Mango tree flowering season

Mango

Nothing on earth smells as good as the first whiff of a new season mango! And the pleasure is even greater when the fruit is from your own garden. Sandra Ross shares her growing hints for this tropical favourite.

Mangoes grow on large evergreen trees that make handsome shade trees. They are fast-growing, especially in a hot climate, and in Queensland you will see old mature trees 40m tall! Typical height though is 3-7m, and you can prune your tree so you can more easily harvest the fruit.

Mangoes are self-fertile, so a single tree will produce fruit without cross-pollination. The flowers are profuse, growing in panicles. The fruits grow at the end of a long, stringlike stem (the former panicle), with sometimes two or more fruits to a stem. Fruit ranges in size from 250 – 750g.

Fruit tree expert, Dr Louis Glowinski says “mangoes produce most reliably in areas with a dry winter, dry spring, rainfall during summer and then a dry spell as the fruit matures … the dry winter spell initiates the flowering, while the dry conditions in spring promote pollination and reduce fungal disease.”

Photo – Shi Yali/.com

Position

Mangoes need maximum sunshine to fruit well. The best growing temperature for mango is 24 – 27 degrees centigrade. Low temperature at flowering time will reduce fruit set. If you live outside the tropics or sub tropics you will need to maximise heat by planting your tree where it can ‘feel’ the heat from a north-facing brick wall. This micro-climate will aid flower and fruit set. Avoid frosty areas and be prepared to install a drip irrigation system to keep your tree watered. While young trees need protection from frosts, established trees can tolerate short light frosts.

Soil

Mangoes will grow in almost any well-drained soil whether sandy, loam or clay, with a pH between 5.5 and 7.5. Avoid heavy, wet soils. They have an extensive root system so like deep soil.

Growing guide

Choose a climate-appropriate, named variety for best results. If you plant a seed from a fruit you have eaten, do not expect any fruit for many years, and even then fruit will be poor quality, stringy and tainted with turpentine flavours.

Prepare the soil for a mango well before planting, which is best done in autumn. Dig a deep and wide planting hole. Young trees are susceptible to sunburn and damage from frost so it’s a good idea to build a small shelter while they establish.

Feed mangoes as you would feed citrus, but do not fertilise after midsummer. Organic fertilisers are best, as the trees are subject to fertiliser burn. Young trees are particularly sensitive to over-fertilising, but respond well to seaweed and fish emulsion. Sandy soils require more fertiliser than loam or clay.

Withhold water for the three months prior to flowering, to encourage flowers, then water evenly until fruit ripens.

Young mango trees should be pruned to maximise branching. When trees reach bearing age, prune them each year after the harvest to maintain size, thin out the canopy and remove dead wood.

Pests and Disease

The most serious disease of mango is the fungus anthracnose. It starts as circular, sunken brown to black spots that are quite small. Young leaves are particularly susceptible to infection and it is worse in wet conditions. You can spray with Mancozeb or use a copper spray during flowering then monthly until harvest.

Fruit flies are a troublesome pest of mango. Use eco naturalure for good protection (follow the directions carefully). The bait contains an organic insecticide called spinosad, which is toxic to fruit fly, but safe to mammals and other animals with a low toxicity to beneficial insects.

Varieties for NSW:

Florigon: has good quality fruit with yellow skin and soft sweet flesh. Sets well in subtropics and has moderate resistant to anthracnose.

Bowen: the most common variety grown, due to its good quality fruit. Won’t set fruit in colder climates.

R2E2: one of the largest varieties. Fruit is sweet with high flesh to seed ratio and just a little fibre. This variety is susceptible to fungus infection, so persistent use of copper spray is necessary. Consistent cropper over a range of climates. Vigorous growth habit. Midseason crop.

