora incarnata Linn: a phytopharmacological review. Int J Green Pharmacy 2009;Oct-Dec:277-80.
  • Rokhtabnak F, Ghodraty MR, Kholdebarin A, et al. Comparing the Effect of Preoperative Administration of Melatonin and Passiflora incarnata on Postoperative Cognitive Disorders in Adult Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery. Anesth Pain Med. 2016;7(1):e41238. View abstract.
  • Rommelspacher H, May T, Salewski B. (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1994;252:51-9.. View abstract.
  • Salgueiro JB, Ardenghi P, Dias M, et al. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1997;58:887-91. View abstract.
  • Speroni E., Minghetti A. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med. 1988;54:488-91. View abstract.
  • Von Eiff M, Brunner H, Haegeli A, et al. Hawthorn / passion flower extract and improvement in physical exercise capacity of patients with dyspnoea Class II of the NYHA functional classifications. Acta Therapeutica 1994;20:47-66.
  • Brown, E., Hurd, N. S., McCall, S., and Ceremuga, T. E. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA.J 2007;75(5):333-337. View abstract.
  • Dhawan, K., Kumar, S., and Sharma, A. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia 2001;72(6):698-702. View abstract.
  • Gerhard, U., Hobi, V., Kocher, R., and Konig, C. . Schweiz.Rundsch.Med.Prax. 12-27-1991;80(52):1481-1486. View abstract.
  • Nassiri-Asl, M., Shariati-Rad, S., and Zamansoltani, F. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC.Complement Altern Med 2007;7:26. View abstract.
  • Rickels, K. and Hesbacher, P. T. Over-the-counter daytime sedatives. A controlled study. JAMA 1-1-1973;223(1):29-33. View abstract.
  • Smith, G. W., Chalmers, T. M., and Nuki, G. Vasculitis associated with herbal preparation containing Passiflora extract. Br J Rheumatol. 1993;32(1):87-88. View abstract.
  • Soulimani, R., Younos, C., Jarmouni, S., Bousta, D., Misslin, R., and Mortier, F. Behavioural effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57(1):11-20. View abstract.
  • Von Eiff M, Brunner H, Haegeli A, and et al. Hawthorn / passion flower extract and improvement in physical exercise capacity of patients with dyspnoea Class II of the NYHA functional classifications. Acta Therapeutica 1994;20:47-66.
  • Wolfman, C., Viola, H., Paladini, A., Dajas, F., and Medina, J. H. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;47(1):1-4. View abstract.
  • Yaniv, R., Segal, E., Trau, H., Auslander, S., and Perel, A. Natural premedication for mast cell proliferative disorders. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46(1):71-72. View abstract.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Mobaseri M, et al. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26:369-73. View abstract.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Momeni F. Passiflora incarnata in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Therapy 2005;2(4):609-14.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Shayeganpour A, et al. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26:363-7. View abstract.
  • Ansseau M, Seidel L, Crosset A, Dierckxsens Y, Albert A. A dry extract of Passiflora incarnata L. (Sedanxio) as first intention treatment of patients consulting for anxiety problems in general practice. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 2012;112(3):5-11.
  • Aoyagi N, Kimura R, Murata T. Studies on passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem Pharm Bull 1974;22:1008-13. View abstract.
  • Appel K, Rose T, Fiebich B, et al. Modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother Res 2011;25:838-43. View abstract.
  • Aslanargun P, Cuvas O, Dikmen B, Aslan E, Yuksel MU. Passiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia. J Anesth 2012;26(1):39-44. View abstract.
  • Bourin M, Bougerol T, Guitton B, Broutin E. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: controlled study vs placebo. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1997;11:127-32. View abstract.
  • Capasso A., Sorrentino L. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of Kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:39-45. View abstract.

Passionflower

Background

  • Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers learned of passionflower in Peru. Native peoples of the Americas used passionflower as a mild sedative.
  • Today, passionflower is used as a dietary supplement for anxiety and sleep problems, as well as for pain, heart rhythm problems, menopausal symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is applied to the skin for burns and to treat hemorrhoids.
  • Passionflower is available dried (which can be used to make tea), or as liquid extract, capsules, or tablets.

How Much Do We Know?

  • Passionflower’s effect on anxiety and other conditions hasn’t been studied extensively.

What Have We Learned?

