Pak choy vs bok choy


Crucifer Family – (Mustard) bok choy, daikon, gailon, Chinese cabbage

All are used in stir-fried dishes with meat and other vegetables. The stem and leaves are also used in soups. They are also good raw in salads.

Daikon – (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus): Also called Chinese radish, this root crop is very closely related to the common radish. An Alternaria leaf blight and turnip mosaic are the main problems on the leaves but aphids, and soil wireworms can also be a problem. The main planting times are spring and fall, but some varieties can be planted almost year-round. Bolting (premature seedstalk) can be a problem with other varieties. Lo bok is a separate cultivar that may have some green coloration. Medicinal uses are many.

Daikon can be grated and added to various cooked dishes, sliced and added fresh to salads, or stir-fry onions and add shredded daikon and shrimp (6-8 minutes). The young leaves are also good steamed and served with a little butter. Daikon seeds are slightly peppery and great in a tossed salad.

Gailon – (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra): This Chinese broccoli (Kale) very closely resembles the more familiar broccoli, but with much smaller stems and flowers. The seeds are planted for a spring crop or fall crop. Main problems are aphids, armyworms, and cabbage butterflies. Pick just before the flowers open for best quality. The stems are more tender and sweeter than broccoli.

Stir-fry the 2″ pieces of gailon for one minute, then cover with water and cook covered for two more minutes. Stir oyster sauce into a pan with heated oil and water, then spoon over the broccoli and eat. OR, instead of oyster sauce, use minced garlic and chicken broth and a little soy sauce. It is also good in stir-fries with beef, pork, chicken and with noodles.

Chinese cabbage – (Brassica rapa var. pekinesis): is also known as celery cabbage and Napa cabbage. The heads are fairly dense, though not as hard as regular cabbage. They may be of two types – ‘Michili’, which are tall and upright, and ‘Napa’, which are more round or barrel shaped. The leaves are thinner than cabbage. Pest problems include cabbageworm, loopers, armyworms, aphids, and flea beetles.

The flavor is more delicate than cabbage. It is one of the last ingredients to add to a stir-fry dish. It is also added raw to salads

Guide to Asian Specialty Vegetables

Asian vegetables glossary

Note Number: AG1393
Published: December 2009

This information note is a pictorial and alphabetic glossary of key Asian vegetables and different names they are commonly known by in many of the retail outlets in Melbourne.

Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus, A. oleraceus)

English: amaranthus, Chinese spinach, edible amaranth, wild blite, careless weed

Fig 1. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus, A. oleraceus)

Arabic: napat orguani
Chinese: hin tsoi, een choy, xian cai, yin choi
Danish – Dutch: amarant
Filipono: kulitis
French: amaranthe, amarante
German: Amarant, Fuchsschwanz
Hindi: chaulai sag, ram dana, lal sag, rajgira, chuamarsa, ganhar, kalgaghasa
Indonesian: bayam, selasih, bayem, abang, senggang bener
Italian: amaranto
Japanese: santousai
Malay: bayam
Portugese: amarantos, bredos, carurú
Spanish: amaranis, bledos, blancos
Thai: phak khom
Vietnamese: rau dên

Green-Leaved Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus, A. oleraceus)

English: amaranthus, Chinese spinach, edible amaranth, wild blite, careless weed

Fig 2. Green-Leaved Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus, A. oleraceus)

Arabic: napat orguani
Chinese: hin tsoi, een choy, xian cai, yin choi
Danish – Dutch: amarant
Filipono: kulitis
French: amaranthe, amarante
German: Amarant, Fuchsschwanz
Hindi: chaulai sag, ram dana, lal sag, rajgira, chuamarsa, ganhar, kalgaghasa
Indonesian: bayam, selasih, bayem, abang, senggang bener
Italian: amaranto
Japanese: santousai
Malay: bayam
Portugese: amarantos, bredos, carurú
Spanish: amaranis, bledos, blancos
Thai: phak khom
Vietnamese: rau dên

Asian basil (Ocimum basilicum)

English: also Thai basil, sweet basil

Fig 3. Asian basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Chinese: hsiang tsai
Danish: basilikum
Dutch: basilicum, bazielkruid, koningskruid
French: basilic
German: Basilikum, Basilienkraut
Hindi: babui tulsi, gulal tulsi, marva
Italian: basilico
Malay: selaseh, selasi
Portugese: basílico, manjericão grande, amjerico da folha grande
Spanish: albahaca, alhábega
Thai: tarp hao (light green), ho lap har (green)
Vietnamese: rau quê

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)

English: bitter gourd/cucumber, karella, balsam pear, alligator pear, African cucumber

Fig 4. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)

Chinese: ku gua, foo gwa (bitter gourd), jin li zhi (bright beautiful lychee), lao pu tao (ugly grape)
Danish: karela
Dutch: springkomkommer
Filipono: ampalaya, amargoso, paria, palia
French: assorossie, margase, pomme de merveille, momordique a feuilles de vigne
German: Balsamapfel, Wunder-Balsampfel, Bitterer Balsamkürbis
Hindi: karela, kaveli
Indonesian: pare, pare pahit, paria, peria
Italian: balsamini lunghi, pomo balsamo, caranza, vite indiana
Japanese: tsuru reishi, niga-uri
Malay: peria, peria katak
Portugese: balsamini longa, melão de São Caetano
Spanish: balsamina, calabaza africana, cundeamor, estrpajo
Thai: mara, phakha, maha
Vietnamese: muop dang, khô qua

Bitter Melon Leaves (Momordica charantia)

