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by Rick Gush May 25, 2012

Photo by Rick Gush

Romano green beans are my favorite beans!

I had never grown Romano green beans before I came to Italy, and the only ones I had eaten were, I realize now, horribly overcooked. Romano beans have a bit of mucilage like okra, but only a small amount. Unfortunately, overcooking is how to bring out the mucilage, so that’s what a lot of folks get when they eat these legumes. That’s too bad, because these big, flat crops are delicious, and they have become my favorite green bean. My wife makes a dish with pasta, some soft cheese, such as precensua (imagine ricotta cheese with more flavor); and big, flat beans called taccole, or Romano. The mucilage in question works particularly well when the flat beans are quick-fried with oil and garlic; the slight braising is very tasty.

Romano beans grow just like all other green beans. The varieties are mostly of the climbing kind, but there are some bush types, as well. Generally, the bush types produce a single large flush and a subsequent dribble, while the climbers seem to be more consistent producers. This means that planting a series of different seedlings, maybe two weeks apart, is the best way to have a long harvest period with the bush beans.

Beans like warmth, so I never try to push the seeds into cold soil. I really press to get most of my vegetables in as early as possible, but not the green beans. At the moment, I’m about to plant our taccole for the year, and the weather is acting funny and I’m hesitant to plant if the next week is going to be wet and cool, as the predictions say. Hmm … this may be an appropriate time to plant the seeds in pots indoors, something I almost never would do for easy-germinating seeds, such as beans.

Once the plants are up, I find I get much better results if I consistently water them regularly. If the plants have to fight for water at some point, the flowers don’t seem to set as well, and the little beans that were on the vine will never fully recover from the shock. I use thick mulch to ensure that the soil stays moist at all times. I think the mulch also helps prevent competition from weeds, which isn’t a good thing, because they have relatively shallow root systems that are easily adversely affected by weed competition.

In all the years of growing these beans, I think I’ve had a dozen different pest problems with them, from rust to mosaic diseases, but still I consider beans an almost pest free plant. Sure, it might look ragged at the end of the season, but that doesn’t matter as long as the plants produced a lot of beans in the meanwhile.

When I first started growing beans, I would always get a package of inoculating powder to dip the seeds in before planting. That inoculation seemed to help more nitrogen-fixing nodules to grow on the bean plants’ roots, which seemed to be a good thing. But, I will admit my data was vague. These days, I don’t inoculate, mostly because I haven’t seen a nursery here that sells the packets of inoculation powder.

Read more of Rick’s Favorite Crops ”

How to Grow Beans – Part 2


May 26, 2016

Garden beans, both snap and Lima, are among the favorite vegetables for many people. Some home gardeners will also grow dry beans and edible soybeans. Types include pole beans, bush beans, wax beans, French and Italian beans. These garden beans can be grown in Michigan, a major commercial producer of dry beans.

Types of beans

Bush bean varieties are well-suited for smaller gardens and are easier to grow because they do not need any support. They come in green, yellow (wax) and purple varieties.

Romano (Italian) beans can be grown as either bush or climbing beans that form large, flat, stringless pods. They come in green, yellow or purple varieties. Romano beans can be used fresh like green beans or left to mature and be used like dry beans.

French (Haricot vert) beans resemble green beans but have extra-slim, flavorful pods. They can be found in bush and climbing varieties. They may be eaten fresh or cooked.

Pole beans or climbing beans can grow five to eight feet tall and their vines need support. Both bush and pole beans are harvested when the pods are expanded, before the beans are visible inside.

Lima beans, both bush and pole varieties, are grown like other shell beans. They are especially sensitive to cold soil and take longer to mature than green beans. Smaller-seeded types mature earlier.

Shell or pod beans are dry bean varieties that are eaten when the beans in the pod are plump and mature, but still soft. They are shelled like peas because the pod is too tough to eat, and then cooked.

Edible soybeans, also called Edamame (meaning “pods on a branch” in Japanese), are different than field soybeans used for livestock feed. Edible soybeans have larger seeds, a milder taste, and are more tender and and easier to digest. These soybeans are eaten when the shells are green, and the soybeans inside are plump. This is similar to eating shell or pod beans because of the stage of maturity when they are picked. They are traditionally cooked in boiling, salted water and then the tough outer pod is removed.

