Is feverfew a perennial?

Growing Feverfew Herb In The Garden

The feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium) is actually a species of chrysanthemum that has been grown in herb and medicinal gardens for centuries. Read on to learn more about feverfew plants.

About Feverfew Plants

Also known as featherfew, featherfoil, or bachelor’s buttons, the feverfew herb was used in the past to treat a variety of conditions such as headaches, arthritis, and as the name implies, fever. Parthenolide, the active ingredient in the feverfew plant, is being actively developed for pharmaceutical application.

Looking like a small bush that grows to about 20 inches high, the feverfew plant is native to central and southern Europe and grows well over most of the United States. It has small, white, daisy-like flowers with bright yellow centers. Some gardeners claim the leaves are citrus scented. Others say the scent is bitter. All agree that once the feverfew herb takes hold, it can become invasive.

Whether your interest lies in medicinal herbs or simply its decorative qualities, growing feverfew can be a welcome addition to any garden. Many garden centers carry feverfew plants or it can be grown from seed. The trick is knowing how. To grow feverfew from seed you can start indoors or out.

How to Grow Feverfew

Seeds for growing feverfew herb are readily available through catalogs or found in the seed racks of local garden centers. Don’t be confused by its Latin designation, as it is known by both Tanacetum parthenium or Chrysanthemum parthenium. The seeds are very fine and most easily planted in small peat pots filled with damp, loamy soil. Sprinkle a few seeds into the pot and tap the bottom of the pot on the counter to settle the seeds into the soil. Spray water to keep the seeds moist as poured water may dislodge the seeds. When placed in a sunny window or under a grow light, you should see signs of the feverfew seeds germinating in about two weeks. When the plants are about 3 inches tall, plant them, pot and all, into a sunny garden spot and water regularly until the roots take hold.

If you decide on growing feverfew directly in the garden, the process is much the same. Sow the seed in early spring while the ground is still cool. Sprinkle the seeds on top of the soil and lightly tamp to make sure they make full contact. Don’t cover the seeds, as they need sunlight to germinate. As with the indoor seeds, water by misting so you don’t wash the seeds away. Your feverfew herb should sprout in about 14 days. When the plants are 3 to 5 inches, thin to 15 inches apart.

If you choose to grow your feverfew plant somewhere other than an herb garden, the only requirement is that the spot be sunny. They grow best in loamy soil, but aren’t fussy. Indoors, they tend to get leggy, but they flourish in outdoor containers. Feverfew is a perennial, so cut it back to the ground after frost and watch for it to regrow in the spring. It re-seeds fairly easily, so you might find yourself giving away new plants within a couple of years. The feverfew herb blooms between July and October.

Everything You Need to Know About Feverfew

**Feverfew (Tanecetum parthenium) is my favorite medicinal herb for headaches (here’s my top 15 herbs for headaches). Not only do I grow Feverfew for medicinal purposes, it is a stunningly beautiful perennial with little white daisy-type flowers and lovely green leaves.

**Feverfew is super easy to grow in your flower garden or herb garden. It can be grown in containers and remains evergreen in the winter and is quite frost hardy.

**I’m going to try my hardest to persuade you to use Feverfew in your household and I also want to persuade you to grow your own Feverfew too.

Medicinal Uses of Feverfew:

**Feverfew is a fantastic medicinal tool for your home. Here is a list of medicinal uses of Feverfew:

Feverfew is an excellent and famous remedy for migraines and headaches.

  • It is believed that if you eat some Feverfew leaves everyday, you can reduce your chance of getting migraines. However, the leaves can produce canker sores, so some people will eat 3-5 Feverfew leaves between buttered bread daily to get the benefits of feverfew without the canker sores.
  • Instead of eating the leaves, you can also make an herbal tea for relieving your headache/migraine. Here are a few great headache tea combinations. Here is a list of 15 herbs for headaches, so you can make your own herbal tea combination.
  • My favorite way to use Feverfew for headaches/migraines is in tincture-form. Tinctures are fairly easy to make. Check out how I made my Hawthorn tincture and simply use Feverfew leaves instead of Hawthorns in the tincture recipe.