English: bitter gourd/cucumber leaves, karella leaves, balsam pear leaves, alligator pear leaves, African

Fig 5. Bitter Melon Leaves (Momordica charantia)

Chinese: cucumber leaves
Malay: foo gwa yip
Vietnamese: daun peria, daun peria katak la khô qua

Buffalo Spinach (Enydra fluctuans)

English: Buffalo spinach

Fig 6. Buffalo Spinach (Enydra fluctuans)

Malay: chengkeru, kangkong kerbau
Vietnamese: ngò ôm

Càng Cua (Peperomia pellucida)

English: (unknown)

Fig 7. Càng Cua (Peperomia pellucida)

Vietnamese: Càng Cua

Celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. asparagina, L. augustana)

English: stem lettuce, asparagus lettuce

Fig 8. Celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. asparagina, L. augustana)

Arabic: khass saki
Chinese: nen jing wo ju, woo chu, wo sun
Danish: aspergesalat
Dutch: aspergesalat
French: laitue asperge, l. asperge romain
German: Spargelsalat
Italian: lattuga asparago
Japanese: stemuretasu, kaki-jisha
Portuguese: alface espargo
Spanish: lechuga espárrago

Ceylon Spinach (Basella alba, B. ruba, B. cordifolia)

Chilli Leaves (Capsicum frutescens)

English: chilli leaves

Fig 10. Chilli Leaves (Capsicum frutescens)

Chinese Boxthorn (Lycium chinense)

English: Chinese boxthorn, Chinese wolfberry

Fig 11. Chinese Boxthorn (Lycium chinense)

Chinese: kau kei, gou qi
Danish: bredbladet bukketorn
Dutch: chinese boksdoorn
French: lyciet de la Chine, kaoki
German: chinesischer Bocksdorn
Italian: spina santa cinese
Japanese: kuko
Portugese: cambroeira da China
Spanish: camronera de la China
Vietnamese: kâu ky

Chinese Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra)

English: Chinese kale, white flowering broccoli, kailan

Fig 12. Chinese Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra)

Chinese: gai lan, gaai laan, kai laan, kailan, jie lan, kai lan tsoi, gelancai, chair lan
Danish: kailan-kal
Dutch: kailan
Filipino: gailon
French: kailan
Japanese: kairan
Laotian: phakkhana
Malay: kai lan
Portugese: kailan
Thai: phakkhana
Vietnamese: cai rô

Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis)

English: wong bok, celery cabbage, Chinese leaves, napa, Peking/Shantung, Tientsin cabbage, pe-tsai, michihili

Fig 13. Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis)

Chinese: da bai cai, pe-tsai,jie-jin bai cai, shu-tsoi, wong bok, wong nga pak (yellow spouted white)
Danish: kinakal, Kinesisk kal
Dutch: Chinesekool
Filipino: baguio
French: chou de Chine, chou de Shanton, pé-tsai, chou chinois
German: Pekingkohl, Schantungkohl, Chinakohl
Italian: cavolo di Cina, c. cinese
Japanese: hakusai
Malay: kubis cina, kubis panjang, sawi pahit
Portugese: couve chinesa, couve da China, repolho chines, petsai
Russian: kapusta kitajskaja
Spanish: col de China, repollo chino
Vietnamese: cai bap thao

Chinese Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce)

English: Chinese celery

Fig 14. Chinese Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce)

Arabic: karafs
Chinese: qin cai, kun choy, kan tsoi
Danish: blegsselleri, bladselleri
Dutch: bleekselderij
Filipino: kinchai
French: céleri à côtés, c. à branchir
German: Bleichsellerie, Stangensellerie
Hindi: ajmond, bari ajmond, ajmud
Italian: sedano, s. da coste
Japanese: seri-na
Malay: saderi, daun saderi Cina
Portugese: aipo, a. haortense, a. de talos, salsão
Russian: selderej cereskovyj
Spanish: aapio blanco, a. autoblanqueable, a. de tallo
Thai: teng chai
Vietnamese: cân tàu

Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

English: Chinese white cabbage, Chinese mustard, celery mustard

Fig 15. Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

Chinese: bok choy, pak tsoi, baak choi, bai cai (white vegetable), tsing pak choi
Danish: pak-choi
Dutch: pakchoi
Filipino: petsay, pechay
French: pak-choi
German: Pakchoi
Indonesian: petsai, sesawi putih, pecal, pecai, samho
Japanese: shakushina (white stemmed), pakchoi, tai-si
Laotian: hach us
Malay: sawi puhit
Portugese: pakchoi
Spanish: pakchoi
Thai: phakkaat farang, ang chaithao
Vietnamese: cai Thuong Hai

Baby Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

English: Chinese white cabbage, Chinese mustard, celery mustard

Fig 16. Baby Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

Chinese: bok choy, pak tsoi, baak choi, bai cai (white vegetable), tsing pak choi
Danish: pak-choi
Dutch: pakchoi
Filipino: petsay, pechay
French: pak-choi
German: Pakchoi
Indonesian: petsai, sesawi putih, pecal, pecai, samho
Japanese: shakushina (white stemmed), pakchoi, tai-si
Laotian: hach us
Malay: sawi puhit
Portugese: pakchoi
Spanish: pakchoi
Thai: phakkaat farang, ang chaithao
Vietnamese: cai trang laon

Shanghai Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

English: Shanghai Chinese chard

Fig 17. Shanghai Chinese Chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)

Chinese: Shanghai pak tsoi, qing cai (green vegetable)
Japanese: chingensai (green stemmed)

Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

English: Chinese soup green, white flowering cabbage, mock pak choy, choy sum

Fig 18. Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

Chinese: choy sum, cai xin, cai tai
Dutch: choy sum
French: choy sum
Japanese: saishin
Malay: sawi bunga, sawi manis
Portugese: choy sum
Thai: pakauyai (white), pakaukeo (green)
Vietnamese: cai ngot

Baby Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

English: Chinese soup green, white flowering cabbage, mock pak choy, choy sum

Fig 19. Baby Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

Chinese: choy sum, pak choy sum (white), cai xin, cai tai
Dutch: choy sum
French: choy sum
Japanese: saishin
Malay: sawi bunga, sawi manis
Portugese: choy sum
Thai: pakauyai (white), pakaukeo (green)
Vietnamese: cai ngot

White Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

English: Chinese soup green, white flowering cabbage, mock pak choy, white choy sum

Fig 20. White Chinese Flowering Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis)

Chinese: pak choy sum (white), cai xin, cai tai
Dutch: choy sum
French: choy sum
Japanese: saishin
Malay: sawi bunga, sawi manis
Portugese: choy sum
Thai: pakauyai
Vietnamese: cai ngot

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) 19

English: collender

Fig 21. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) 19

Arabic: kuzbara
Chinese: yan sui, heong choy
Danish: koriander
Dutch: koriander
French: coriander
German: Koriander
Hindi: dhania, dhanya
Italian: coriandolo
Japanese: koendoro
Laotian: hong pomn
Malay: ketumbar
Portugese: coentro
Spanish: coriandro, cilandrio, cilantro, culantro
Thai: phak cheethai
Vietnamese: ngò rí

Curry Leaves (Murraya koenigii)

English: Indian curry leaves

Fig 22. Curry Leaves (Murraya koenigii)

Drumstick (Moringa oleifera)

English: horseradish tree
Vietnamese: chum ngây

Fig 23. Drumstick (Moringa oleifera)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

English: eggfruit, brinjal, aubergine

Fig 24. Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Arabic: badhingan
Chinese: ngai kwa, qie zi
Danish: aegplante, aegfrugt, aubergine
Dutch: aubergine, eierplant
French: aubergine
German: Eierfrucht, Aubergine
Greek: petsai, sesawi putih, pecal, pecai, samho
Hindi: brinjal, bangain, baingan, bhanta, badanjan
Italian: malanzana, petonciano
Japanese: nasu
Malay: terung
Portugese: beringela
Russian: baklazan
Spanish: berenjena
Thai: mackhera
Vietnamese: cà tím

Foo Yip (Glinus oppositifolius, Glinus lotoides)

English: (unknown)

Fig 25. Foo Yip (Glinus oppositifolius, Glinus lotoides)

Chinese: foo yip
Vietnamese: rau dang

Galangal (Alpinia galanga, Languas gal., Maranta gal.)

Garland Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium)

English: chrysanthemum greens, edible chrysanthemum

Fig 27. Garland Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium)

Chinese: tong ho, thung ho, chong ho
Danish: okseøje, krysanthemum, kaempemargerit, vinterasters
Dutch: ganzwbloem, chrysant
French: chrysanthème, chrysanthemum
German: Wucherblume, Chrysantheme
Hindi: guladaudi
Italian: crisantemo, margherita
Japanese: shungiku, shokuyou-giku
Malay: tong ho, kek wah
Portuguese: crisanthtemo, margarida
Spanish: crisântemo, margarita
Vietnamese: tan ô

Garlic (Allium sativum)

Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum)

English: Chinese leek, Chinese chives

Fig 29. Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum)

Arabic: kurrat seeny
Chinese: jiu cai, kau choy, kucai
Danish: kina-løg
Dutch: knoflook
Filipino: kutsay, ganda, amput, imayyaw
French: ail civette de Chine, a. chinoise, ciboulette chinoise
German: Chinalauch
Indonesian: kuchai
Italian: cipollina chinese
Japanese: nira
Laotian: khat thiam
Malay: kuchai
Portuguese: alho chinês
Spanish: cive chino, cebollino de la China
Thai: kuichai, hom-paen
Vietnamese: he

Flowering Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum)

English: flowering Chinese leek, flowering Chinese chives

Fig 30. Flowering Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum)

Arabic: kurrat seeny
Chinese: kau choy fah
Vietnamese: bông he

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Green Radish (Rapahanus sativus var. longipinnatus)

English: green oriental radish

Fig 32. Green Radish (Rapahanus sativus var. longipinnatus)

Arabic: fejil
Chinese: cheng loh baak
Danish: raeddike, japanraeddike, kinaraeddike
Dutch: ramenas
Filipino: labanos, rabanos, alibanos
French: rave, daikon
German: Rettich
Hindi: muli
Italian: rafano
Japanese: daikon
Korean: mu
Malay: lobak hijau
Portuguese: rabao, rabano
Russian: red’ka
Spanish: rabano
Thai: hua piah
Vietnamese: cu cai xanh

Guava Bean (Benincasa hispida)

English: guava bean

Fig 33. Guava Bean (Benincasa hispida)

Filipino: upo
Hindi: lauki
Sri Lankan: dik labu
Thai: buap khaus
Vietnamese: bâu

Hairy Melon (Benincasa hispida var. chien-gua)

Hot Mint (Poligonum minus, P. odoratum)

English: laksa leaves

Fig 35. Hot Mint (Poligonum minus, P. odoratum)

Malay: daun kesom
Vietnamese: rau ram

Japanese Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima)