Urwin: dwarf-growing to 2m. Not widely available yet, contact Daley’s Fruit Tree Nursery

Tips and tricks

The most common complaint we hear about mangoes is that they don’t set fruit. Greg Daley from Daley’s Fruit Tree Nursery says, “Mango fruit set depends on several factors. Temperatures below 10 deg when flowering (October) in the spring will reduce fruit set. Also wet weather during flowering can result in anthracnose infection which will cause fruit not to set.” His advice for those living in non-tropical areas is to remove the first flower set. This will result in a second flowering one month later, when the temperature is higher. A one-hour water dribble at the roots every other day until the flowers really set (about 2 weeks) greatly increases the yield.

Where to buy

Daley’s Fruit Tree Nursery (02) 66321441

Text: Sandra Ross

Mango trees less than 10 years old may flower and fruit regularly every year. Thereafter, most mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. A great deal of research has been done on this problem which may involve the entire tree or only a portion of the branches. Branches that fruit one year may rest the next, while branches on the other side of the tree will bear.

Blooming is strongly affected by weather, dryness stimulating flowering and rainy weather discouraging it. In most of India, flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March. There are some varieties called “Baramasi” that flower and fruit irregularly throughout the year. The cultivar ‘Sam Ru Du’ of Thailand bears 3 crops a year–in January, June and October. In the drier islands of the Lesser Antilles, there are mango trees that flower and fruit more or less continuously all year around but never heavily at any time. Some of these are cultivars introduced from Florida where they flower and fruit only once a year. In southern Florida, mango trees begin to bloom in late November and continue until February or March, inasmuch as there are early, medium, and late varieties. During exceptionally warm winters, mango trees have been known to bloom 3 times in succession, each time setting and maturing fruit.

In the Philippines, various methods are employed to promote flowering: smudging (smoking), exposing the roots, pruning, girdling, withholding nitrogen and irrigation, and even applying salt. In the West Indies, there is a common folk practice of slashing the trunk with a machete to make the tree bloom and bear in “off” years. Deblos-soming (removing half the flower clusters) in an “on” year will induce at least a small crop in the next “off” year. Almost any treatment or condition that retards vegetative growth will have this effect. Spraying with growth-retardant chemicals has been tried, with inconsistent results. Potassium nitrate has been effective in the Philippines.

In India, the cultivar ‘Dasheri’, which is self incompatible, tends to begin blooming very early (December and January) when no other cultivars are in flower. And the early particles show a low percentage of hermaphrodite flowers and a high incidence of floral malformation. Furthermore, early blooms are often damaged by frost. It has been found that a single mechanical deblossoming in the first bud-burst stage, induces subsequent development of particles with less malformation, more hermaphrodite flowers, and, as a result, a much higher yield of fruits.

There is one cultivar, ‘Neelum’, in South India that bears heavily every year, apparently because of its high rate (16%) of hermaphrodite flowers. (The average for ‘Alphonso’ is 10%.) However, Indian horticulturists report great tree-to-tree variation in seedlings of this cultivar; in some surveys as much as 84% of the trees were rated as poor bearers. Over 92% of ‘Bangalora’ seedlings have been found bearing light crops.

Mango flowers are visited by fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and various bugs seeking the nectar and some transfer the pollen but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs. Honeybees do not especially favor mango flowers and it has been found that effective pollination by honeybees would require 3 to 6 colonies per acre (6-12 per ha). Many of the unpollinated flowers are shed or fail to set fruit, or the fruit is set but is shed when very young. Heavy rains wash off pollen and thus prevent fruit setting. Some cultivars tend to produce a high percentage of small fruits without a fully developed seed because of unfavorable weather during the fruit-setting period.

Shy-bearing cultivars of otherwise desirable characteristics are hybridized with heavy bearers in order to obtain better crops. For example: shy-bearing ‘Himayuddin’ ´ heavy-bearing ‘Neelum’. Breeders usually hand-pollinate all the flowers that are open in a cluster, remove the rest, and cover the inflorescence with a plastic bag. But researchers in India have found that there is very little chance of contamination and that omitting the covering gives as much as 3.85% fruit set in place of 0.23% to 1.57% when bagged. Thus large populations of hybrids may be raised for study. One of the latest techniques involves grafting the male and female parents onto a chosen tree, then covering the panicles with a polyethylene bag, and introducing house flies as pollinators.