Feverfew can bring relief from arthritis and/or joint pain.

  • Feverfew has similar medicinal abilities like aspirin, and its’ anti-inflammatory properties can help ease the pain of sore muscles, joint pain, and/or arthritis. One of the best ways to use Feverfew for joints and muscles is in a homemade herbal salve in combination with other inflammation herbs. Click here to learn more about how to make a salve. Here’s a great list of other herbs that might help with joint pain.

Feverfew can be used for stress reduction and to get a restful sleep.

  • Consider making an herbal tea with Feverfew and Borage to combat stress, or add Feverfew to this Nervous Insomnia Herbal Tea recipe.

How to Grow Feverfew:

**When using Feverfew as a medicinal herb, you use the leaves, either fresh or dried, for your herbal tea, tinctures, salves, etc. It is best to use the fresh leaves whenever possible, because it loses some medicinal benefits when the leaves are dried.

**You can dry the Feverfew flowers and add them to a DIY potpourri for some color.

Position:

**Feverfew does best in full sun.

**Make sure you give your Feverfew plant good soil with great drainage and regular watering.

Propagation:

**You can propagate Feverfew by seed quite easily. You can do cold stratification 1 week before sowing for best results, however, I have never had a problem growing Feverfew from seeds that I start indoors in peat pots (like these).

**Feverfew can also be propagated by cuttings and by root division.

**It also self-seeds regularly, so you can just let your Feverfew spread that way, too, as long as you aren’t too much of a planner person in your herb garden (yeah, I would go crazy if I let my Feverfew self-seed!).

Maintenance:

**If you planted your Feverfew in too much shade, you probably won’t see any flowers.

**If planted in full sun, after your Feverfew is finished flowering, make sure to cut back the tall flowering stalks.

**You might have some problems with aphids, so make sure to look for signs of aphid activity near your plant.

Harvesting:

**You can harvest Feverfew leaves at any time. Just make sure not to take too many leaves from one plant since that can stress your Feverfew plant.

So, how did I do? Are you going to grow Feverfew?

**If you are still not interested in growing feverfew, but you are interested in the medicinal benefits, you could always buy dried Feverfew or a Feverfew extract from a good-quality company like Mountain Rose Herbs. They have some amazing products!

**Consider learning more about Feverfew, other medicinal herbs, how to make tinctures/salves/etc., from Rosemary Gladstar in her book ‘Rosemary Gladstar’s Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health‘. This has to be my favorite book of all time!

**I am no doctor. Feverfew has some warnings attached dealing with pregnant women and those with bleeding disorders. Please read more about Feverfew from other sources, like the ones that I mention in my Reference section.

**I would love to know if you are growing Feverfew! Please feel free to comment in the comment section below about your herb garden. 🙂 Hearing about fellow herb gardens makes my heart happy!

TANACETUM PARTHENIUM

To many in the herbal medicine community, feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is known as a natural headache remedy. But in the gardening community, this shrubby herb is appreciated as an attractive landscape plant.

Masses of one-inch, white, daisy-like flowers with large yellow centers rise on spindly stems above parsley-like leaves.

Feverfew, which you might also see referred to as Matricaria parthenoides, Chrysanthemum parthenium, featherfew, febrifuge plant, featherfoil, mid-summer daisy, flirtwort, or wild chamomile, grows anywhere from eight to 24 inches tall, with a width of about the same range.

Let’s learn more!

It Depends on Where You Plant It

While native to southeastern Europe, T. parthenium is now widespread throughout Europe, Australia, and North America, where it grows in zones 5-10.

This member of the aster family behaves like an annual in cooler zones, a perennial in some areas, and can be evergreen in the South.

Though it looks similar, it’s not to be confused with true chamomile, which you can read more about here.