  • A 2007 review of two older studies with198 people compared the ability of passionflower and two drugs to reduce anxiety. It concluded that the three substances had about the same degree of minimal effectiveness; however, the researchers noted that the small number of studies don’t allow clear conclusions to be drawn.
  • A more recent review suggests that the majority of passionflower studies in people for any condition have serious flaws and, therefore, do not support its use.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • Passionflower is generally considered to be safe but may cause drowsiness.
  • Passionflower should not be used during pregnancy as it may induce contractions.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

RELIGIOUS MEANING OF THE PASSION FLOWER

PASSION FLOWER is a woody vine that has unusual blossoms. Roman Catholic priests of the lat 1500’s named it for the Passion (suffering and death) of Jesus Christ. They believed that several parts of the plant, including the petals, rays, and sepals, symbolized features of the Passion. The flower’s five petals and five petallike sepals represented the 10 apostles who remained faithful to Jesus throughout the Passion. The circle of hairlike rays above the petals suggested the crown of thorns that Jesus wore on the day of His death.

The priests who named the vine found it growing in what is now Latin America. Today, gardeners in many parts of the world raise passion flowers for the blossoms. The flowers may be almost any color. Their diameter ranges from 1/2 inch to 6 inches. Most of the approximately 400 species of passion-flowers grow in warm regions of North and South America. The maypop, the common PASSION FLOWER of the Southern United States, bears a yellow fruit. These fruits taste slightly sour or very sweet, depending on the species. Passion flowers grown for passionfruit juice are Passiflora edulis flavicarpa.

Tropical Passion Flowers – How To Grow Passion Vine

There are over 400 species of tropical passion flowers (Passiflora spp.) with sizes ranging from ½ inch to 6 inches across. They are found naturally from South America through Mexico. Early missionaries to these regions used the distinctly colored patterns of the flowers parts to teach about the passion’of Christ; hence the name. Read on to learn more.

Tips for Passion Flower Care

Their vibrant colors and heady fragrance make the passion flower plant a welcome addition to any garden. Unfortunately, because of its origins, most species of passion flower plant can’t overwinter in many gardens in the United States, although there are a few that will survive up to USDA plant hardiness zone 5. Most varieties will grow in Zones 7-10.

Because they are vines, the best place for growing passion flowers is along a trellis or fence. The tops will be killed off during winter, but if you mulch deeply, your passion flower plant will return with new shoots in the spring. Since growing passion flowers can reach 20 feet in a single season, this die back will help keep the vine under control.

Tropical passion flowers need full sun and well drained soil. Two applications of a well-balanced fertilizer per year, once in early spring and one in midsummer is all the passion flower care you’ll need.

How to Grow Passion Vine Indoors

If you live in an area where winters are too harsh for tender passion flower care, don’t despair. Growing passion flowers indoors is as easy as finding a big pot and a window with bright light. Plant your vine in a rich commercial indoor potting soil and keep it uniformly moist, not wet.

Move your plant outdoors after all danger of frost is past and let your vine run wild. Come fall, cut back the growth to a reasonable height and bring it back indoors. Knowing how to grow passion vine is all it takes to bring a little of the tropics to your patio or porch.

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  • I love growing passion fruit indoors and making my favorite passion fruit juice with the tasty fruits I produce.

    Most people don’t realize it is possible to grow passion flower vine as a houseplant in your house or apartment, not only is it possible but the temperature in your home will probably be close to ideal for growing fruit.

    Read on and I will tell you exactly how to grow passion fruit indoors so you can give it a try and impress your friends with a new delightful houseplant.

    To grow passion fruit indoors is actually quite simple. Use a pot that is 12 x 12 inches and fill it with a high-quality potting soil. Use a trellis so the vine of your plant can grow up and around it, get your plant at least 4 hours of sunlight daily and watch your new houseplant thrive.

    This video shows different types of passion fruits:

    What variety of passion flower vine is best for growing indoors?

    There are many different varieties of passion fruit (Passiflora incarnata) varieties that you could choose to grow and some will be more suited to grow indoors as a houseplant than others.

    Passion fruits grow on a vine so space should not be an issue if you use a trellis to wrap the vine around.

    If you grow your vine from a seed you acquired from a store bought passion fruit it will likely be a hybrid variety that might not reproduce anything like the original fruit, so good luck with that.

    I would recommend you buy a variety that is suitable for growing indoors or choose a bonsai variety such as the Mapplegreen so you know what you are getting.

    Should I grow a passion fruit from seed or buy a young seedling?

    Whilst passion fruit can be propagated from cuttings the best idea is to propagate them from seed.

    It can take up to 19 months for a passion fruit vine to become mature enough to produce fruit.

    If you are growing your passion flower vine so you can eat the homegrown fruits you might want to grow your plant from a seedling as this obviously shortens the time you will have to wait for the fruit to be produced.