Indian scientists have found that pollen for crossbreeding can be stored at 32° F (0° C) for 10 hours. If not separated from the flowers, it remains viable for 50 hours in a humid atmosphere at 65° to 75° F (18.33° -23.09° C). The stigma is receptive 18 hours before full flower opening and, some say, for 72 hours after.

Mango Tree Flower Stock Photos and Images

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  • Sea Mango, Cerbera manghas, Apocynaceae. A Small Evergreen Coastal Tree from Tropical Asia.
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  • Blossoming of mango tree, Mango flower consists of 5 petals of white on the edges and yellow at the center of the helical shape
  • Blossom of mango tree. Bangladesh.
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  • Mango flowers on Zanzibar spice tour
  • Young mango buds and flowers on its tree
  • A large mango tree in flower in Grenada West Indies
  • Sea Mango, Cerbera manghas, Apocynaceae. A Small Evergreen Coastal Tree from Tropical Asia.
  • ? malacaw cashue family tree Kaieteur National Park Guiana Shield Guyana South America October
  • leaf and flower of the tree and sky background
  • green yellow mango flowers on the tree
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  • Bunch of mango flowers on tree in garden. Selective focus
  • Flame of the forest flower, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, European Union
  • Mango blossoms
  • Flower of mango
  • Mango flower
  • The flower of mango tree in the early season
  • Mango Tree
  • Mango tree in flower, Mangifera indica, evergreen tree, lanceolate leaves, pale yellow flowers and drupe fruit, many cultivars
  • Blossoming of mango tree, Mango flower consists of 5 petals of white on the edges and yellow at the center of the helical shape
  • Blossom of mango tree. Bangladesh.
  • close-up flower of mango and blue sky background
  • Blossoming of mango tree, Mango flower consists of 5 petals of white on the edges and yellow at the center of the helical shape
  • Young mango buds and flowers on its tree
  • mango field of a flowering in tropical country. agricultural concept
  • Sea Mango, Cerbera manghas, Apocynaceae. A Small Evergreen Coastal Tree from Tropical Asia.
  • Beautiful white spring flower blossoms. These flowers don’t last long, but while they are here, they make for stunning pictures!
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  • green yellow mango flowers on the tree
  • Beatiful Orchid on Mango’s tree
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  • Flame of the forest flower, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, European Union
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  • Blooms Of Mango Tree
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  • Blossom of mango tree. Bangladesh.
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  • Young mango buds and flowers on its tree
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  • Green-breasted Mango, adult male feeding on tropical flower, Laguna de Lagarto, Costa Rica 1 April 2019
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  • Flower of the mango macro shot in Thailand
  • Beautiful trees with hanging lichens, flowers and fruits, El Jardin, Antioquia, Clombia
  • Blossom of mango tree. Bangladesh.
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  • Pomegranate fruit. Organic fresh juicy product
  • Close-up Mango trees in field with bunches of mango flower
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  • Lush green leaves of a mango tree against the blue sky with a patch of white cloud on a sunny day on tropical Caribbean island
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  • Indonesia, Bali, Ubud, Kupu Kupu Barong Hotel, Mango Tree Spa by L’Occitane
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  • Mango Tree in bloom (Mangifera Indica), Mount Barnett Roadhouse, Kimberley Region, Western Australia
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  • Flower of mango
  • mango (Mangifera indica), blooming, Canary Islands, Gomera
  • Green-breasted Mango, adult male feeding on tropical flower, Laguna de Lagarto, Costa Rica 1 April 2019
  • blurred mango flower on a tree in the garden for background
  • Close up young yellow mango flowers, branch on mango tree.
  • Beautiful trees with hanging lichens, flowers and fruits, El Jardin, Antioquia, Clombia
  • Blossom of mango tree. Bangladesh.
  • Mango Tree
  • Pomegranate fruit. Organic fresh juicy product

