Navel orange worm life cycle

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Pyralidae) (Walker), is the most damaging Lepidoptera larva found on pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae). Pistachios have only relatively recently been planted in South Africa at Green Valley Nuts, a division of the Industrial Development Corporation, near Prieska in the Northern Cape Province. The navel orangeworm causes direct damage to pistachio nut clusters by feeding on individual nut kernels and contaminating nuts with their faecal excretions. In the process the quality of the nuts is reduced and the nuts are rendered more susceptible to fungal infection. After harvest, navel orangeworm larvae overwinter inside fallen nuts on the orchard floor, as well as inside nuts left behind on trees. The prevalence of navel orangeworm in mummy nuts was studied from May to September in 2008 and 2009 at Green Valley Nuts. The potential survival of the larvae in these nuts was estimated from nuts sampled under trees of three different pistachio cultivars (Ariyeh, Sirora and Shufra). Orchard row management practices were investigated to determine the effect of cover crops, mulch and hydro-cooling on navel orangeworm survival. This was done by monitoring emergence cages and light traps for the presence of navel orangeworm adults emerging from mummy nuts. In both years, navel orangeworm was noted overwintering in mummy nuts. The highest occurrence of navel orangeworm over the two year study period was recorded in nuts from Sirora, a cultivar planted in an orchard lacking inter-tree row cover crops, mulch and hydro cooling. The results support the assumption that these orchard row management practices have a suppressing effect on navel orangeworm development, causing high mortality rates due to mummy nut decomposition. Research was also conducted to observe the life cycle and behaviour of the pest under laboratory conditions. The complete life cycle duration of the navel orangeworm ranged from 50 to 84 days. A single life cycle which gave rise to a next generation was successfully tracked.

What is Tiny Orange Worm Found in a Bed?

From the photo she sent in, we see that the “worm” is small and orange, and appears to have a red head. It appears to be segmented, but it is hard to say for certain based on the photo quality.

Going off the photo, we think that she is not dealing with worms, but larvae. To be specific, we think she has found carpet beetle larvae. These larvae are usually rust-colored and are often identified by the hairs that cover their bodies. We cannot see these hairs in the photo, but we think the hairs might be what make the larvae seem segmented.

Our readers often find carpet beetle larvae, and they are not harmful to humans! However, they can be destructive to linens and fabrics as they feed on these materials, as well as dust particles, fibers, and animal hair. Getting rid of carpet beetle larvae relies on cleaning thoroughly and removing all the potential food sources from her house. She should begin with her bed linens, because that is where she discovered the larvae. Our reader should also make sure all the fabrics in her home are used and washed regularly, so that carpet beetles don’t make a home in one of her old coats or blankets! Sweeping and vacuuming on a regular basis will keep these creatures away as well.

To conclude, our reader found orange “worms” in her bed. We believe these are carpet beetle larvae!

SummaryArticle Name What is Tiny Orange Worm Found in a Bed? Description We recently heard from a reader who found a tiny orange “worm” in her bed. She is hopeful we can identify this creature so that she can sleep in her bed with ease. Author Dori Franklin

Orange worms are eating my buds!

Re: Orange worms are eating my buds!!!!
Welcome to the world of outdoor growing! ( I assume this is outdoors)
Once they infest and actually bore in, it becomes an absolute nightmare.
The trick is not letting them infest.
I have personally dealt with borers (seen the link in my signature), and they are nasty things, the only thing you can do right now is to cut out and throw away any infected/infested parts. Usually with the boring types, the saliva induces botrytis mold which can quickly eat away at the plant tissues. It makes it easier for them to travel.
I have made it common practice to daily inspect each and every square inch of the plant. When I find a worm in a nook/cranny I use an ice pick or tweezers to get them out without damaging the bud. For the green caterpillars it’s not as much of a problem.
But for the flesh colored worms that have orange heads, since they have traveled on the plant tissue, the saliva will cause the mold which will kill the buds, even if the worm doesn’t bore into that particular area.
There are specialized sprays that we use for the early stages of flowering, just to fend them off and send the signal to the moths that its not a good place to lay eggs. Products such as Bt, Spinosad, Azamax, Capt. Jack…
What you are dealing with, is like what I have dealt with. I am sorry to hear about it. It is absolutely the worst, most treacherous threat that can destroy and wipe out entire crops if gone unchecked. Absolute travesty that one should never have to deal with. So I feel your pain buddy. Next time all we can do is be prepared as much as possible.
Think about putting up a mosquito netting, or very fine netting around your plants so the moths cannot lay the eggs directly on the plant. Also planting lots of companion plants such as tomatos, parsley, and mint can be a really great help.
To sum up, manual inspections and encapsulating your plants with a fine netting, in addition to routine sprays are the only way to protect ourselves against this treacherous threat.