Dry beans come in many kinds and colors. The pods are grown to maturity and harvested when the plants dry up at the end of the season. These include kidney beans, navy beans, pinto beans and black beans. Cannellini beans are white kidney beans. Other varieties belong to the heirloom or heritage category and have been grown for more than 50 years. These include Jacob’s Cattle, Vermont Cranberry and Dragon’s Tongue, just to name a few.

Growing beans

Beans do best in loose, well-drained soil with some organic matter and a soil pH of 6.5. They need full sun — at least eight hours per day. Beans are frost-tender crops that need warm soils to germinate their seeds. Soil temperature at the time of planting should exceed 60°F. (Note this often does not occur until the end of May in Michigan.) Soil temperature is taken in the top inch of soil early in the morning before the sun has warmed the soil for the day. Plant seeds at two-week intervals to guarantee harvests of fresh beans throughout the summer. Fresh beans, depending on the variety, grow to maturity in 45 to 72 days. Most bush bean varieties can be picked after 55 to 60 days. Do not pick beans when plants are wet because then they are easily bruised and diseases may spread.

Beans are usually planted from seed. Follow the directions on the seed package as to depth and spacing. If growing climbing beans, be prepared to supply sturdy trellises or poles to support the crop.

Keep plants watered, especially during dry weather. Be careful not to cause the soil to become waterlogged. If possible, keep the water at the soil level and off the leaves. Since beans require warmer soils than many vegetables, delay mulching until after seeds have germinated and are growing well in early to mid-summer.


Follow soil test recommendations, but only fertilize lightly with nitrogen. Beans and other plants in the legume family can get nitrogen from the air.

Weed management

Controlling weeds around beans is essential to getting a good crop. Weeds compete for water, nutrients and sunlight. Hoe, cultivate, or hand pull to control weeds.

Originally developed by Lee Taylor and adapted by Gretchen Voyle. Revised by Linda Whitlock and Mary Wilson.


Tags: home gardening, vegetable gardening

Related Topic Areas

Vegetable Gardening, Gardening in Michigan

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Tips For Growing Beans – Learn How To Plant Beans In The Garden

Bean is the common name for the seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal consumption. People have been planting beans for centuries for use as either snap beans, shelling beans or dry beans. Read on to learn how to plant beans in your garden.

Types of Beans

Warm season bean plants are cultivated for their highly nutritious immature pods (snap beans), immature seeds (shell beans) or mature seeds (dry beans). Beans may fall into two categories: determinant-type growth, those that grow as a low bush, or indeterminant, those with a vining habit requiring support, also known as pole beans.

Green snap beans may be the most familiar to people. These green beans with an edible pod used to be called ‘string’ beans, but today’s varieties have been bred to lack the tough, stringy fiber along the pod’s seam. Now they “snap” in two easily. Some green snap beans are not green at all, but purple and, when cooked, become green. There are also wax beans, which are simply a variant of snap bean with a yellow, waxy pod.

Lima or butter beans are grown for their immature seed which is shelled. These beans are flat and rounded with a very distinct flavor. They are the most sensitive type of bean.

Horticultural beans, commonly referred to as “shelly beans” (among many other various monikers), are large seeded beans with a tough fiber lined pod. The seeds are usually shelled while still relatively soft, harvested when the beans are fully formed but not dried out. They may be either bush or pole types and many of the heirloom varieties are horticultural.

Cowpeas are also referred to as southern peas, crowder peas, and blackeye peas. They are, indeed, really a bean and not a pea and are grown as a dry or green shell bean. Kidney, navy, and pinto are all examples of dry use cowpeas.

How to Plant Beans

All types of beans should be sown after the danger of frost has passed and the soil has warmed to at least 50 F. (10 C.). Sow all beans except cowpea, yard-long and lima one inch (2.5 cm.) deep in heavy soil or an inch and half (4 cm.) deep in light soil. The other three types of beans should be planted a half inch (1 cm.) deep in heavy soil and an inch (2.5 cm). deep in light soil. Cover the seeds with sand, peat, vermiculite or aged compost to prevent soil crusting.

Plant bush bean seeds 2-4 inches (5-10 cm.) apart in rows that are 2-3 feet (61-91 cm.) apart and plant pole beans in either rows or hills with seeds 6-10 inches (15-25 cm.) apart in rows that are 3-4 feet (approximately 1 meter or so) apart. Provide support for pole beans as well.