English: Japanese Pumpkin

Fig 36. Japanese Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima)

Arabic: qara sudani
Chinese: yin du nan gua, yü-kwa
Danish: centnergræskar
Dutch: reuzenkalebas, reuzenpompoen
Filipino: kalabasa
French: potiron, grosse courge, giraumon
German: Riesenkürbis, Zentnerkürbis
Hindi: vilayati kaddu
Japanese: seiyou, seiyou-kabocha
Malay: labu manis
Portuguese: abóbora menina, girimú, moganga
Russian: tykva krupnoplodnaja
Spanish: calabaza grande, c. gigante, c. de Castilla, zapallo

Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus)

Jute/Jew Mallow (Corchorus olitorius)

English: jute mellow, jew mallow

Fig 38. Jute/Jew Mallow (Corchorus olitorius)

Filipino: saluyot
Vietnamese: rau day

Kinh Gioi (Vietnamese name)

English: (unknown)

Fig 39. Kinh Gioi (Vietnamese name)

Vietnamese: kinh gioi

La Lot (Piper longum, P. sarmentosum)

English: (unknown)

Fig 40. La Lot (Piper longum, P. sarmentosum)

Vietnamese: la lot

Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus)

English: lemon grass

Fig 41. Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus)

Chinese: heong mau
Filipino: tanglad
German: Zitronengras
Laotian: thakai
Malay: serai
Thai: thakai
Vietnamese: xa

Lizard’s Tail (Hottuynia cordata)

English: saururis, tsi

Fig 42. Lizard’s Tail (Hottuynia cordata)

Chinese: ji cai
Danish: kamaeleonblad
French: houttuynie en coeur, hottuynie
German: Chamäläonblatt
Japanese: dokudami
Vietnamese: rau dâp cá

Long Coriander (Eryngium foetidum)

English: Long coriander

Fig 43. Long Coriander (Eryngium foetidum)

Vietnamese: ngò gai

Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera)

Mint (Mentha arvensis)

English: mint

Fig 45. Mint (Mentha arvensis)

German: Minzerau
Vietnamese: hung luy

Mustard Green (Brassica juncea)

English: Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, mustard cabbage, Swatow mustard cabbage, bamboo mustard cabbage, Sow cabbage

Fig 46. Mustard Green (Brassica juncea)

Chinese: daai gaai choi, chuk gaai choi, jiu la choi, jie cai, gai cai, kaai tsoi, gai choy, hsueh lay hung
Danish: mosterd
Dutch: Sareptamosterd, Indiaause mosterd, mosterd
Filipino: mustasa
French: moutarde a petites feuilles,chou faux jone, moutarde de Sarepta, m. jonciforme
German: Sarepta-Senf, Ruten-Kohl
Hindi: rai
Indonesian: sawi, sesawi
Italian: senape, senape indiana
Japanese: takana, karashina
Malay: sawi pahit
Portuguese: mostarda de folhas pequenas, m. indiana, mostarda vermelha
Spanish: mostaza de la China, mostaza de India
Thai: phakkat-khieo
Vietnamese: cai xanh

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, Abelmoschus esculentus)

Pea Shoots (Pisum sativum)

English: pea shoots

Fig 48. Pea Shoots (Pisum sativum)

Chinese: dow miao
Japanese: tohbyo
Thai: yur tuah
Vietnamese: dot sau hòa lan

Pennywort (Centella asiatica)

English: Indian pennywort

Fig 49. Pennywort (Centella asiatica)

Laotian: pkhark nork
Thai: bopop
Vietnamese: rau má

Perilla (Perilla frutescens)

Pumpkin Leaves (Cucurbita maxima)

English: pumpkin leaves

Fig 51. Pumpkin Leaves (Cucurbita maxima)

Vietnamese: dot bi

Ridged Luffa (Luffa acutangula)

English: angled luffa, Chinese okra, vegetable gourd, strainer vine, ridged gourd

Fig 52. Ridged Luffa (Luffa acutangula)

Arabic: bamya seeny
Chinese: ling jiao si gua, you lin si gua (angled silk gourd), sze gwa, sigua
Danish: kantagurk
Filipino: patola
French: concombre papengaie, papngaye, eponge vegetale torcho
Hindi: kalitori, jhingta tori
Indonesian: ewes, petola, gambas, ketala manis, oyong, jingi
Japanese: togado hechima
Malay: petola segi, ketola
Portuguese: lufa riscada, gousalim, bucha de purga
Spanish: calabaza de aristas, dringi
Vietnamese: muóp khia

Shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, A. ascalonicum)

English: potato onion, multiplier onion

Fig 53. Shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, A. ascalonicum)

Arabic: bassal el shallut
Chinese: fen nie yang cong
Danish: skalotteløg, kartoffeløg
Dutch: sjalot
Filipino: sibuyas talalog
French: échalote, oignon-paatate
German: Eschlauch
Hindi: gandana
Italian: scalogno
Japanese: sharotto
Malay: daun bawang, bawang merah, bawang kecil
Portuguese: chalota
Russian: luk-salot
Spanish: chalote, escaluña, ascalonia
Thai: homon deng
Vietnamese: hành huong

Snakebean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)

English: long bean, yard long bean, asparagus bean, garterbean

Fig 54. Snakebean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)