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Mango, (Mangifera indica), member of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae) and one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. The mango tree is considered indigenous to eastern Asia, Myanmar (Burma), and Assam state of India. Mangoes are a rich source of vitamins A, C, and D.

mangoesFresh mango fruits (Mangifera indica).Jakob Polacsek—Moment/Getty Images

The tree is evergreen, often reaching 15–18 metres (50–60 feet) in height and attaining great age. The simple leaves are lanceolate, up to 30 cm (12 inches) long. The flowers—small, pinkish, and fragrant—are borne in large terminal panicles (loose clusters). Some have both stamens and pistils, while others have stamens only. The fruit varies greatly in size and character. Its form is oval, round, heart-shaped, kidney-shaped, or long and slender. The smallest mangoes are no larger than plums, while others may weigh 1.8 to 2.3 kg (4 to 5 pounds). Some varieties are vividly coloured with shades of red and yellow, while others are dull green. The single large seed is flattened, and the flesh that surrounds it is yellow to orange in colour, juicy, and of distinctive sweet-spicy flavour.

mango fruitsMangoes growing on a tree (Mangifera indica).Douglas Peebles/Corbis

The mango does not require any particular soil, but the finer varieties yield good crops only where there is a well-marked dry season to stimulate fruit production. In rainy areas a fungal disease known as anthracnose destroys flowers and young fruits and is difficult to control. Propagation is by grafting or budding. Inarching, or approach grafting (in which a scion and stock of independently rooted plants are grafted and the scion later severed from its original stock), is widely practiced in tropical Asia but is tedious and relatively expensive. In Florida, more efficient methods—veneer grafting and chip budding—have been developed and are used commercially.

The mango is inextricably connected with the folklore and religious ceremonies of India. Buddha himself was presented with a mango grove that he might find repose in its grateful shade. The name mango, by which the fruit is known in English- and Spanish-speaking countries, is most likely derived from the Malayam manna, which the Portuguese adopted as manga when they came to Kerala in 1498 for the spice trade. Probably because of the difficulty in transporting seeds (they retain their viability a short time only), the tree was not introduced into the Western Hemisphere until about 1700, when it was planted in Brazil; it reached the West Indies about 1740.

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Mangifera indica

The Birds and the “Bees” of Mangos…

As a member of the Angiosperms, the mango exhibits some unique characteristics in regards to reproduction. Here is a summary of the process each plant must undergo to produce offspring!
A mango tree must first be able to be pollinated, therefore it needs to bear flowers. Typically, mango trees are pollinated via wind, flies, butterflies, and moths. A unique characteristic of this organism is that mango trees are rarely pollinated by bees, such as the European Honey Bee. This is believed to be the case as many other plants are also producing flowers at the same time mango trees do and the bees are more attracted to other plants. Mango plants can also self pollinate as they are monoecious, meaning male and female reproductive organs are found on the same plant. These reproductive organs are found in the flowers of the plant. Depending on the region, a single mango plant varies in the composition of male to hermaphroditic flowers as well as month of flower production. Most mango varieties produce 25% male flowers and the remaining 75% are hermaphroditic. Depending on the region, plants can flower anywhere from December to March.

Once pollinated, a fruit can begin to develop on the plant. Mangos produce drupe-like fruit, meaning a single seed is encased in a leathery coating. The fruit produced varies greatly with the different locations and cultivars of mangos. The skin can range from a yellow-green color to a red and the flesh can taste sweet to acidic and fibrous. Within approximately 150 days after pollination, the mango fruit is formed as a protection around the all important seed.
To continue this process, some means of seed dispersal must take place. Often, animals will ingest the fruit for nutrition and later expel the seed. If the seed is lucky (conditions for seed growth are met) the seed may germinate in 2-4 weeks and produce a new mango tree! Within 3-6 years, the tree will be able to bear fruit. Trees that are younger than 10 years can produce fruit yearly. After this benchmark, mango trees typically produce fruit biannually.