The woolly bear caterpillar—also called woolly worm or fuzzy worm—has the reputation of being able to forecast the coming winter weather. Whether this is fact or folklore, learn more about this legendary caterpillar and how to “read” the worm!

Here’s the legend: The Woolly Bear caterpillar has 13 distinct segments of either rusty brown or black. The wider the rusty brown sections (or the more brown segments there are), the milder the coming winter will be. The more black there is, the more severe the winter.

How the Woolly Bear Caterpillar Became “Famous”

In the fall of 1948, Dr. C. H. Curran, curator of insects at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, took his wife 40 miles north of the city to Bear Mountain State Park to look at woolly bear caterpillars.

Dr. Curran collected as many caterpillars as he could in a day, determined the average number of reddish-brown segments, and forecast the coming winter weather through a reporter friend at The New York Herald Tribune.

Dr. Curran’s experiment, which he continued over the next eight years, attempted to prove scientifically a weather rule of thumb that was as old as the hills around Bear Mountain. The resulting publicity made the woolly worm one of the most recognizable caterpillars in North America (alongside the monarch caterpillar and tomato hornworm).

Woolly Bear Caterpillar. Photo by SillyPuttyEnemies/Wikimedia Commons.

What is a Woolly Bear Caterpillar?

The caterpillar Curran studied, the banded woolly bear, is the larval form of Pyrrharctia isabella, the Isabella tiger moth.

  • This medium-size moth, with yellowish-orange and cream-colored wings spotted with black, is common from northern Mexico throughout the United States and across the southern third of Canada.
  • As moths go, the Isabella isn’t much to look at compared with other species, but its immature larva, called the black-ended bear or the woolly bear (and, particularly in the South, woolly worm) is one of the few caterpillars most people can identify.
  • Woolly bears do not actually feel much like wool—they are covered with short, stiff bristles of hair.
  • In field guides, they’re found among the “bristled” species, which include the all-yellow salt marsh caterpillar and several species in the tiger moth family. Not all woolly caterpillars are true ‘woolly bears’ though!
    • If you find an all-black woolly caterpillar, don’t worry—this doesn’t mean that we’re in for a severe, endless winter! It’s just a caterpillar of a different species, and is not used for forecasting. The same is true for all-white woolly caterpillars.
  • Woolly bears, like other caterpillars, hatch during warm weather from eggs laid by a female moth.
  • Mature woolly bears search for overwintering sites under bark or inside cavities of rocks or logs. (That’s why you see so many of them crossing roads and sidewalks in the fall.)
  • When spring arrives, woolly bears spin fuzzy cocoons and transform inside them into full-grown moths.
  • Typically, the bands at the ends of the caterpillar are black, and the one in the middle is brown or orange, giving the woolly bear its distinctive striped appearance.

Isabella Tiger Moth. Photo by Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren/Wikimedia Commons.

Do Woolly Bear Caterpillars Forecast Winter Weather?

Between 1948 and 1956, Dr. Curran’s average brown-segment counts ranged from 5.3 to 5.6 out of the 13-segment total, meaning that the brown band took up more than a good third of the woolly bear’s body. The corresponding winters were milder than average, and Dr. Curran concluded that the folklore has some merit and might be true.

But Curran was under no scientific illusion: He knew that his data samples were small. Although the experiments legitimized folklore to some, they were simply an excuse for having fun. Curran, his wife, and their group of friends escaped the city to see the foliage each fall, calling themselves The Original Society of the Friends of the Woolly Bear.

Thirty years after the last meeting of Curran’s society, the woolly bear brown-segment counts and winter forecasts were resurrected by the nature museum at Bear Mountain State Park. The annual counts have continued, more or less tongue in cheek, since then.