Growing pole beans gives you the advantage of maximizing your space, and the beans grow straighter and are easier to pick. Bush-type bean plants need no support, require little care, and can be picked whenever you are ready to cook or freeze them. They typically produce an earlier crop too, so successive plantings may be necessary for a continual harvest.

Growing beans, regardless of type, do not need supplemental fertilizer but they do need consistent irrigation, especially while budding and on into setting pods. Water bean plants with an inch of water per week depending upon weather conditions. Water in the morning so the plants can dry rapidly and avoid fungal disease.

All About Growing Beans

Yard-long beans, or asparagus beans (Vigna sesquipedalis), are grown for their long, slender pods, which are harvested at 12 to 18 inches long. Pods may be green, burgundy, or streaked. Growth period: 80 days.

Tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius), a type of dry bean, were developed by the native people of the Southwest, so they’re well-adapted to desert conditions. They come in various colors. See also: Tepary Beans: The Bean That Laughs at Drought and Ask Our Experts: Tepary Beans. Growth period: 80 to 90 days.

When to Plant Beans

Bean seeds germinate best when soil temperatures range between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. In spring, sow seeds in fertile, well-worked soil starting on or after your last frost date. When growing fast-maturing bush snap beans, make additional plantings at three-week intervals until midsummer.

Prepare the planting bed by using a garden fork to loosen the soil. Mix in a 1-inch layer of mature compost. Plant seeds 1 inch deep and 2 to 4 inches apart. Thin bush beans to 4 inches apart; thin pole beans to 6 inches apart. Wide double rows (two parallel rows of beans planted 12 to 14 inches apart) are the most space-efficient way to grow beans.

Harvesting and Storing Beans

Harvest green beans when they are young and tender, and use two hands when picking to keep from breaking the brittle plants. Most bush beans will produce a second or third flush of beans after the first one is picked. Harvest pole beans at least twice a week to keep the plants productive. The mature beans of all snap bean varieties usually make good soup beans.

Allow dry beans to stay on the plants until the pods turn tan and the beans inside show good color and a hard, glossy surface. If damp weather sets in just when your beans should be drying, pull up the plants and hang them in a dry place until they are dry enough to shell and sort. Allow your shelled beans to dry at room temperature for two weeks before storing them in airtight containers. If you think insects might be present in your stored beans, keep them in the freezer.

Saving Bean Seeds

To save dry beans for replanting, select the largest, most perfect seeds from your stored beans. With snap beans, it is best not to harvest beans from plants grown for seed production. That way, the plants will channel all their energy into big seeds that will grow into big seedlings. Be patient, because snap bean varieties that have been bred to stay tender for a long time are often slow to develop mature seeds. Under good conditions, bean seeds will store for at least three years. A packet will plant about 25 feet of row, which should produce 20 to 30 pounds of bush snap beans, or 40 pounds or more of pole beans. Expect about 1 1⁄2 pounds of dry beans from a 25-foot row.

Preventing Bean Pests and Diseases

  • Brick-colored Mexican bean beetles sporting black spots often lay clusters of yellow eggs on leaves, which hatch into yellow larvae that rasp tissues from leaves. Handpick this pest in all life stages, and try spraying neem oil to control light infestations. In large plantings of more than one-fourth of an acre, releasing beneficial Pediobus wasps is a worthwhile strategy.
  • Beans grown in sites that recently supported grasses are often sabotaged by night-feeding cutworms. Diatomaceous earth sprinkled over the soil’s surface can help reduce losses.
  • Several fungal and bacterial diseases cause dark spots and patches to form on bean leaves. To keep from spreading diseases among plants, avoid working in your bean patch when foliage is wet.
  • Promptly cut down and compost plants that are past their prime to interrupt the life cycles of pests and diseases.

Bean Growing Tips

Extend your harvest of bush snap beans by planting them two or three times, with each sowing three weeks apart. In warm climates, make a sowing in late summer, about 10 weeks before your first fall frost is expected.


Grow more beans in less space by growing pole varieties, which produce more per square foot by making good use of vertical growing space. Tall bamboo poles or saplings make easy tripods to support pole varieties.