All angiosperms, including the mango, display an alternation of generations. This process includes a multicellular haploid and diploid phase, unlike animals which possess only a multicellular diploid phase. In addition, all angiosperms also exhibit double fertilization. This process is much more complex than the fertilization seen in most other plants and provides immediate nutrition for the developing egg. Above is a generalized version of the lifecycle of an angiosperm. Be sure to recognize that both the haploid and diploid stages are multicellular.
Besides the insects involved in pollination, many other organisms closely react with the mango. Check out these interactions or return home!

Mango Tree Not Producing: How To Get Mango Fruit

Renowned as one of the most popular fruits in the world, mango trees are found in tropical to subtropical climates and originating in the Indo-Burma region and native to India and Southeast Asia. Mango trees have been cultivated in India for more than 4,000 years and mango tree problems, such as no mango fruit on trees, have been duly noted and solutions found which we will examine in this article.

Reasons for No Mango Fruit on Tree

From the family Anacardiaceae and related to cashews and pistachio, the most common mango tree problems are those related to the mango tree not producing. Becoming familiar with its causes is the first step in how to get mango fruit on your tree. Below are the most common reasons for non fruiting mango trees:

Diseases

The most detrimental disease affecting non fruiting mango trees is called anthracnose, which attacks all parts of the tree but does the most damage to the flower panicles. Symptoms of anthracnose appear as black irregularly shaped lesions that gradually become larger and cause leaf spot, bloom blight, fruit staining and rot – resulting in non fruiting mango trees. It is best to plant an anthracnose resistant variety of mango tree in full sun where rainfall will quickly evaporate to avoid this problem.

Another major contributor to the mango tree not producing fruit is another fungal pathogen, powdery mildew. Powdery mildew attacks young fruit, flowers and foliage, leaving these areas covered with a white fungal powder and often developing lesions along the undersides of the leaves. Severe infections will destroy the panicles, subsequently affecting potential fruit set and production, hence a mango tree not producing fruit. Both of these diseases are exacerbated with the onset of heavy dew and rain. Early spring applications of sulfur and copper when the panicle is half its full size and again 10-21 days later will aid in eradication of this fungal pathogen.

To prevent these diseases, apply a coating of fungicide on the susceptible parts when the buds appear and begin to open and ending at harvest time.

Pests

Mites and scale insects can attack mango trees but generally do not result in the mango tree not producing fruit unless severe. Treating the tree with neem oil can help alleviate most pest issues.

Weather

Cold may be a factor in the mango tree not producing fruit. Mango trees are extremely susceptible to cold temperatures and should, therefore, be planted in the most protected area of the yard. Ideally, plant your mango tree 8-12 feet of the south or east side of the house in full sun to deter the issue of no mango fruit on trees.

Fertilization

Another stressor which may affect the non fruiting mango tree is over fertilizing. Heavy fertilization of the lawn near the mango tree may reduce fruiting since the mango tree’s root system spreads well beyond the drip line of the tree. Oftentimes, this results in an abundance of nitrogen in the soil. You can offset this by adding a phosphorus rich fertilizer or bone meal to the soil around your mango tree.

Similarly, overwatering, as with the use of lawn sprinklers, may reduce fruiting or fruit quality.

Pruning

Severe pruning may be done to reduce the canopy height of very large trees, enabling an easier harvest and does not injure the tree; however, it may reduce fruit production from one to several cycles. Therefore, pruning should only take place whenever absolutely necessary for shaping or maintenance purposes. Otherwise, prune only to remove broken or diseased plant material.

Age

Finally, the last consideration for your mango tree not producing fruit is age. Most mango trees are grafted and will not begin to bear fruit until three to five years after planting.