In Lieu of Aspirin

Though its name may suggest an ability to lower body temperature, feverfew is instead mainly relied upon medicinally to treat and prevent headaches. It has also been used to treat arthritis and digestive problems.

All parts of the plant that grow above ground may be used in medicines, but most commercial products use the leaves.

Numerous studies assessing the effectiveness of feverfew as headache treatment have been conducted, and a study from H.C. Diener et. al. found that incidents of migraine headaches were reduced in patients who ingested feverfew extract.

Scientists are still working to identify the substance in the plant that offers the beneficial effects.

Which to Choose and Where to Buy?

To find seeds for T. parthenium ‘common,’ check out Helens Garden via Amazon.

Feverfew Seeds

‘White wonder’ is another attractive variety to try. It displays clusters of white half-inch double blooms, and is available from Renee’s Garden Seeds via Amazon.

‘White Wonder’ Feverfew Seeds

If you’re looking for something more exotic, check out ‘White stars,’ an attractive cultivar with pale yellow centers surrounded by haphazard, long, slim petals with hooked ends.

White Stars Feverfew Seeds

You can purchase seeds from Frozen Seeds Capsules through Amazon.

Bee Repellent

Interestingly, this plant has a strong citrus-like aroma that repels bees, so don’t place T. parthenium near plants that rely on bees for pollination. Feverfew can self-pollinate and doesn’t require help from pollinators.

Plant it in full sun, or in an area that gets a bit of light shade.

Well-drained sandy or loamy soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.7 is perfect for these plants.

You can start seeds indoors in late winter, or direct sow in your garden after all danger of frost has passed. Expect germination to take 10 to 14 days.

You can also transplant seedlings from a garden center or divide existing plants.

Feverfew reseeds quite liberally and can even be considered invasive, so keep an eye out for an abundance of emerging seedlings.

Apply a light, balanced fertilizer each spring, and keep roots moist throughout the year. This plant won’t tolerate dry conditions.

Deadhead spent blossoms or cut still-vibrant flowers for arrangements to keep up production of blooms. Deadheading also helps to prevent excessive self-seeding.

Getting the Blues from the Yellows

This white and yellow beauty is relatively disease free, but may be plagued by aphids or aster yellows.

Bayer Insecticidal Soap

For aphids, try insecticidal soap, such as this one from Bayer Advanced via Amazon.

The only cure for aster yellows is prevention. Use diatomaceous earth or insecticidal soap to kill the bugs that spread this bacterial disease.

Aster yellows-infected plants must be pulled up and discarded.

Cures a Headache and a Dreary Garden

Whether you have a headache or just want to fill an empty spot in your landscape, cheerful feverfew is a plant worth considering.

Remember its bee-repelling properties, though, when you plant it! You don’t want to rob neighboring plants of their much-needed pollinators.

Have you grown this plant? Are you now considering it? Tell us all about it in the comments section below.

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Product photos via Helens Garden, Renee’s Garden Seeds, Frozen Seeds Capsules and Bayer Advanced. Uncredited photos: .

The staff at Gardener’s Path are not medical professionals and this article should not be construed as medical advice intended to assess, diagnose, prescribe, or promise cure. Gardener’s Path and Ask the Experts, LLC assume no liability for the use or misuse of the material presented above. Always consult with a medical professional before changing your diet or using plant-based remedies or supplements for health and wellness.

About Gretchen Heber

A former garden editor for a daily newspaper in Austin, Texas, Gretchen Heber goes through entirely too many pruners and garden gloves in a year’s time. She’s never met a succulent she didn’t like and gets really irritated every 3-4 years when Austin actually has a freeze cold enough to kill them. To Gretchen, nothing is more rewarding than a quick dash to the garden to pluck herbs to season the evening meal. And it’s definitely time for a happy dance when she’s able to beat the squirrels to the peaches, figs, or loquats.