For the past 10 years, Banner Elk, North Carolina, has held an annual “Woolly Worm Festival” each October, highlighted by a caterpillar race. Retired mayor Charles Von Canon inspects the champion woolly bear and announces his winter forecast.

If the rusty band is wide, then it will be a mild winter. The more black there is, the more severe the winter.

Woolly bear caterpillar in its defensive posture.

Most scientists discount the folklore of woolly bear predictions as just that, folklore. Says Ferguson from his office in Washington, “I’ve never taken the notion very seriously. You’d have to look at an awful lot of caterpillars in one place over a great many years in order to say there’s something to it.”

Mike Peters, an entomologist at the University of Massachusetts, doesn’t disagree, but he says there could, in fact, be a link between winter severity and the brown band of a woolly bear caterpillar. “There’s evidence,” he says, “that the number of brown hairs has to do with the age of the caterpillar—in other words, how late it got going in the spring. The does say something about a heavy winter or an early spring. The only thing is … it’s telling you about the previous year.”

Every year, the wooly worms do indeed look different—and it depends on their region. So, if you come across a local woolly worm, observe the colors of the bands and what they foretell about your winter weather.

What’s the real prediction for this winter? Read our official winter forecast here:

Why Did the Woolly Bear Cross the Road?

Dear Dr. Tim:

Have you noticed the hairy caterpillars crossing paved roads recently? What are they, where did they come from and why are they crossing the roads? Isn’t that a dumb thing to do? Don’t they know they could be run over?

Concerned Driver.

Dear Concerned Driver:

If you are driving right now, I hope you are listening to my podcast rather than reading my reply. Your focus needs to be on the road. And, while it is fine to observe the caterpillars while driving, please don’t swerve to avoid hitting them. That can be very dangerous, and your safety is most important.

To answer your question, yes, I have noticed this phenomenon. The fuzzy caterpillars scurrying across the road at this time of year are woolly bear caterpillars, also known as woolly worms. Until your letter I have not given much thought about their reasoning skills, but you are right: We have to wonder what they are thinking.

Woolly bear caterpillars are about 2 inches in length, and their color varies from light tan to orange, or even dark brown or black. The two things that all woolly bear caterpillars have in common are long fuzzy coats and the fact that they are prone to play in traffic at this time of year.

One of the most common species sports a characteristic fuzzy coat — a combination of orange and black bands.

During the early or midsummer months, they go unnoticed even though they complete two full generations, from egg to adult. The adult moth, commonly called a tiger moth, is white, yellow or orange in color with black specks on its wings. If noticed at all, it is because it flies around porch lights at nighttime.

Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves on trees, shrubs or weeds, wherever the fuzzy caterpillars feed. While most caterpillars overwinter in protective silken cocoons, the woolly bear passes the winter as a caterpillar. It curls up in a winter sanctuary under a warm pile of leaves, a rock, or a fallen log, then relies on its fuzzy covering as well as a natural antifreeze inside its body to keep it warm enough to survive until spring.

Folklore has it that the orange and black-banded woolly bears we are seeing on the roads right now can actually predict the severity of the approaching winter. The legend says the coming winter will be cold IF the woolly bear has a narrow, orange middle band, and the winter will be warm if the band is wide. Certainly one would have to know what is normal, and what is not, to compare against but apparently there are actual studies that have measured the average differences in band width from year to year. The studies concluded that there are in fact differences in average band widths from year to year but — sorry, folks — the studies failed to demonstrate a significant correlation with the coming weather.

I know that is a letdown, but before you get too disappointed, let’s think about this for a few minutes from the caterpillars’ perspective. Nobody asked them if they were meteorologists; they never applied for the job; they never actually said they could or wanted to predict the winter. I can’t even speculate as to why these little caterpillars would need to know the severity of the coming winter, considering that the ones that do not get run over will be bundled up all nice and snug in their little sleeping quarters by winter. They won’t really care about what we humans call a cold or a warm winter. They sleep through it either way.

