The stalks (petioles) are 2-10 cm long. These leaves have an oval or narrowly oval shape and rounded tips (obtuse apices). The terminal leaflet is significantly larger than the others. From the scalloped margins of the leaves, new plants form often on becoming detached from the plant.
Flowers bloom at the top of its stems in branched clusters. The color of the flowers is greenish-yellow to pinkish-red. The pendulous, tubular flowers are 7 cm long and form cymose panicle.
They remain arranged in terminal inflorescence in branched clusters. The stalks (pedicle) are 10-25 mm long. They are partially fused into a calyx tube that supports the four lobes of the petal (corolla). Flowering occurs in winter and spring.
The fruits have a papery appearance with a membranous look. It has four slender carpels that contain the seeds. These seeds are less than 1 mm in size and remain enclosed within the old flowers. Reproduction is from the leaves or the seed.
Family name: Cucurbitaceae
Botanical name: Bryophyllum pinatum
English name: Never die
Igbo name: Oda opue, alupu
Description: A succulent perorating herb 0.60- 1.20m high. Buds lying in the serrations of the leaf margin should they be in contact with the ground. The generic name appears also to allude to the leaf viripany
Actions: Febrifuge, transquiller, diuretic, antemetic
Parts used: Root and leaf
- Root sap taken by draught for attracks of epilpsy.
- Root is used for coughs.
- The leaf sap is given to children with convulsion and epilepsy, and for refractory cough.
- They are rubbed on feverish children and small children for colds.
- They are tied on the head for headache and are mashed and inserted in the nostrils for this curative.
- It is for earache and ophthalmia.
- Instillation of the leave sap, prepared preferably from leaves passed over a fire into the nose., ear and eye for ear, nose and eye troubles, and in dermal conditions for lacth.
- The leaf-mash alone or compounded with palm oil or dyara or shea butter may be used for wound, burns, abscesses, ulcers, swellings, rheumatic and intercostals pain.
- Abdominal poultices are used for more deep seated intestinal pain. Poultices are also used on cuts to stop bleeding.
- It is used on newly delivered woman and squeezes some of the sap into the baby’s mouth.
- Gwen to regularize the ovarine cycle.
- Drops leaf sap up the nose before going to sleep is considered to prevent snoring.
Botanical name: Bryophylum pinnatum
Common names: Air plant, Love plant, Miracle leaf, Life plant.
Local names: Abamoda(Yoruba), Karan masallachi(Hausa)
The plant, Bryophyllum pinnatum is commonly known as air plant, love plant, miracle leaf, life plant, has been accepted as a herbal remedy in almost all parts of the world. It is a crassulescent herb of about 1 metre in height, with opposite, glabrous leaves (with 3–5 deeply crenulated, fleshy leaflets), distributed worldwide but growing primarily in the rain forest. It grows widely and used as folk medicine in tropical Africa, America etc.
It is astringent, sour in taste, sweet in the post digestive effect and has hot potency. It is well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. The plant have considerable attention for their medicinal properties and find application in folk medicine, as well as in the contemporary medicine. The leaves and bark of B. pinnatum are bitter tonic, astringent, analgesic ethanopharmacologically used in Africa, India, China, Australia and tropical America ,Madagascar, Asia and Hawaii. The plant have considerable attention for their medicinal properties and find application in folk medicine, as well as in the contemporary medicine .It’s carminative, for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting, earache, burns, abscesses, gastric ulcers, insect bites, and lithiasis. The juice from fresh leaves is used to treat smallpox, otitis, cough, asthama, palpitatious, headache, convulsion and general debility. The plant has also been employed for the treatment of edema of legs. Leaves powder used as wound dressing. In Southeastern Nigeria, the herb is used to facilitate the dropping of the placenta of newly born baby. This is also applied on the bodies of young children when they are ill. It is largely used in folk medicines for the treatment of hypertension and kidney stones, pulmonary infections, rheumatoid arthritis etc. In traditional medicine, the leaves of the plant also have been used for antifungal. potent antihistamine and anti-allergic activity. B. pinnatum is a refrigerant, emollient, mucilaginous, haemostatic, vulneray, depurative, constipating, anodyne, disinfectant, antitonic.The plant proved to be useful in vitiated conditions pitta and vata, epilepsy, piles, haematemesis, haemorrrhoids, menorrhagia, cuts and wounds, discolourations of the skin, boils, ophthalmia, scalds, corn. The plant has hepatoprotective activity and is also used to increase vascular integrity. Bryophyllum can reduce fever and does provide antiinflammatory, and muscle relaxant effects. Its antiinflammatory effects have been partially attributed to the immunomodulatory and immune suppressant effect. Leaf juice is used in the treatment of coughs, bronchial affections, blood dysentery, jaundice and gout infection.