Matricaria (Feverfew) – Key Growing Information

DAYS TO GERMINATION: 10-14 days at 70°F (21°C)
SOWING: Transplant (recommended) – Sow 5-7 weeks before transplanting in either spring or fall. Gently press the seeds into growing medium, but do not cover as light aids germination. Bottom water or mist to avoid covering the seed with displaced soil. Transplant to cell packs or 3-4″ pots 2-4 weeks after sowing. Harden off before transplanting. Feverfew is a tender, or short-lived, perennial in zones 5-9. Fall Planting: To achieve longer stems and earlier blooms, we recommend fall planting (outdoors or in high tunnels). By overwintering young plants inside a high tunnel for spring harvest, you can attain very tall (up to 48″) and abundant stems. Transplant 3-4 weeks before first frost. Spring Planting: For optimal stem and flower quality, treat spring-planted feverfew as an annual. Transplanting inside high tunnels very early in the spring will yield long stems and abundant blooms. Row covers can also be used to protect early plantings during cold spells. Transplant into high tunnels once indoor temperatures are above freezing. Direct seed – As soon as soil can be worked. Gently press the seeds into the soil, but do not cover as light aids germination. Keep soil surface moist until germination. Thin when seedlings have the first true leaves.

LIGHT PREFERENCE: Sun. Feverfew is a long-day plant, meaning flowering is generally initiated during the longest days of the season. Plants will eventually bloom under short-day conditions but on shorter stems.
PLANT HEIGHT: 28-36″.
PLANT SPACING: 8-12″.
HARDINESS ZONES: Zones 5-9. Treat spring-planted feverfew as an annual for the best plant habit and flower production.
HARVEST: Fresh: When flower cluster is 3/4 open. Dried: harvest when flower cluster is almost fully open.
SOIL REQUIREMENTS: Light, well-drained, moist, fertile soil. 6.0-7.2 pH preferred.
USES: Excellent cut and dried flower. Beds, borders, and containers.
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tanacetum parthenium

Growing Feverfew

Why is growing feverfew a valuable addition to your garden? This lovely plant has earned its name for its ability to ease fever and its tonic affect on the immune system. Better still, it’s easy to grow. Once you get it started, it’s a low-maintenance plant and well worth the growing space.

Not only has this perennial been popular for years to reduce the ill effects of fever, recent studies have also shown it as highly effective in preventing and easing the symptoms of migraines.

So be sure to reserve a space in your self-reliant garden for some feverfew. You’ll be glad you did. Here are eight reasons you should be growing feverfew in your homestead garden.

1. It Eases Fever

Just as its name says, drinking an infusion of feverfew will help ease the discomfort of fever.

By the way, making an infusion is exactly the same as making a cup of tea. Place about a teaspoon of the dried herb in a cup and cover it with hot water. Allow it to steep for at least ten minutes and sweeten it with honey.

2. It Eases Nervousness

Are you feeling edgy? Make and drink an infusion of feverfew to help ease nerves.

3. Great For Tummy Troubles

Feverfew works like a laxative to ease constipation. Are you suffering from flatulence? Drinking a feverfew infusion will help with that as well, along with easing gas pains.

Feverfew will also ease symptoms of nausea and vomiting as well as stimulate the appetite.

4. It Helps With Menstrual Troubles

Drinking an infusion of feverfew will stimulate blood flow, especially to the pelvic area and uterus and has been used to stimulate menstruation, which is exactly why you should not drink feverfew if you are pregnant.

But in all other cases it is fine and will also help to ease menstrual cramps.

5. It Can Be Used For Pain

Feverfew is a mild analgesic and can relieve both headaches and earaches.

6. Useful For Easing Coughs

Drinking a feverfew infusion will also help ease a cough, as well as help with wheezing and difficult breathing.

7. A Natural Insect Repellent

Make a feverfew tincture by filling a small glass jar with enough fresh feverfew to fill it completely. Cover it with vodka, and then take a butter knife and gently stir around the edges of the jar to clear out any glass bubbles. Close the jar with a lid and store it in a cool, dark place for about three weeks, shaking it twice a day.

Mix two teaspoonsful of this feverfew tincture with 1/2 pint of cold water to make a natural insect repellent.