Be stingy with fertilizer. Beans benefit from fertile soil with a slightly acid pH (between 6.0 and 6.5), but once they are up and growing, beans make most of the nitrogen they need (which they use to nurture their crop of seeds). When growing beans in a new garden site, inoculating seeds with nitrogen-fixing bacteria before planting can help kick-start this process. Even simpler, scatter a few spadefuls of soil from last year’s bean patch into new planting sites.

Use bush beans as a cover crop in warm summer weather. You can turn the plants under, or pull them up and compost them.

In the Kitchen: Cooking Beans

Kids of all ages love to munch garden-fresh green beans, especially sweet and tender filet types. Extra green beans are easy to blanch and freeze, and rehydrated dried snap beans taste almost as good as fresh ones. Gather some of your soup beans at the mature green stage to use in succotash and other summer dishes, and dry the rest for winter. Green beans are a good source of fiber and vitamins A and C, while dry beans are rich in B vitamins and minerals. Team up beans with grains (such as rice or corn) to get prime protein from both foods, as beans and grains contain complementary essential amino acids.

See also: Discover Real Green Beans, Three’s Not a Crowd and Savoring Bean Gleaning Season.

Contributing editor Barbara Pleasant gardens in southwest Virginia, where she grows vegetables, herbs, fruits, flowers and a few lucky chickens. Contact Barbara by visiting her website or finding her on Google+.


Pole Beans at Foster Ranch, California These photos were taken at Phil Foster Ranch, San Juan Bautista & Hollister, California. Phil started planting these beans in late January. (This has been a very warm winter.) He’ll move outdoors in April sowings, and move back into the tunnels for a few sowings in August and September, with picking finishing in December.
Of course, this is California — in New England, in contrast, one might plant first in early April in a closed-up tunnel (keeping Agro-fabric handy for frost-blanketing if needed), and succession-plant all summer long, with a final fall planting in August, allowing for harvest up into November.

Phil Foster of Pinnacle Organic Ranch is a leading example for commercial pole bean production. He has developed quite a following for his beans. Our Southern California territory sales representative, John Bauer recently paid Phil a visit, and together they gave us the lowdown for pole bean success. Here is John’s write-up, in 6 easy-to-follow steps.

Phil grows his ‘Northeaster’ “under cover” in the early season, just to give the crop some extra heat. (Pole beans are commonly grown in tunnels in Europe, as well.) In the warmer season, he grows them in the open field, saving the tunnels for crops such as tomatoes.

(Note: Steps #1–3 are optional — we find they help assure success…)

Step 1.

Soak seed for 30–45 minutes in slightly warm water.

Step 2.

Place drained seed in a carton with a warm, wet towel lining the bottom of the box. Spread seed out, about 2″ deep, in bottom of box. Cover with another warm, wet towel. A drop-light hung in the top of the box overnight helps temperatures in the box stay in the 80’s, for optimum priming of germination (~27–32°C).

Step 3.

Remove seed from priming box and treat with inoculant while seed is still damp. Seed will be swelled nicely, but no radical will be emerging yet. The germination process has been started.

Step 4.

Cut 1″-deep furrows in the soil, between 60–80″ apart. Plant 8–10 seeds/ft, which is spacing the seeds approximate 1½ apart, no deeper than 1″.

(Option B: Use plastic mulch, and jab-plant 3 seeds every 8″ through the plastic. This method, which is fast and gives a good stand, is how we plant at the Research Farm in Albion, Maine — though, at home, Johnny’s bean experts favor Phil’s method!)

Step 5.

Install steel or wood fence posts between 10–12′ apart. When bean plants are 6″ tall, start running twine down one side of row, wrapping around each post to end of row, and come back up the other side the same way. Repeat as beans grow taller, at 12″ intervals up the posts. With bare-ground production (if you do not intend to lay mulch), a close mechanical and/or tractor cultivation before installing posts will help with weed control later. Weeds can alternatively be discouraged by using plastic or bio-mulch options.)

Step 6

Beans respond very well to drip irrigation, to bring them up in soils with temperatures between 59–80°F (15–27°C). Drip irrigation saves water and is a very effective way to prevent foliar diseases in your pole beans. Deep-cycle irrigation is preferable, as short, numerous irrigations promote soil disease on stems and roots, such as Pythium damping-off pathogens (most prevalent in wet and cool conditions).