Entomologists at the University of Massachusetts don’t disagree. They have also discredited the prediction theory, but they say hang on a minute: There could, in fact, be a link between winter severity and the orange band width of a woolly bear caterpillar. They point to their own evidence that the number of orange versus black hairs on a woolly bear has to do with the age of the caterpillar. In other words, the longer the caterpillar lives, the more orange hairs it will have. The length of time a caterpillar spends as a caterpillar depends upon how soon it began feeding in the spring. The more orange, the longer the caterpillar has been feeding. So their conclusion is this: Band width does say something about a late cold winter or an early warm spring. However, it’s telling you about the previous year, not the coming year. Wide orange bands simply mean the caterpillars went through a warmer winter than those with narrow orange bands.

All of this is interesting but seems to lack value as a weather predictor. It is like looking at a wet rock outside and deducing that it going to rain very soon, or a white rock and deducing that we can expect snow. Most people have already figured out that a winter was especially cold or not long before the woolly bear caterpillar is found and the width of its orange band is measured.

As to your second question about reasoning skills, like you I have I have stopped to watch the behavior of woolly bear caterpillars during late summer and early fall. My personal observations have confirmed to me that woolly bears aren’t very smart. They can’t be very smart, really. I watch them travel back and forth across a busy road as fast as they can. How intelligent is that? I see one desperately humping it across the road, as if it really has a destination, a place to go and a short time to get there — as though a caterpillar starting gun triggered a frantic race.

I have also observed woolly bears going one way and some the opposite, often passing each other in the middle of the road. It is apparent that neither one knows which side of the road the finish line is on, but neither one wants to slow down to ask directions. (Maybe they are all males?) Perhaps a little voice in their brain is saying, “I have absolutely no idea where I am going but I am going to be the first one to get there!” How smart is that?

I doubt there is much active brainwork or reasoning going on. I am developing similar doubts about people who actually believe that woolly bears can predict the severity of the coming winter. Woolly bears are not meteorologists; never were, never professed to be. People, not caterpillars, started this legend about woolly bear caterpillars predicting the winter.

As for me, I rely on woolly bears to predict one thing, and I am pretty confident in this. Mark your calendar. If you see woolly bears crossing the road in autumn, the coming season is always going to be colder. So, I guess, in a sense they can be used to predict an oncoming winter.

One more prediction that I can make is if the little humpers don’t keep moving, they are going to become road splat when they get run over by my car. Then they will not have to worry about winter. That is my prediction!

Woolly bear caterpillars can’t predict the severity of a coming winter but they do provide bored motorists with something to contemplate: Why DID the woolly bear cross the road?


Calculate degree-days for navel orangeworm in your location.

Learn how to use degree-days to time insecticide applications.

Monitoring the first and second navel orangeworm generations should be done through the use of egg traps, pheromone traps, or both, and degree-day calculations. Egg traps contain a mixture of pressed almond meal and almond oil (3 to 5%) that encourages egg laying by female moths. Traps should be placed in the orchard at the beginning of April. A density of at least 1 trap per 5 acres should be used. Check traps twice a week to note how often eggs are laid and to identify egg-laying peaks. Peak are typically observed in late April to early May and from late June to early July, signaling the start of the first and second generations.

Pheromone traps are used to monitor the flights of adult male moths. Pheromone lures should be placed into large delta or wing traps and hung in the orchard in mid-March. Count the number of moths in the trap at least once per week and track data to identify peaks in adult activity. Make sure not to confuse navel orangeworm with the meal moth (Pyralis farinalis) that is also attracted to the trap, but is a light brown color with dark brown bands on the wings.

Nearly all pistachio orchards should be sprayed for navel orangeworm approximately one month prior to harvest when the bulk of the new crop becomes susceptible to attack. Additional applications may be warranted in cases where navel orangeworm pressure is high, where large numbers of early split nuts are present, or where harvest is delayed until after the start of the fourth navel orangeworm flight.

Treatment timings are based on crop phenology and degree-days using a lower threshold of 55°F and an upper threshold of 94°F.

Second flight timing

In orchards with severe navel orangeworm pressure consider a treatment at the start of the second egg-laying period. This treatment should be made in late June to early July approximately 1050 degree-days after eggs are found on egg traps during the first egg-laying period in late April to early May. If using pheromone traps, the treatment should be made a few days after an increase in moth captures in late June to early July.

Early split timing

During the last two weeks of July monitor for damaged or otherwise compromised nuts that split early (pea splits). Consider making a treatment at this time if there are more than 2 early split nuts per 100 total nuts, and if navel orangeworm eggs are consistently found.