8. Ease the Pain of Insect Bites

The tincture doesn’t just keep insects away, but is also healing. Apply your tincture to insect bites to relieve pain and swelling.

Tips on Growing Feverfew

The herb Feverfew will grow in any type of soil, but prefers good drainage. It is a low-maintenance plant once it gets growing. Sow seeds directly into the soil in the spring and then thin to 2 to 3 inches apart.
Weed by hand, as the plants could be injured by hoeing.

When harvesting feverfew, use the bark, dried flowers and leaves.

A Word of Caution…

I’ve already mentioned this, but I’m saying it again: Do not take Feverfew if you are pregnant as it may cause a miscarriage.
Also, people were once encouraged to chew the leaves of Feverfew to ease symptoms, but doing so could cause mouth sores. So just make an infusion instead.

Learn More About Medicinal Herbs

Learn About Self-Reliant Healing

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Learn how to grow feverfew. Growing feverfew plant is relatively easy. It is a useful medicinal herb, plus it embellishes itself with beautiful yellow-white flowers.

USDA Zones — 5 – 10

Difficulty — Easy

Other Names — Featherfew, Fever few, Febrifuge plant, Featherfoil, Mid-summer daisy and wild chamomile .

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) belong to the Asteraceae family (family of chrysanthemums). This plant is also called “false chamomile”. It is native to the Eastern Mediterranean. From there it was brought to Central and Western Europe a long time ago, where it was grown in gardens as a medicinal and ornamental plant.

In temperate areas, the feverfew is a short living perennial. Where the winters are harder, growing feverfew is possible as an annual plant. It is a low maintenance plant that loves to grow in typically variety of soil types and therefore frequently occurs as a garden weed.

Feverfew Uses

Feverfew is used to treat a wide range of health problems, such as fever, cold, rheumatism and cramps. It is also widely used to treat migraines. The flowers, stems and leaves are harvested for medicinal purposes. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone is considered the main biological active ingredient found in feverfew.

Propagation and Planting Feverfew

It can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and division.

To propagate it from seeds, since they are somewhat rare if you don’t find them locally, buy online. Sow them indoors in early spring in a seed tray using well draining starting mix. Scatter the seeds over the surface of soil and lightly tamp them. Cover the tray with plastic sheet or put in a plastic bag and keep that in a bright spot.

If you want to sow seeds directly on the ground wait until the temperature warms up around 60 F (15 C) and last frost date passes away in the spring. Keep the soil evenly moist until the germination. Germination occurs within one or two weeks after seed sowing.

To know more about feverfew propagation, read this article.

Requirements for Growing Feverfew

Location

Often this herb settles down by itself in the garden and is regarded by many gardeners wrongly as a weed. Ideal location to grow feverfew is full to partially sunny spot. Growing feverfew in pots, railing planters and window boxes is possible too, you can easily cultivate it on your balcony garden, just be careful not to keep it on windy spot.

Watering

Feverfew plants prefer soil which never dry out completely. Regular watering is important but overwatering can lead it to death, care in watering is required in cold weather conditions, in winter.

Soil

This undemanding plant grows in all soil types except heavy clay rich soil. Best to plant it in nutrient-rich, well drained and loose soil.

Feverfew Plant Care

Fertilizer

Growing feverfew doesn’t require fertilizer, if soil is rich in organic matter. However, you can apply a fertilizer you use for other flowers monthly.

Overwinter

Feverfew plants are grown as perennial and annual. Annual varieties die off in the winter and then germinate again in the spring. Feverfews are sensitive to extreme cold and need special care in winter time.

Mulching

Do protect mulching to protect the plant from severe cold in winters. Mulching also helps in summers in conserving moisture.

Pruning

Deadhead the faded flowers and slightly prune off the plant after the first flowering. Pruning stimulates the growth of new flowers. Prune long, leggy and diseased branches with discolored leaves. You can prune off the plant up to about one-third of its size.