Chinese: dau gok/kok (horned bean), cai dou (vegetable bean), chang dou (long bean), jiang dou, chang jiang dou
Danish: aspargesbonne, meterbonne
Dutch: Indiaansche boon, kouseband
Filipino: sitao, banor, hamtak
French: haricot asperge, h. kilometre
German: Spargelbohne, Langbohne
Indonesian: kacang panjang, otok
Italian: fagiolo asparagio, f. lungo un metro, fagiolino asparago, fagioletto americano
Japanese: juroku-sasage
Malay: kacang belut, kacang panjang hijau, kacang perut ayam
Portuguese: feijao chicote, feijao a metro, feijao frade alfange
Spanish: feijao chicote, feijao a metro, feijao frade alfange
Thai: tau-fug-yao, tau-afuk yaou
Vietnamese: dâu que

Snowpea (Pisum sativum)

English: sweet pea, Chinese pea

Fig 55. Snowpea (Pisum sativum)

Chinese: tian cui wan dou, shid dou, hor lan dou
Danish: sukkeraert
Dutch: peul
Filipino: chicaro
French: pois mange tout, p. sucré
German: Zuckererbse
Italian: pisello mangiatutto, p. dolce, taccola
Japanese: kinusaya
Malay: kacang pi
Portuguese: ervilha torta, e. de quebrar, e. tipo come-tudo
Spanish: guisante tirabeque, g. come-todo, g. azucarado
Thai: tua lan tau
Vietnamese: dâu hòa lan

Spearmint (Mentha viridis, M. spicata)

Sponge Luffa (Luffa cylindrica, L. aegyptiaca)

Spring Onion (Allium fistulosum)

English: Welsh/Japanese bunching onion

Fig 58. Spring Onion (Allium fistulosum)

Arabic: bassal el-mustatere, bassal el-ankudy
Chinese: choong
Danish: pibe-løg
Dutch: grof bieslook
French: ciboulette, cive, ail-ciboule, ciboule
German: Winterzwiebel
Italian: cipolla d’Inverno, cipolletta
Japanese: negi
Malay: daun bawang
Portuguese: cebolinha, c. comum, c. de todo o ano, c. verde
Russian: luk batun
Spanish: cebolleta, c. comum, cebollino de verdeo común
Thai: hark korm
Vietnamese: hành lá

Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)

English: batatas, boniato, white-fleshed sweet potato

Fig 59. Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)

Arabic: ba ta tah helua
Chinese: gan shu, gan ye, fan shu
Danish: sod kartoffel, bataat
Dutch: bataat, zoete aardappel
Filipino: kamote
French: patate douce
German: Süßkartoffel, Batate
Hindi: sakarkand, mitha alu
Indonesian: ubi jalor, hwi, keledek, ketela rambat, tela, bodin, ubi merah
Italian: patata americana, patata kolce, batata
Japanese: satsuma-imo, kanjo
Malay: ubi keledek, ubi kastela, ubi keladi
Portuguese: batata doce
Russian: batat
Spanish: batata, boniato, camote, papa dulce, moniato
Thai: muntail, hua mun, man thet
Vietnamese: lá khoai lang, lá khoai mony

Sweet Potato Leaves (Ipomea batatas)

English: Sweet potato leaves

Fig 60. Sweet Potato Leaves (Ipomea batatas)

Vietnamese: Iá khoai lang

Tapioca (Manihot esculenta)

Taro (Colocasia esculenta)

Taro Shoots (Colocasia esculenta)

English cocoyam shoots, elephant’s ear plant shoots, Chinese potato shoots, dasheen shoots, coco shoots, eddoe/edo shoots

Fig 63. Taro Shoots (Colocasia esculenta)

Chinese: woohap
Filipino: tang kay ng gabi
Laotian: thoon
Vietnamese: bac ha

Thai Eggplant (Solanum undatum)

English: garden egg, aubergine, Thai brinjal

Fig 64. Thai Eggplant (Solanum undatum)

Burmese: kayan
Chinese: ai kwa
Dutch: aubergine, eierplant
Filipino: talong
French: melongene, bringelle
German: Thailändische Aubergine / Eierfrucht
Malay: terong
Spanish: berengena, berenjera
Thai: makeu-a kaou, makeu-a-keun
Vietnamese: cà pháo

Turmeric (Cucurma domestica, C. longa)

English: cà pháo

Fig 65. Turmeric (Cucurma domestica, C. longa)

Arabic: kur kum, zangabeel asfer
Chinese: jiang huang, wong keong
Danish: gurkemeje, Gelbwurzel
Filipino: luyang dilaw
French: curcuma, c. longue, curry, safran des Indes
German: Lange Kurkuma
Hindi: haldi, halada
Italian: curcuma lunga, zafferano delle Indie, radice gialla
Japanese: ukon
Malay: kunyit
Portuguese: açafrào da Índia, curcuma, gengibre dourada
Spanish: cúrcuma larga, c. longa, azafrán de la India
Thai: cummin
Vietnamese: nghê

Vietnamese Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa)

English: Chinese lettuce, leaf lettuce, curled lettuce

Fig 66. Vietnamese Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa)

Chinese: sang choy
Danish: sia
Filipino: letsugas
French: lechuga
German: Chinesischer Salat
Vietnamese: xà lách

Water Chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis)

Water Convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. reptans)

English: tropical spinach, water ipomea, water spinach, water sweet potato, swamp cabbage, swamp morning glory, kangkong

Fig 68. Water Convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. reptans)