Growing pole beans can be a very satisfying occupation, as the plant can yield over a fairly long harvest period. Still, to get a nice succession and continuous supply, plant a new block every 2 weeks through the season.

Tunnel production is very effective, as you can start much earlier and go very late into fall. In rainy climates, you keep the vines dry and minimize plant diseases.

John’s Recommended Pole Bean Varieties

Three Round-Pod Pole Bean Favorites Above, from left to right: ‘Carminat’ ; ‘Fortex’ ; & ‘Monte Gusto’

I and many of my grower friends grow the flat-pod organic ‘Northeaster’, although I’ve seen the round filet beans like ‘Fortex’ (green), ‘Carminat’ (purple), and ‘Monte Gusto’ (yellow) do very well and develop a great following in the markets. Try them all, and you decide which does best for your farm or garden.

Have fun and good luck!

— John Bauer, Rep for Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Southern California

To learn more, see High Tunnel Green Bean Production, from Utah State University Extension…

Planting Pole Beans: How To Grow Pole Beans

Fresh, crisp beans are summer treats that are easy to grow in most climates. Beans may be pole or bush; however, growing pole beans allows the gardener to maximize planting space. Planting pole beans also ensures a longer crop period and may yield up to three times as many beans as the bush varieties. Pole beans require some training onto a pole or trellis, but this makes them easier to harvest and the graceful flowering vines add dimensional interest to the vegetable garden.

When to Plant Pole Beans

Weather is an important consideration, when planting pole beans. Beans do not transplant well and do best when directly sown into the garden. Sow the seeds when soil temperatures are around 60 F. (16 C.), and the ambient air has warmed to at least the same temperature. Most varieties require 60 to 70 days to first harvest and are normally harvested at least five times during the growing season.

How to Plant Pole Beans

Sow the seeds 4 to 8

inches apart in rows that are 24 to 36 inches apart in rows. Push the seeds 1 inch and lightly brush soil over them. When planting them in hills, sow four to six seeds at even intervals around the hill. Water after planting until the top 2 to 3 inches of soil are damp. Germination should take place in eight to 10 days.

How to Grow Pole Beans

Pole beans need well drained soil and plenty of organic amendment to produce a large crop. Full sun situations are preferable in temperatures that are at least 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Pole beans need a support structure at least 6 feet high and the vines can grow 5 to 10 feet long. Pole beans need at least an inch of water per week and should not be allowed to dry out but also cannot tolerate soggy soils.

Beans need a little help climbing their support structure, especially when young. It’s important to get them up off the ground early to prevent rot and loss of blooms. Pole beans need little fertilizer. Fertilizer should be added to the soil before planting pole beans. Side dress with manure or mulch or use black plastic to conserve moisture, minimize weeds and keep soils warm for increased yield.

Harvesting Pole Beans

Harvesting beans begins as soon as the pods are full and swollen. Beans should be picked every three to five days to avoid harvesting older beans which can be woody and bitter. A single bean plant can yield several pounds of beans. The pods are best used fresh but they can be lightly blanched and frozen for future use. Consistent harvesting will encourage new flowers and promote longer living vines.

Varieties of Pole Beans

The most popular varieties are Kentucky Wonder and Kentucky Blue. They have been hybridized to produce Kentucky Blue. There is also a string-less Kentucky Blue. Romano is a delicious Italian flat bean. Dade grows long beans and is a prolific producer.

Watering & Fertilizing Beans

Beans need about one inch of water a week for good growth. If your garden doesn’t get sufficient rain, you must water. Watering is probably the most critical summer gardening chore for many people, and it’s the job most often done wrong.

Seven Watering Fundamentals

1) Avoid frequent, light waterings. That’s the biggest mistake people make. They think splashing a little water on the beans will make them happy, just as a wake-up splash refreshes us. The reverse is true for plants. Water beans deeply but gently to a depth of four to six inches. Thorough soaking encourages the roots to seek water deep in the soil. With a deep root system, the plants can survive hot, dry weather a lot better.

2) Don’t water by the calendar, but rather when the plants need it. Check the appearance of the plants, the condition of the soil on the surface and the condition four to five inches down. Plants will often look wilted on a hot afternoon – that’s okay; they’ll probably perk up overnight. If the plants look wilted in the morning, they need watering.