Why do mimosa plants close when touched?
Asked by: Harriet Best, China
The leaves of the ‘touch-me-not’ fold up and droop each evening before reopening at dawn. They also do this more rapidly if they are touched or shaken. It is likely the responses evolved separately. Many plants close up at night, usually to protect pollen or reduce water loss while the leaves aren’t photosynthesising.
But the Mimosa genus is a creeping shrub and highly attractive to grazing animals. It seems that at some point in its evolution a Mimosa appeared that closed up when touched. Doing so reduced the leaf area presented to herbivores and made the plant look wilted. If this was enough to make grazers look for another plant, then the genes for touch sensitivity would have spread, eventually leading to a new species.
- Do plants die of old age?
- Do plants think?
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Dieffenbachia with brown spots on leaves
Your plant is a type of dieffenbachia. It looks like your plant is suffereing from Leaf Spot disease. When a plant gets Leaf Spot, the attacking fungus or bacteria leaves brown spots trimmed in yellow where it is feeding on the leaves. These spots may vary in shape, color, and size. As with all other fungal and bacterial diseases, better air circulation, well-drained soil, dry leaves, and less water help control Leaf Spot disease. Never mist a plant if Leaf Spot is suspected. You can use a commercial Fungicide to treat Leaf Spot disease or this homemade remedy: put a tablespoon or two of baking soda and a teaspoon or two of mineral oil in a spray bottle of water. Shake the solution well and then spray all areas of the plant that are infected. Keep infected plants away from your other houseplants.
You can read all my care tips for a dieffenbachia in the Popular Houseplant section of the website. The picture is of a different variety but the care is the same.
These plants are considered poisonous and should be kept away from pets and children. Read more about common houseplants that are poisonous in Don’t Feed Me To Your Cat! A Guide to Poisonous Houseplants
What Are The Gray Spots On My Dieffenbachia?
Ask the Expert: dieffenbachia problems
tiny round silver spots on top of leaves what is causing it???
Flower Shop Network Plant Expert Reply:
In the first photo, you can see the gray spots that are appearing on several of the dieffenbachia leaves. Exposing dieffenbachia leaves to direct sunlight can cause issues like gray spots. Which is what it looks like to me.
In the second photo, I noticed that the leaf is wilted and may indicate that the plant is under water-stress. Under watering a dieffenbachia can cause wilting and make the plant more susceptible to light stress issues. It appear that the dieffenbachia is in a dish garden with other plants which may not be compatible in regards to light and water. I recommend removing the dumb cane (dieffenbachia) from the dish garden in to its own pot.
Place the newly potted dumb cane in a partial light or filter light and create a humid environment for the plant. Mist the plant every couple of days with lukewarm water. Once a week check the soil and water as need. Soil should be moist to the touch but the plant should not be soggy.
Keep an eye on the spots. They will not go away. Watch for any spreading of the spots. Although the spots seem to be caused by over-exposure to direct light, one of the fungal or bacterial diseases that effect Dieffenbachia could be an underlying cause. Although must fungal or bacterial issue have a reddish/brown center with a yellow halo or a different type of lesion.
Read the Caring For Dieffenbachia for more information about light, water and the pests and disease that effect dumb cane.
This plant care question was brought to you by local Salem Florists. Not in Salem OR? Use Flower Shop Network to find a real local florist near you.
This Anthurium leaf has brown spots due to bacterial leaf blight.
Anthurium (also known as flamingo flower) is a popular and relatively easy-to-grow tropical houseplant. While diseases are not common, occasionally the plant’s leaves can develop brown spots. After years of growing anthurium, we finally experienced this issue too. Not wanting to lose our plant, we learned what was wrong and what to do about it.
So, why do your anthurium leaves have brown spots? The most common reason is leaf blight (also known as leaf spot), caused by bacteria that infects the leaves. However, nutrient deficiency or too much sunlight may also cause brown spots. Here’s how to fix these problems and restore your anthurium to health.
Both bacterial diseases and nutrient deficiencies can be treated if you catch them early enough. It may not be too late to save your plant – especially if the brown spots are minimal and haven’t spread beyond the leaves.
Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Blight
Bacterial leaf blight in anthurium plants cause:
- Yellow lesions darkening into necrotic brown spots
- Guttation droplets forming on the leaf margins
- Leaves with a bronze appearance
- Faded and spotted flowers (systemic infection)
Before brown spots form, you’ll notice yellow lesions along the leaf edges that rapidly turn into necrotic, v-shaped lesions. These lesions darken with age and eventually cause deformed leaves.
Small sap droplets will also be present on the leaves where the bacteria enter. These are known as guttation droplets, and they look like tiny drops of water forming on the leaf margins.