    How to germinate passionflower

    Some people say it is difficult to germinate passion fruit seeds but it is not.

    First cut a passion fruit in half and scoop out the seeds and put them in a bowl of water for about a week.

    After a week when there is no pulp left on the seeds sow your seeds in a pot with soil (always use more than you need as they won’t all germinate), cover them with about a 1/8 inch of soil, give them a water and seal the pot with a plastic bag to keep moisture in and put them on a windowsill.

    After about 2 weeks you should have some shoots and leaves growing out the soil.

    Pick the strongest 2 or 3 that you are going to re-pot and grow as your passion flower vine.

    This video shows how to germinate passion fruit seeds:

    What sort of pot should I use for passion fruit?

    You should choose a pot that is as big as possible for the space you have, I have a 12×12 inch pot.

    Although the actual vine is fairly small the passion flower plant does have a fairly large root system.

    Make sure the pot or container you use has drainage holes in the bottom as if the roots of a passion fruit vine are in standing water they will rot and your plant will die.

    You will have to figure out or buy some sort of trellis system for the vine to grow up and around for the best results as the vine can grow 15 feet in a season.

    What sort of soil should I use for indoor passion fruit?

    Passion fruit vines are not fussy about the soil type and will grow in most soils.

    Make sure you put a layer of stones or pebbles in the bottom to help with drainage as this is vital if you want to grow a healthy vine.

    I use a standard high-quality potting soil from the store but you could make your own by mixing equal parts of peat bark and sand.

    Never use soil from your garden for anything you grow in a pot as it will quickly become a big clump of soil that is bad for drainage and unhealthy for plants.

    How much light does passion fruit require?

    Passionflower vines do like the sun so the more direct sunlight you can get your plant the better.

    A passion fruit vine will grow just fine as long as you get it at least 4 hours of direct sunlight every day, you should easily be able to achieve this if you have a south or west facing window.

    If you will struggle to get enough light or are serious about producing fruits you can always top up the light with an affordable LED grow lamp as the more light it gets normally means the more fruit it will produce.

    Check out my full articles on the best Led light strips and cheap Led lights that work for more Led info.

    How often should I water my passion flower vine?

    Passion fruit vines like what I would call an average amount of water, I water my plant twice per week during the growing season and once per month during the winter.

    When I water my passion flower vine I give it a deep water, that is to keep watering it until the water begins to trickle out the drainage holes in the bottom of my pot.

    How much you choose to water your indoor passionfruit depends largely on your local climate and the temperature of your home.

    What climate is best for indoor passion fruit?

    There are many different varieties of passion fruit and they will all thrive in slightly different climates.

    Passion fruit will do well in hot temperatures but if the temperature gets above 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37C) it may start to suffer.

    Passionflower vines are pretty cold tolerant and will be fine if the temperature gets down to around 32 degrees Fahrenheit (-0C). If the temperature gets below 25 F (-4C) the vine may wither and die, however, it should start to grow from the roots again when it gets to spring weather.

    What is the best fertilizer for passion fruit in a pot?

    I only fertilize my passion fruit twice per year and it does just fine, I use Miracle Grow all purpose concentrated plant food 6-3-6 plus micronutrients and it seems to be ideal.

    If you use a fertilizer that is high in nitrogen it will encourage the vine and lots of foliage to grow, its best to use a fertilizer that is high in potassium (potash) as it encourages fruits to grow and that is the whole point of a fruit tree!

    How to prune a passion fruit vine in a pot

    The best time to prune your passion fruit vine is in the spring.

    You won’t need to prune your passion flower vine to help encourage fruiting, you will need to prune it to keep it under control as it can grow 10-20 feet per season.

    When you prune you should cut back the main stem to the size you want, if it is overgrown and cut it back to a side shoot or bud where possible.

    After your passion fruit vine flowers, you should cut back the side shoots to a couple of buds from the main fan framework.

    How to pollinate a passion flower?

    In the wild, bees, insects, and wind will pollinate flowers but as you are growing a passion fruit vine indoors you will have to do the job by hand.

    Some varieties of passion fruit like yellow passion fruit are self-sterile meaning you will need two vines for cross-pollination, other varieties like purple passion fruit are self-fruitful and the flowers off one vine can pollinate themselves so remember this when choosing a variety to grow.

    To pollinate by hand I use the paintbrush method.

    That is using a small paintbrush to brush the pollen from one flower into another flower, go round every flower and follow this method.