If you live in a tropical to subtropical area, the mango tree is really quite easy to grow as long as you manage the above potential problems affecting your mango tree.

In the garden: Why won’t my tree fruit? | Miami Herald

A tree not getting enough sun will not fruit. Jeff Wasielewski

No matter if you are a commercial grower or a backyard tropical fruit enthusiast, if you have a fruit tree, you want fruit. The number one question I receive — I am the commercial tropical fruit agent for all of South Florida — is: “Why won’t my tree fruit?”

A mango tree with no fruit is just a shade tree after all.

A number of factors combine to create a tree healthy enough to fruit. A healthy tree must have a strong root system, adequate light, proper pruning, proper nutrition, the right age, no mechanical damage, proper irrigation, and must have been planted properly.

When the “Why isn’t my tree fruiting?” question comes my way, I go into tropical fruit CSI mode and ask these questions:

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▪ Is the tree getting full sun? Producing fruit takes a lot of energy, and trees create their energy by using the sun through photosynthesis. Without enough sunlight, a tree will not bloom. Without bloom, there is not fruit. If your tree is shaded by your house or a taller tree, it will have trouble producing fruit.

▪ How old is the tree? If the tree is older than three years, it should have at least bloomed by now, unless the tree was grown from seed. Most fruit trees are grafted, meaning they have an already mature portion of a known cultivar — for instance a ‘Haden’ mango, grafted onto a healthy seedling.

The graft accomplishes two things. One, you know the exact type of fruit you will get as this is basically a cloning process.

Two, the tree skips all the stages of maturity and is instantly sexually mature. A tree planted from seed has to be baby mango, toddler mango, texting mango, snapchat mango, high school mango, college mango, married mango, and then finally the tree is old enough to fruit. A tree can take up to 15 years to become mature A grafted tree is always recommended.

▪ Does the tree look healthy? If the tree is green and the leaves are all fully formed, it is most likely not dealing with any issues that would stop it from blooming and setting fruit.

If the tree has a trunk caliper of five inches or less, I will often ask the client to give it the “shake test,” where you actually go out and see if you can move the trunk. If the trunk moves along with its roots, that is a sign of a weak root system, which may have been caused by too much water or a girdled root system before the tree was planted. Trees with weak root systems often have difficulty obtaining nutrients.

If the trunk moves, but the roots do not, then the root system is most likely strong.

▪ When was the last time the tree was pruned? A fruit tree that was severely pruned will often result in no flowering and fruiting for at least one year, and maybe up to three years as the tree puts all its energy into restoring the missing leaf canopy.

Pruning too late in the season may also negatively affect flowering and fruiting. If a tree was pruned as it was getting ready to bloom, it is possible that branches that were set to bloom were removed.

▪ What is your irrigation schedule? If a tree is watered too often — more than once or twice a week — it may not bloom or set fruit. Too much water can suffocate the roots and cause root rot, or it may spur the tree to grow leaves rather than bloom.

▪ What is your fertilizer schedule? Too much or too little of the nutrients a tree needs can also disrupt flowering and fruiting. Too much nitrogen will cause a tree to grow leaves instead of blossoms and the tree may not be able to settle down to get ready to bloom. If the tree is not getting the elements it needs, it may be too weak to bloom. I will often ask if the overall color of the tree is good. If it is, then the tree is most likely getting all the nutrients it needs.

▪ What do you see at the base of the trunk? If the client sees mechanical damage from multiple string-trimmer hits or if the tree is planted too deep, these factors also will contribute to the tree not being healthy enough to bloom and set fruit.

After asking all of the above questions, I see which category the client is deficient in and prescribe the correct remedy. A tree planted from seed, a tree not getting enough sun, or a tree that was pruned too hard are the three top reasons why a tree is not fruiting.

Jeff Wasielewski is the Commercial Tropical Fruit Extension Agent for UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County

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