Guttation droplets typically form during the night when temperatures are warm, humidity around the plant is high, and the potting soil is wet. The amino acids found in the liquid provide food for the invading bacteria, which can then infect other nearby plants.
In some cases, it may take months for plants to show symptoms as the bacteria multiply on the leaves.
Once bacteria infect your anthurium leaves, they spread quickly throughout the entire plant. Leaves develop yellow then brown spots and may take on a bronze appearance. Flowers may become faded in color, and without treatment, the plant wilts and dies.
Causes of Leaf Blight
The bacteria that cause leaf blight infect the plant by entering through the pores along the leaf edges. Bacteria may also enter the leaves if they become damaged during pruning or are punctured in any other way. Even harvesting flowers or taking cuttings can cause wounds that allow bacteria to enter.
In addition, bacteria spread easily across wet surfaces. Getting foliage wet during watering is a major contributor to leaf blight. It’s important to keep the leaves dry in plants susceptible to bacterial diseases – like anthurium.
Watering your anthurium plants by placing six ice cubes on the soil and allowing them to melt once per week keeps the leaves from getting wet. It’s an inexpensive way of using the drip irrigation technique in your house plants.
Anthurium plants grown close to other aroid species – such as dieffenbachia, spahtiphyllum, or aglaonema – may become infected with blight. The bacteria known as Xanthomonas can infect most aroid species.
Contact with other infected plants or tools after pruning and harvesting will also spread the highly contagious disease. Simply touching an infected plant and then touching a healthy plant will spread the bacteria and infect the healthy plant.
Control and Treatment of Leaf Blight
If the entire plant is infected by leaf blight (known as systemic infection), you’ll have to destroy it to avoid spreading the disease to other plants. A systemically infected anthurium cannot be saved.
When only the leaves are infected, this is known as foliar infection. Plants with foliar infection may still be saved, as the bacteria hasn’t yet made its way into the vascular system.
The best way to control leaf blight in plants with foliar infection is to remove and burn any infected leaves. Do not cut them off with shears. It’s best to remove the leaves by breaking the petiole near the leaf blade. This helps prevent the bacteria from spreading further.
Some sources recommend using copper fungicides to control leaf blight. However, laboratory tests have shown the bacteria are resistant to copper, and application of these chemicals causes phytotoxicity.
There are several ways to prevent outbreaks of leaf blight in your anthurium plants, including:
- Keeping leaves dry at all times
- Watering directly into the soil or using drip irrigation
- Increasing air circulation around plants
- Keeping humidity between 70 and 80 percent
- Sterilizing shears and scissors used to harvest or prune plants
Disinfect tools – such as shears and scissors – after each use with a solution made of 70% alcohol. Submerge them completely in the solution for several minutes to ensure adequate disinfection of the cutting surface.
If you’re lucky, brown spots on your anthurium leaves may be caused by nutrient deficiencies instead of a bacterial disease. Leaves exhibiting yellow edges with a few brown spots – without the presence of guttation droplets – may indicate lack of nutrients.
Other symptoms of nutrient deficiency include:
- Reduction in plant growth
- Younger leaves with stunted growth (smaller than older leaves)
- New leaves light green in color and deformed
- Short, drooping stems
- Decreased flower production and size
It takes a long time for symptoms of nutrient deficiencies to appear. If you have a very young plant, this most likely isn’t the problem. But if you have an older plant that begins developing brown spots, it may just need a good feeding.
In an experiment performed by the University of Hawaii, anthurium did not exhibit symptoms until 9 – 18 months of sustained nutrient deficiency.
If you suspect this may be the cause of your plant’s brown spots, begin fertilizing with a high phosphorus fertilizer such as 15-30-15. The middle number indicates the level of phosphorus and should be higher than the first and last numbers.
to see our favorite high-phosphorus anthurium fertilizer on Amazon. We’ve used it to successfully keep our plants healthy for many years.
Feed your plants once a month during the active growing season according to the directions on the label. If you have a major deficiency, feed once a week for 3-4 weeks and then cut back to once a month. Be careful not to over-fertilize or your plants may not produce blooms.
Too Much Sunlight
These anthurium leaves have been scalded by too much sunlight.
And finally, placing your anthurium in direct sunlight may also cause discolored or brown spotted leaves. Anthuriums are tropical plants native to South America. They thrive with bright, indirect light, but they cannot tolerate direct sun.
Anthurium does well in a west-facing window, where it will get bright afternoon sun. A south-facing window may be too harsh, and a north-facing window may not provide enough light.
If you aren’t sure if your plant is getting direct sunlight or not, see our article on direct sunlight through windows.