    For self-fertile varieties, you will have to brush the pollen from one flower and into the flower on another vine.

    When to pick passion fruit from a potted vine

    Passion fruit will fall off the vine when they are ripe, that’s nature doing its job.

    I would recommend you harvest your passion fruits when they are ripe but before they drop off naturally.

    You can tell when a passion fruit is ripe by the color it turns but this will vary depending on the variety, they will turn from green to orange/ yellow, purple or dark brown.

    Another telltale sign your passion fruit is ripe is the skin will begin to appear wrinkly and shriveled so if you notice this it’s time to snip them off the vine.

    How to store freshly picked passion fruit

    If your passion fruit has any green areas on it it’s not ripe yet so you should store it at room temperature so that it ripens fully.

    Before putting your passion fruit in the refrigerator you should give it a wash and completely dry it off.

    Put whole passion fruits in the fridge and they can stay good for up to 2 weeks.

    Extend the life of them by putting your passion fruit in the freezer.

    The easiest way to store passion fruit in the freezer is to scoop out the center and put the pulp in ice cube trays.

    When it is frozen you should remove them from the trays and put the frozen passion fruit cubes in a sealable bag or container.

    Passion fruit that is frozen can stay good for up to 8 months.

    What to do if your passion flower stops producing fruit

    If your passion fruit is not bearing fruit there are a few problems that might be occurring.

    The first reason might be the flowers did not get pollinated.

    You will have to pollinate the flowers by hand as there should be no bees in your house to do the pollination.

    Bear in mind that some varieties of passion fruit vines will need 2 separate vines so you can cross-pollinate them and some varieties only need one vine and can pollinate itself.

    Have you used too much fertilizer as if you use too much or the wrong type of fertilizer it may encourage lots of green foliage to grow but no fruit.

    Finally, have you pruned your vine?

    Fresh vines will produce more fruit so you should prune your vine every year to encourage fresh growth and encourage more fruit production.

    Common passion fruit vine problems and how to solve them

    Passion fruit vine is a simple plant to grow indoors and when it gets going the biggest problem you will probably have is how to control the rapid growth.

    However, like all plants, there are some problems that may affect your passion fruit vine and the quicker you treat these problems the more likely a rapid recovery will be. Here are some of the problems:

    Bitter Rot – Bitter rot is an infection that will affect the fruit of your plant especially in hot and humid conditions. You will notice this disease by the dark, soft lesions that appear on the fruit and can quickly spread to cover the whole fruit until it drops off the vine. To treat or prevent this disease you should use a copper spray and cut any infected fruits off when you first notice the rot.

    Crown Canker – Crown canker is a lethal disease to passion fruit vines so it is bad news if your vine gets infected. This condition normally starts close to the ground and will infect any damages areas like damage caused by frost, pests or fertilizer burn. Crown canker will cause sudden and rapid wilting, leaf drop and fruit drop. There is no cure for this disease so if your vine becomes infected you should remove and destroy it.

    Thielaviopsis Root Rot – This disease is a fungus which is more likely to infect affect plants that are grown in heavy soil. You will notice this disease by the poor colored foliage and a generally unhealthy look to your vine, the roots will decay and have a blackened appearance. If this infects your plant you should severely prune it back to try to encourage fresh healthy growth to save it if this fails you will have to dispose of your plant.

    Blue Passion Flower Vine

    Botanical Name: Passiflora caerulea

    Passion Flower vine is immediately recognizable by its big, spectacular blooms that appear in late summer and fall.

    Its unusual purple, white and blue flowers are 4-6 inches (10-15 cm) across with green anthers. The flowers are followed by small, yellow or orange egg-shaped fruits that are edible but full of seeds.

    Those fast-growing, vigorously climbing vines are thickly covered with lobed dark-green leaves.

    To show off its leafy vines, and to give them a denser appearance, loop them around a wire hoop or trellis and tie loosely with florists wire. Pruning passion flower vine does no harm and will help keep it under control.

    Pruning Tip: Cut the stems back in spring, just before its heaviest blooming time, but be careful not to remove the flower buds. Use sharp pruners to avoid tearing the stems.

    A few Passion Flower facts will help you know and grow this plant.

    It is native to the rain forests of Brazil and Argentina where it clings to the trunks of trees using its tendrils.

    Indoors, this tropical plant needs warmth, direct sun and humidity to grow well. Because of its need for full sun and high humidity, it can be somewhat difficult to please in a home and will grow best in a greenhouse.

    Repot young plants in spring. Older plants can be top-dressed instead, removing the top couple inches (5 cm) of soil and replacing it with fresh soil. Don’t overpot — you’ll get the most flowers if its roots are a bit crowded in the pot.