Hull split or hull slip timing

Nearly all pistachio orchards should be sprayed for navel orangeworm in August approximately one month prior to harvest. This is the period of time when the third flight of navel orangeworm is present as the bulk of the new crop of pistachios becomes susceptible to attack. This timing is often referred to as the hull split timing (a phrase adopted from almonds) and is when the pistachio hulls begin to slip free from the shell.

Treat at the start of the third egg-laying period. This starts approximately 2100 degree-days after the start of first egg-laying period in late April or May, or approximately 1050 degree-days after the start of the second egg-laying period in late June to early July.

Pheromone traps can also be used to predict treatment timing. Use pheromone traps to determine the start of the second flight of navel orangeworm in late June to early July. Adding 1050 degree-days to this date will estimate the start of the third navel orangeworm flight that typically occurs in August as the hulls start to slip. The hull split spray should be made at the start of the third egg-laying period about 4 to 7 days after pheromone traps indicate the start of the third moth flight.

Late timing

It may be necessary to make an additional insecticide application in orchards where harvest is delayed (or where a second shake will occur) and navel orangeworm pressure is high. When needed, this application should be made in early to mid-September approximately three weeks after the hull split spray or when insecticide residues have degraded.

The Christmas and New years holiday is a great time to have nuts out for everyone to enjoy. While everyone is talking and laughing; it’s nice to have something to snack on. One of my favorites are pistachios. They are salty and not to mention they go down well with a cold glass of beer. Let me ask you this. How do you eat a pistachios? I usually suck on the salt and break the pistachio in half with my teeth and then I eat the nut and spit out the shell. If you do this, then I would think about eating your pistachios differently.

Here is why. My husband was eating some pistachios that I just bought and he tasted something funny. He spit out the pistachio and this is what he found.

If you haven’t guessed yet what that is. It’s a worm. Yes a worm! Actually, it is very common that pistachios have worms in them. The more research I did on this, I realized that the worm that is commonly found in pistachios are called Navel OrangeWorms. Navel OrangeWorms can be found in almonds and in pistachios.

I hope I didn’t scare you too much, but I just wanted to share what we found out. You may just want to rethink how you eat pistachios from now on. Have a great week!

This is nuts… man who found worms in two separate bags of pistachios shellshocked

Gareth Edwards with the Forest Feast Pistachios in which he found navel orangeworms Forest Feast Pistachios One of the worms found in the Forest Feast Pistachios


May 6 2014 12:00 PM

A man found worms in two separate packets of pistachio nuts bought within days each of other.

Gareth Edwards was horrified to come across a foreign body – later identified by the company as a navel orangeworm – after buying the Forest Feast Roasted and Salted Pistachios.

A few days afterwards, having been assured that the incident was a one-off, he bought another packet of nuts – and encountered another worm.

Snacking firm Kestrel Foods has apologised to Mr Edwards for his “unsatisfactory experience” and said it has launched a full investigation into the matter.

But the 29-year-old Belfast man, who bought both products from a Centra store near City Hall, said he had been put off pistachios forever.

He said: “I put one of the nuts in my mouth but it tasted funny and when I spat it out I was horrified to see what looked like a dead maggot.

“It was stuck to the shell and I was almost sick. My stomach felt funny and I couldn’t just bring myself to eat anything else from the packet.”

Mr Edwards contacted Kestrel Foods directly about what had happened and he sent the product back for investigation as instructed.

However, eight days later, when he bought another £1 packet of Roasted and Salted Pistachios, yet another worm turned up in the snack.

Photographer Brian Little, who was there when the second product was opened, said the foreign body fell out of one of the shells.

“It definitely wasn’t a nut; it was some sort of worm-like creature. Mr Edwards couldn’t believe the same thing had happened twice,” he said.

Dr Archie Murchie, a scientist at the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, said the small creature looked like “a chrysalis of navel orangeworm”.

He also said that, while unlikely to be harmful, it was best to avoid eating insect-damaged nuts as they “may have fungal contamination”.

A Kestrel Foods spokeswoman said the company was “disappointed to hear about the unsatisfactory experience Mr Edwards had”.

“Kestrel Foods takes any customer complaint extremely seriously and the safety and quality of our food is our top priority,” she said.