3) A good mulch will save water, protect the soil from the sun’s scorching heat, keep the root area of the plants cooler and reduce evaporation.

4) Water early in the day if you sprinkle or hose from above. That allows plenty of time for the leaves to dry. If the leaves are wet overnight, diseases can quickly invade the plants.

5) With furrow irrigation, drip irrigation or soaker hoses, which all deliver water at the soil surface and not on the leaves, you can water in the late afternoon, evening or even at night.

6) Try to avoid watering during the middle of the day because evaporation losses are usually highest then.

7) Don’t overwater. The soil, while anchoring the plant, also acts like a sponge. It can only hold so much water. Learn the water-holding capacity of your soil, so you don’t waste precious water or smother the roots of your plants.

However, if you haven’t had rain for a week or two, water. Where it’s hotter, you may have to water more often than that if you don’t have rain. After a while you’ll get so you know just by looking at your plants whether your garden needs water or not.

Fertilizing Basics

As mentioned earlier, beans are “light feeders.” They don’t require much fertilizer. It’s easy to give them just about all the nutrients they’ll need by mixing a light dose of fertilizer into the top two to three inches of soil on planting day or the day before. Three to four pounds of commercial fertilizer such as 5-10-10 per 100 square feet is sufficient for most garden soils, or use the equivalent amount of nonchemical fertilizers, such as well-rotted manure, compost, bonemeal and cottonseed meal.

Fertilizing by the Numbers

The numbers on the fertilizer bags indicate by weight what percentages of each of the three most important nutrients – nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) – are present in the mixture. Although the percentages may vary, the order is always the same: N, P and K. For instance, 5-10-10, which is good for beans, indicates the fertilizer contains 5% nitrogen, 10% phosphorus and 10% potassium. Nitrogen promotes healthy green leaves and stems, and you don’t need much of it for beans. If you have too much, the plant will spend more time making leaves and less time making beans. Phosphorus promotes strong roots and potassium conditions the whole plant, helping it to bear fruit and resist disease.

Fertilizer for Pole Beans

green beans image by cherie from

Pole beans grow up poles or trellises. They grow best in loose soil that drains well, and although they can grow in soils with pH levels ranging from 5.5 to 6.5, they prefer soils in the 5.8 to 6.0 range. There are a number of varieties of pole beans, including Dade, Kentucky blue and Romano, as well as some unusual heirloom varieties. Fertilizing your pole beans will help the vines grow stronger and help you produce a stronger crop of beans.

General Fertilizer Types

Although it is always best to have your soil tested by your county agricultural extension office, if inconvenient, you can use a general-purpose fertilizer. The University of Georgia’s website recommends a 6-12-12 fertilizer as a good all-around fertilizer for pole beans. The first number indicates the percentage of nitrogen in the fertilizer. The second indicates the percentage of phosphorous. The third indicates the percentage of potassium. A 6-12-12 fertilizer has 6 percent nitrogen and 12 percent of both phosphorous and potassium.

Application Rate

The University of Georgia recommends applying 6-12-12 fertilizer at a rate of 600 to 800 pounds per acre. Because most home gardeners are not growing acres of pole beans, this converts to between 2 and 3 ounces per square yard of pole beans.

Application Method

Unless directed by the fertilizer packaging to apply otherwise, make a line of fertilizer down each row of pole beans about 3 inches from the stalks. The row should contain the desired amount of fertilizer. For example, if you are fertilizing a square yard of pole beans, your line of fertilizer should contain between 2 and 3 ounces.

Additional Nitrogen

Additional nitrogen can help your pole beans. The University of Georgia recommends the equivalent of 1/4 ounce of nitrogen per square yard of pole beans. Half of this application should be applied when the beans have gone halfway up the trellis. Apply the other half when the beans are about an inch long.

Organic Fertilizer

The University of Georgia also recommends starting the season by augmenting your soil with organic material, like compost. If you have your soil tested, it might call for the addition of dolomitic lime. The University of Wisconsin lists a number of organic fertilizers that work well with pole beans. The following is a list of fertilizers and their approximate N-P-K levels: Bone meal, 1-14-0; compost, 3.5-1-2; fishmeal, 11-8-3; soybean meal, 7-.5-2. The exact amount of nutrients in organic fertilizer can vary, so check the packaging for analysis if using commercially produced organic fertilizers.

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