    You’ll find Passion Flower for sale nearly year-round at some online garden sites that offer tropical plants.

    Passion Flower Vine Growing Tips

    Origin: South America

    Height: Up to 10 ft (3 m)

    Light: At least 4 hours of direct sunlight a day. It does best in a south-facing room, sunroom or greenhouse.

    Water: Keep mix evenly moist from spring through fall. In winter, provide just enough water to keep mix from drying out.

    Humidity: Requires moist air. Set pot on a tray of wet pebbles and mist leaves daily with room-temperature water.

    Temperature: 55-60°F/13-16°C nights and 70-75°F/21-24°C days. To ensure blooming, give your plant slightly cooler nighttime temperatures. A 15° difference will do.

    Soil: African violet potting mix

    Fertilizer: Feed with a liquid fertilizer diluted by half once a month spring through fall. I highly recommend organic fertilizer that’s safe for indoor plants. Do not feed in winter.

    Propagation: Take 6 in (15 cm) stem tip cuttings in summer and root in moist potting mix.

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    How to grow passion flowers

    Passion flowers offer the most incredible flowers. They are like nothing else. These evergreen climbers are either hardy, frost hardy or tender, so choose a passion flower species to suit your garden. Some gardeners prefer to grow them in a greenhouse or conservatory.

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    Video: Caring for passion flowers – Golden Rules

    If given the right growing conditions plants can put on rapid growth. Content plants will flower from July to October and in some case are followed by egg-shaped fruits. Fruits are edible, but only if fully ripe. However, they’re not very tasty.

    Like nothing else, passion flowers (Passiflora) offer the most incredible flowers.

    Where to plant passion flowers

    Plant passion flowers in a position of full sun. The foot of a sheltered, sunny wall in a well-drained soil will provide the best results. Passion flowers enjoy a moist but well-drained soil.

    Passion flowers can also be grown in containers. Here, they prefer a more gritty compost that offers free drainage. Avoid a peat-based compost as these can easily become waterlogged.

    Avoid a windy spot as foliage can easily be damaged by strong winds.

    Passion fruits

    How to plant passion flowers

    Improve the drainage of the soil by digging on horticultural grit. Plant and firm in. Hardy plants can be trained up a pergola, obelisk or galvanised wires run across a wall. Guide the plant on to the support with a garden cane. The plants are self-clinging thanks to tendrils, so when mature they will not need tying in.

    Propagating passion flowers

    Growing passion flowers from seed is not easy. Plants that are produced from seed can take over a decade to flower, so propagation from cuttings is preferable.

    Take cuttings in early spring. Remove new growth from below a node – about 6cm in length is long enough. Remove the bottom leaves and tendrils and place the cutting in a pot of cutting compost. Cuttings will root successfully when placed in a propagator with bottom heat of around 20°C.

    Passiflora ‘Amethyst’

    Passion flowers: problem solving

    A very wet and cold winter can lead to the loss of hardy passion flowers. A cold and wet winter is far from ideal. To avoid losing plants, dig in some horticultural grit before planting if you have a heavy soil.

    Stems carrying foliage that has been damaged by wind or frost should be cut back in spring.

    Passion flower

    Looking after passion flowers

    Tender passion flowers grown in a container should be moved into a frost-free place for winter. If growing in a greenhouse or conservatory protect the plants from too much direct sunlight with greenhouse shading.

    Prune passion flowers after flowering just to keep them neat, cutting back to a healthy bud. There is no need to cut them back hard. If plants have got out of hand and need retraining, cut them back in spring.

    Passiflora caerulea

    Passion flowers to grow

    • Passiflora caerulea – blue, white and green flowers in July to October. Hardy. Egg-shaped orange fruits follow the flowers in a good summer. Reaches a height of 10m
    • Passiflora caerulea ‘Constance Elliot’ – white, scented flowers. Flowers from July to October. Reaches a height of 10m. Often needs some winter protection although described as hardy
    • Passiflora edulis – blue and white flowers in July and August. Only suitable for a cool, but frost-free greenhouse or a sheltered, south-facing city garden. Has black edible fruits. Reaches a height of 5m
    • Passiflora antioquiensis – tender, so winter protection is essential. Soft red flowers with a violet corona. Produces yellow fruits. Reaches a height of 5m

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    • Passiflora mollissima – the flowers of this species are very different. Long tubular, pale-pink flowers in July and August. Tender, so needs winter protection. Climbs to a height of 4m

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