Chinese: weng cai (pitcher vegetable), ong choi, ung choi (pitcher vegetable), tung tsoi (hollow vegetable), kong xin cai (empty heart or empty stem vegetable), ong tung tsoi
Danish: kangkong, bladgrøntsag
Dutch: kangkong
Filipino: kangkong, balangog, galatgat
French: liseron d’eau, patate aquatique
German: Sumpf-Trichterwinde
Hindi: kalmisag, karmi, patuasag
Italian: patate acquatica, villucchio d’acqua
Japanese: you-sai, en-sai, asagaona
Malay: kangkong
Portuguese: batata acquatica, cancon
Spanish: batatilla aquática, boniato de agua, camotillo
Thai: white: paagboong, phak bung, pak boong chin
red: pak boong thai
Vietnamese: rau muong

Water Parsley (Oenanthe javanica)

English: Water Parsley

Fig 69. Water Parsley (Oenanthe javanica)

Chinese: sui
Vietnamese: kuncân nuóc

Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-acquaticum)

English: watercress

Fig 70. Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-acquaticum)

Chinese: sai yeung tsoi
Filipino: lampaka, mustapa,amat, pakhoy
German: Wasserkresse
Indonesian: selada air, cencil, jembrak, gejembrak, sesawi tanah
Japanese: uotakuresu
Malay: semanggi
Thai: phakkat-nam
Vietnamese: xà lách son

White Radish (Raphanus sativus)

English: oriental winter radish, daikon, long white radish, Japanese radish

Fig 71. White Radish (Raphanus sativus)

Arabic: fejil
Chinese: loh bok, loh baak, loh bo, lai fu, lu fu, luobo
Danish: raeddike, japanraeddike, kinaraeddike
Dutch: ramenas
Filipino: labanos, rabanos, alibanos
French: rave, daikon
German: Rettich
Hindi: muli
Italian: rafano
Japanese: daikon
Korean: mu
Malay: lobak putih, lobak, lobak isi
Portuguese: rabão, rábano
Russian: red’ka
Spanish: rábano
Thai: hua piahs
Vietnamese: cu cai trang

Wingbean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

English: winged bean, Goa bean

Fig 72. Wingbean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

Chinese: yi dou
Danish: goabønne
Filipino: sigarilyis, sigarillas, sigadillas
French: pois ailé, p. carré
German: Goabohne
Japanese: shikaku mame
Malay: kacang botol, kacang kelisa, kacang sirek
Portuguese: fava de cavalo
Spanish: frijol alado, dólico de Goa
Vietnamese: dâu rông

Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)

English: wax gourd/melon, winter gourd, white gourd, Chinese preserving melon, Chinese squash, ash gourd/pumpkin, Chinese wax gurd, fuzzy melon, tallow gourd

Fig 73. Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)

Burmese: kyauk-hpayon
Chinese: dong gua
Danish: voksagurk
Filipino: kondol
French: courge à la cire, c. cireuse
German: Wachskürbis, Weißer Kürbis
Hindi: petha
Indonesian: bleego
Italian: benincasa
Japanese: tougan, kamo-uri
Malay: kundur
Portuguese: benincasa, abóbora de água
Spanish: calabaza branca, c. china
Thai: phat
Vietnamese: bí bee

Yam (Dioscorea alata)


This note was developed by Slobodan Vujovic and reviewed by Steven Lorimer, Farm Services Victoria. December 2009.

ISSN 1329-8062

Published and Authorised by:
Department of Environment and Primary Industries
1 Spring Street
Melbourne, Victoria

This publication is copyright. No part may be reproduced by any process except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968.

The advice provided in this publication is intended as a source of information only. Always read the label before using any of the products mentioned. The State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication

This is an ultimate guide of Chinese vegetables with pictures. After writing so many recipes, I found that there are lots of ingredients unfamiliar to the blog readers. I hope this can help you to know more detailed information about Chinese vegetables. I will introduce the basic information, how they are used in Chinese cooking and how they look like.

Bok Choy 小白菜

Bok Choy possibly is the most popular leafy vegetable outside and in China. This is a group name (小白菜) with several varieties. You may encounter with ones with white stem and normal ones with green stem. Besides, there are baby bok choy and regular bok choy. The green bok choy is known as “上(shàng)海(hǎi)青(qīng)”, while white bok choy is known as “奶(nǎi)白(bái)菜(cài)”.The whole piece is edible but you will need to separate each leaf to wash in order to remove the sand contained. The most common and classic cooking way of bok choy is stir frying with garlic. Besides, there are lots of soups and noodles calls for baby bok choy.

Napa cabbage 大白菜

Napa cabbage is named as ” 大(dà)白(bái)菜(cài)” in Chinese as a contrast to Bok Choy. They are usually with large stems and lightly green leaves. The Chinese cabbage was principally grown in the Yangtze River Delta region, but now it is extremely popular across the country. In Northern China, people love to use napa cabbage to make Suan cai in winter which has been developed into kimchi in Korean later. Good quality Napa cabbage usually is quite firm and may feel really heavy. Napa cabbage is the ingredient for kimchi . This vegetable goes extremely well with chow mein, lo mein or stir fried rice.

Water Spinach 空心菜

Water spinach also known as Chinese water spinach, rive spinach is the most popular leafy greens in hot summer days. It has long leaves and hollow stems so we name it “空(kōng)心(xīn)菜(cài)”, literally translated as hallow heart vegetable. It is grown in water or damp soil. The tender leave usually has a sweet and mild taste. Usually break the steam into 2 inch pieces along with the leaves. It can be used as a simple garlic stir fry or in stews and noodles.