What are my anthurium leaves turning brown? Brown leaves are caused by too much sunlight, nutrient deficiency, or improper watering. Place your plant in bright, indirect sunlight (not direct sun), feed once a month during active growth with a high phosphorus fertilizer, and water once a week with six ice cubes or half cup of water.
How often does anthurium need to be watered indoors? For the best results, water anthurium houseplants once a week, allowing the soil to dry slightly between waterings. To prevent getting foliage wet – which can cause bacterial disease – place six ice cubes directly on the soil and allow them to melt or pour half cup of water directly into the soil.
Lavender Turning Brown & Withered?
Lavenders don’t look good in the rainy season anyway, especially if it rains for days on end. The bottoms of the plants turn black.
Lavender should be cut back around January. Cut only the young parts and do not cut into old wood. Cutting old wood can kill the plant. I usually only cut half the foliage off the lavender at a time, opening it up so light can get to the base. Once the new shoots appear on the cane and are growing well, then I cut of the rest of the foliage. If lavender is not pruned regularly, they get leggy and more woody with time. Cuttings can be rooted in perlite to produce more plants.
Check the pots, lavender starts to look bad when they are pot bound too. I pot up my lavender in pots usually up to a 5 gallon pot. They grow much bigger in the ground. They do like well drained soil and don’t care that much for fertilizer. I use osmocote. A scoopful of compost doesn’t hurt but make sure it does not pile up against the stem, it will rot the plant.
The type of lavender you have does matter. The lavendins are more heat tolerant than the lavenders. L. multifeda (fernleaf lavender) and L.dentata do best in zone 11 in full sun. L. augustifolia (zone 5-8) does o.k. in pots in cooler areas and summer afternoon shade.
Since your lavenders only have a single stem. I would check the pots to see if they need to be potted up. Remove all the dead brown leaves from the bottom of the plant. Pinch the top of the lavender to promote branching. At this time of the year they can be out in full sun in pots, but if it starts to rain heavily and for days on end, put the lavenders in a patio or under the eaves where they can stay a bit drier but still get good light until the rain stops. Check plants for water more often under the eaves, they get almost no water at all even in the pouring rain. I have more perlite in my media so I need to water lavender in pots every couple of days minimum. The lavender I have in the ground is planted on a slight slope and is about a year old. I do have a sprinkler system that waters for 5 min. every 4 days. I rarely water at all at this time of the year. In summer, I water deeply about once a week. I have red clay soil, so it holds on to water for a while. The lavender in the ground was cut back in February but it was a 3ft diameter mound and will get back to that size again by summer.
Lavender has a very hard time growing in our area. It does not like the rain and humidity or the cold weather. Its ideal climate is more Mediterranean. Some types of lavender grows better here than others, so starting with the right plants is important. But even starting with the most appropriate plants, you are not likely to get many years out of the investment. The other very important element is to plant your lavenders in soil that has been prepared to allow excellent drainage, incorporating some sand and chunky organic materials. If the ground stays wet around their roots they will suffer.
The brown buds that you are seeing is a result of wetness on the plant as well as at the roots. Without examining the blooms, I can’t tell you if it is a fungal infection (which prosper in damp conditions) or something else, but water is at its source with near certainty.
For our climate, English lavenders (Lavandula angustifolia) are the best bet. ‘Munstead’ and ‘Hidcote’ are two popular choices. There are at least 100 cultivars of L. angustifolia,differing in flower color, scent, and growth characteristics. These varieties are worth exploring.
(Nursery-bought plants of a given cultivar may vary greatly in appearance. This is because they are grown from seed and may not breed true to the original variety. If your plant doesn’t develop as expected, try another source.)
Lavandins, Lavandula x intermedia, are hybrids between L. angustifolia and L. latifolia. They are more tolerant of humidity and are hardy to Zone 7–suitable for the southern regions of the Northeast. ‘Alba’ (a white-flowered lavender), ‘Grosso’ and ‘Provence’ are all good choices to try.
General growing advice is as follows: all lavenders do best in very sunny locations (6-8 hours of sun per day) and need good drainage. If your soil is heavy, drainage can be improved by adding grit or coarse horticultural sand to the soil. They also prefer a neutral or slightly alkaline soil. If your soil is acidic, add lime to raise the pH (but not above 8.5). Lavenders can also be grown in pots. Use a free-flowing medium; water and fertilize regularly. As lavenders have an extensive root system, make sure to plant in a large container.
Prune your lavender regularly to reduce woody growth–woody plants produce fewer flowers. Prune in early spring when new growth has appeared. Lavender can also be trimmed in summer when flowering is finished. Bigger plants can have a third of their branches cut back every year or two.
Courtesy of NYBG Plant Information Service