“Further investigation and monitoring is on-going.

“Occasionally in nature, navel orangeworm can get inside fruit and nut- bearing trees, where larvae can remain undetected.

“We have many processing steps and quality control checks in place to prevent nuts containing foreign objects from reaching consumers.

“It does not pose any risk to humans and we take this natural occurrence extremely seriously and work hard to contain it. We extended our apologies to Mr Edwards and sent him a selection of Forest Feast products by way of apology.”


Dr Archie Murchie, a scientist at the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, told the Belfast Telegraph: “It looks like a chrysalis (pupal stage) of navel orangeworm. This small moth is a pest of pistachios. As the company says, you will get pests from time-to-time. In some respects it is not a bad thing as it means that the growers are not over-spraying with pesticides. Although not what you want, the chrysalis is unlikely to be harmful. All that the moth has been eating is the pistachio, so you are getting basically the same nutrients. However, insect damaged nuts may also have fungal contamination, which could be a food safety concern, so best to avoid eating.”

Belfast Telegraph

Navel orangeworm threat to pistachios

Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, played havoc with the economic returns of many growers in the San Joaquin Valley this season.

This pest is particularly insidious in that not only does it directly reduce yield by reducing the number of harvested nuts and by increasing the number of nuts culled at the huller, but infested nuts that are missed during processing end up in consumer packaging. Navel orangeworms that survive processing usually hatch in bags of pistachios that are not immediately eaten by consumers.

Nuts which have been damaged by navel orangeworms but which no longer house a living navel orangeworm, are composed of decayed nutmeat, frass and secondary fungal invaders that produce potentially poisonous aflotoxins. Products containing moths and decayed pistachio nuts do not usually encourage consumers to make further purchases.

During the past season, it was common for growers to find 2 percent or more of their nuts arriving at the huller infested with navel orangeworm. Levels of 5 percent or more of infested nuts will probably result in the entire load of nuts being processed as shelling stock or lesser products instead of being packaged as the more valuable in-shell nuts that consumers associate with pistachios.

Several generations

Typically in the San Joaquin Valley the navel orangeworm has four to five generations per year. Early-season infestations in an orchard can be determined based on the use of egg traps baited with mixtures of almond press cake and almond oil.

The first generation of moth egg-laying activity usually peaks in late April and early May and the second generation in late June or early July. Generally, however, only the third generation is treated with chemicals.

If populations are high early in the season, appropriate insecticides are applied approximately 300-400 degree-days after third-generation egg laying begins, usually in early August. After about mid-August pistachio nuts are so attractive to the moths that the egg traps no longer work.

If third-generation egg-traps lose their effectiveness, treating approximately 1000 degree-days after the onset of second-generation egg laying will approximate the appropriate time for treating third-generation navel orangeworms.

More information on monitoring navel orangeworm populations, which insecticides to use, and when to treat using degree-day calculations is available in the University of California Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Guidelines. These guidelines are available on line at and also from most University of California Cooperative Extension Offices in the San Joaquin Valley.

Make sure that the length of the preharvest interval (PHI) of any applied insecticide will not interfere with the scheduled harvest date.

Frequently, navel orangeworm populations do not reach damaging levels until late in the season. In early to mid-August, if the orchard has not yet been treated, nuts can be collected from the field and examined with a magnifying glass. The greater the number of early split nuts the more likely it will be that navel orangeworm will be a problem.

Usually a sample of 100 to 200 randomly collected nuts from the orchard are inspected and if 3 to 4 percent of the nuts have eggs, the orchards will be treated with an appropriate, registered insecticide. In an untreated field, the percent infestation of the nuts can climb by 1 percent a week.

Generally the later in the year that pistachios are harvested, the greater the number of infested nuts. As many growers discovered this year, chemical control may not be adequate to reduce infestations sufficiently.

Navel orangeworm does not over winter in the egg, so is dependent for survival as a larva in unharvested nuts left on the tree or on the ground during the winter in the San Joaquin Valley. Many crops such as fig and nut crops such as almonds, walnuts and pistachios host this pest.

Insecticide, sanitation

Navel orangeworm has the ability to fly inter-orchard distances so effective control is dependent on measures conducted on an area-wide basis. Adequate control

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