Snow pea leave (豌豆苗)

Snow pea leave is only available in earlier spring, just in a very short period. Sometimes you may find it labeled as snow pea tips, snow pea shoots or a Chinese pronunciation translation “doumiao”

Yu Choy 油菜心

Yu Choy (菜心, Cantonese Vegetable hart)is also referred as Chinese oil vegetables or Cantonese Choy. It is extremely popular in Cantonese cuisine. They have very tender stem (the best part of the vegetable in my opion), but you will need to peel off the skin.

In other areas of China, vegetable hart may mean different plants.

Chinese broccoli 芥蓝

Chinese broccoli is known as 芥(jiè)蓝(lán). Although it shares the same group of regular broccoli (known as 西兰花:xīlánhuā

). Chinese broccoli has long green stems and dark green leaves. It tastes slightly bitter so usually we rinse it in boiling water and stir fry with oyster sauce, which balance the taste with a slightly sweet.

Chinese vegetable–Chinese broccoli

Malabar Spinach 木耳菜

Malabar Spinach “木(mù)耳(ěr)菜(cài)” is a love or hate leafy vegetables in China. There are lots of people do not like it. We used to grow several vines in our back yard. And it grows quickly in summer. It can be simply used in stir fries or in soups.

Chinese Spinach 苋菜

Chinese spinach|It is quite confusing when comes to the right English name. In Mandarin, we call it 莧菜: xiàncài. There are two main varieties: one is red and the other one is light green. Usually they contains lots of sands and need careful preparation. It tastes super good when simply stir fried with garlic and salt.

Watercress 西洋菜

Watercress is a fast-growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. Usually watercress has leaves in deep green and crisp stems. In Chinese, we call this type of leave veggie as西(xī)洋(yáng)菜(cài). I usually prepare small bunch of watercress during hot pot dinner. Watercress can be used in stir-fry recipe, soup recipe or salad. Besides, in the northern part of China, it is also used as the ingredients in dumpling or buns fillings.

Chinese vegetables–Watercress

Romaine Lettuce 生菜

Romaine Lettuce | The most popular leafy lettuce in China is romaine lettuce. We did not eat it 10 years ago but now it becomes extremely in Chinese market. According to wiki, China has been the largest producing country. It is widely used as a simple stir fry with garlic or sometimes with oyster sauce, in salad or as a ingredient for hot pot.

Chinese leave Lettuce 莴笋叶

Wosun greens (Chinese Lettuce leaves) | Chinese Lettuce leave is names as Wosun leaves in China. Chinese lettuce is mainly grown for its stem. While the new trending is to eat the leaves as well, mainly used as a green vegetable stir fry. We have a variety grown mainly for the stem.

Youmai 油菜

Youmai| This Youmai leaves are taste similar with Chinese lettuce leaves. In China, we call it 油麦尖 (yóu mài jiān). It tastes similar to Chinese Wosun lettuce leaves. We love to stir it with garlic or cook in soups.It has soft and tender long green colors. I am not sure about the exact English name, perhaps it is Indian Lettuce? This species of lettuce grows quite fast in garden. Usually you can harvest tender leaves for soups, salad and stir fries 45 days after planting.

Crowndaisy Chrysanthemum 茼蒿

Crowndaisy Chrysanthemum is another popular ingredients for soups and hot pot. The leaves have a mildly grassy taste while the stalks are slightly sweet and crunchy after cooked. Younger Chrysanthemum can be used to make a salad.

We also stir fry chopped chrysanthemum with a small amount of starch water, which can help to soften the leaves and make flavors attached.

Sweet Potato Leaves 红薯叶

Sweet potato leaves are harvested from younger leaves of the sweet potato vine. It is a very healthy dark leafy green. They are very cheap in China, we cook it at least 3 times each week in autumn when it is available. Only the top 5 leaves are good for stir fries. We usually fry the top younger leaves with garlic and cut the older ones and feed pigs.

Pak Choy vs Bok Choy

Not many people are aware of the fact that both Pak Choy and Bok Choy stand for the same leaf vegetable, the Chinese cabbage scientifically known as Brassica rapa. Chinese cabbage, used widely in Chinese cuisine, there are two distinctly different subspecies that are known in the culinary world today, namely Pekinensis or Napa Cabbage or Chinensis, popularly known as Bok Choy or Pak Choy. Bok Choy is mostly grown in Asian regions like China, the Philippines and Vietnam and yet today, has captured the hearts of the western world as well due to the sweetness of its tender stalks.

Although mostly referred to as Chinese cabbage, the most widely used term for Chinensis in North America is Bok Choy, literally meaning white vegetable. In countries such as Australia, UK, South Africa, and other Commonwealth Nations, the Chinensis is more commonly referred to as Pak Choy. Chinese mustard, Chinese chard, celery mustard, and Spoon cabbage are some of the English names used to describe the Chinensis all over the world.

In china amongst mandarin speakers, Bok Choy is often referred to as yóu cài meaning oil vegetable since most of the cooking oil in China is extracted from the seeds of this vegetable. Among Shanghainese speaking people, this leaf vegetable is referred to as qīng cài literally meaning blue-green vegetable.

Three commercial variants exist in Chinensis. Bok Choy is what is usually referred to have succulent white stems with dark green leaves growing upright up to 12-18 inches tall whereas Choy sum, literally standing for ‘vegetable heart’ stands for a small and delicate version of the Bok Choy, bearing a more closer resemblance to rapini or broccoli rabe. Baby Pak Choy also known as mei quin choi or Shanghai Bak Choy is a less mature version of the Bok Choy that is predominantly green in colour including its varioles.

Bok Choy or Pak Choy is known to be very low in calories containing a high amount of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. Also, rich in antioxidants and a high amount of fibre, Bok Choy is also known as a sweeper of the bloodstream eliminating the bad cholesterol from the body. The glucosinolates found in Pak Choy is known to be beneficial for cancer patients in small doses, which in large doses are known to be somewhat toxic.

The slight mustardy flavour of Bok Choy lends itself to soups, stir-fries, meat dishes, noodles, and the young leaves are used for salads. The crunchy, fresh nature of the Bok Choy makes it an excellent additive for sandwiches as well allowing it a unique texture. Pak Choy can also be added in the regular coleslaw recipe as a substitute to cabbage since it belongs to the same family, giving it a sweeter flavour.

Source: Wikipedia, April, 2014

What is Pak Choy?

The Chinensis, which is a subspecies of the Chinese cabbage, is popularly known as Pak Choy in countries such as Australia, UK, South Africa, and other Commonwealth Nations.

What is a Bok Choy?

The most commonly used species of Chinese cabbage Chinensis is referred to as Bok Choy in North America.

Pak Choy vs Bok Choy

• Bok Choy and Pak Choy are two different names used to refer to the same leaf vegetable, the Chinensis subspecies of Chinese cabbage.

• In North America, Chinese cabbage is referred to as Bok Choy whereas, in commonwealth countries such as Australia, UK, south Africa etc., it is referred to as Pak Choy.

Thus, it must be concluded that Bok Choy and Pak Choy both refer to the same leafy green vegetable which are known under different names in different regions of the world.

Bok Choy vs. Choy Sum

Bok Choy vs. Choy Sum. Bok choy / pak choi / Bok Choi compared to Choy Sum / Choi Sum! What’s the difference between Bok Choy and Choy sum? Bok choy and Choy sum vegetable comparison. Check out this video to see the subtle differences between these similar delicious vegetables. The crunchy texture of the stalks plus the healthy benefits of dark leafy green cruciferous vegetables makes both of these options a win!

Bok Choy vs. Choy Sum

Bok choy or pak choi or Bok Choi (Chinese: 上海青; Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage. Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have smooth, dark green leaf blades instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens or celery. Chinensis bok choy varieties are popular in southern China and Southeast Asia. Being winter-hardy, they are increasingly grown in Northern Europe.

Choy Sum / Choi Sum. What is Choy sum? Choy sum is a Chinese vegetable similar to bok choy. In this video, Learn more about Choy sum, where to buy it, what to expect with the flavor and price, and a few recipe suggestions. You can find it at Asian markets and international markets.

Choy sum (also spelled choi sum or “Cai Xin”) is a leafy vegetable commonly used in Chinese cuisine. It is a member of the Brassica genus and the Brassicaceae (mustard) family (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis or Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis). Choy sum is a transliteration of the Cantonese name (Chinese: 菜心), which can be literally translated as “heart of the vegetable”. It is also known as Chinese Flowering Cabbage.

Choy Sum is grown for its thick-stemmed shoots and flower tips that are crisp and flavorful. It is often served in salads, Asian soups or stir-fried dishes, providing a crisp textured vegetable with a delicate, slightly mustard-like flavor.
Choy sum is a name commonly used to refer other types of Asian greens such as yow choy sum, choy sum, yu choy, Chinese flowering cabbage, flowering white cabbage, or green choy sum, which are all names that may be associated with this vegetable. Another source says The name choy sum translates into “flowering green”.

Thanks for watching, leave me a comment down below and let me know what you think about these two vegetables!
Red Pill Vegan

Bok Choy, also called white Chinese cabbage, belongs to the leafy vegetable pak choi family of Chinese brassicas. Bok Choy has white or green, thick, crunchy stems with light to dark green wide leaves. Size can vary from 4-12 inches tall! All parts, stems and leaves, are eaten. Bok Choy is also called Chinese White Cabbage, Chinese Chard, Chinese Mustard Cabbage, Pak Choi – but whatever the name or size, they’re all delicious!

Best Storage Practices:

Store in the vegetable bin of your refrigerator (32 to 36 degrees Fahrenheit) in a paper or perforated plastic bag. Do not wash until you are ready to use. Use within 3-4 days.

Fun Ways to Eat and Cook:

Bok Choy leaves and young, tender stems can be steamed, boiled, stir-fried or microwaved until just wilted, 2-3 minutes. Because of its slight mustard taste, bok choy is often used in Asian dishes. Add a little soy sauce and garlic to the pan.

Selecting Bok Choy:

Select bok choy with firm white stems and fresh, bright green leaves.

Why it’s Good to Eat:

  • Excellent source of vitamin C
  • Provides dietary fiber as well as some iron, calcium and folate
  • Good source of beta carotene, which your body can make into vitamin A (which is good for your eyes!)

When it’s in Season:

Spring and fall – leafy green veggies do better when the days and nights are cool.

How it’s Harvested:

Bok choy is a quick maturing veggie. It’s usually ready 6-7 weeks after planting. Harvest in the morning when it’s cool to keep the leaves from wilting.


Bok Choy Stir-Fry – Stir-fry 1 clove minced garlic with 3 cups of chopped vegetables (carrot, celery, radishes, etc.) in 2 tablespoons of peanut oil and 1 teaspoon sesame oil. Add 1 bunch chopped bok choy and cook until just wilted. Stir in 2 tablespoons salt-reduced soy sauce and 1 tablespoon sweet chili sauce. Serve hot sprinkled with roasted sesame seeds. Pan-fry beef, chicken or fish for added variety.

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