Pests and diseases

While growing feverfew plants, gardeners sometimes face problems due to wrong planting site and permanent waterlogging in soil. In pests and diseases, care feverfew plant from slugs, powdery mildew, spider mites and aphids. To prevent the pests, colonize geraniums, garlics or cress as companion plants.

Harvesting

Harvest leaves anytime and flowers while plant is in bloom. Feverfew is best harvested at the beginning of flowering. Harvested feverfew should be dried out quickly. Don’t store and use this dried herb longer than 120 days to obtain full effect.

Feverfew From Seed.

Feverfew Seeds

When I was a nipper my Great Granny Higgledy would tell me that Feverfew was actually a chrysanthemum and that it had been used in her family for centuries to cure arthritis and headaches…but then again she smoked a long clay pipe which she filled from a plant in the greenhouse and would sway about the Higgledy Garden humming Bob Marley tunes…

How To Grow Feverfew From Seed.

Feverfew Flowers

*I start some in pots in early spring…on a windowsill or in the greenhouse. Early spring being March in my book.

*I sow in pots of loamy soil…sprinkle a few of the dinky seeds onto the surface of the soil and tap the bottom to settle the seeds…use a fine mist spray to water them…pouring may dislodge the seeds. Don’t cover the seeds with soil as they need light to germinate.

*Keep the pot somewhere sunny…like a greenhouse or window sill.

*You should see some groovy germination action in about two weeks.

Feverfew Plant (second year)

*Don’t put them out until they are fairly tall…like about 15cm+

*If you fancy you can outside directly where you want them, do this in mid spring. Beginning of April is good I find

*Plant or thin out the seedlings to around 15 inches apart.

*Make sure you sow/plant them in a sunny spot.

*She is not keen on consistently damp soil.

So there you have it. I shall be growing some from seed the spring and will keep you posted.

I sell feverfew ‘Jackpot’ for £1.95 a packet.

Kind regards

Benjamin

Luontoportti

Feverfew

Tanacetum parthenium

  • Family: Daisy Family – Compositae, subfamily Asteroideae
    (formerly Aster Family – Asteraceae)
  • Growing form: Perennial herb.
  • Height: 10–50 cm (4–20 in.). Stem often branched from base, grooved. Powerful herb-like scent.
  • Flower: Flowers form approx. 1.5 cm (0.6 in.) wide, single flower-like capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Capitulum ray-florets white, tongue-like; disk florets yellowish, tubular or sometimes like ray-florets. Stamens 5. Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Involucral bracts in 3 rows, finely haired, green. Capitula 2–35 borne in a corymbose cluster.
  • Leaves: Alternate, stalked–stalkless. Blade oval–ovate, usually pinnately lobed, finely haired, opaque–lime green, lobes toothed, with rounded tip.
  • Fruit: Ridged achene crowned by a low membranous ring.
  • Habitat: Lawns, yards, roadsides, waste ground, rubbish tips. Ornamental, left over from old gardens and an escape.
  • Flowering time: July–October.

Feverfew is a somewhat rarely cultivated perennial in Finland. The variety that lacks ray-florets is easily recognised as a relative of our native common tansy (T. vulgare), but its capitula’s whiter ray-florets bring to mind the oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare). The genus markers have changed many times and in many ways, and have only been systematised very recently. Defining the genera is difficult, if not impossible, and is highly dependent on which features different researchers emphasise. The arbitrariness seems to only increase the fact that the species are defined with the help of markers on the achene that are invisible to the naked eye, or sometimes by chromosomes, similar development, and the chemical similarities of the plants.

Feverfew is grown in gardens as an undemanding, abundantly-flowering annual. Apart from the natural form, there are also varieties with compound racemes. Plant breeders have brought attention to the plant’s leaves, of which a lime green variety has been bred. Feverfew is also used as a cut flower as it lasts well, as it does as a dried flower too. Feverfew thrives best in dryish places, and it occasionally thrives so well in southern Finland that it has escaped into the wild, especially in the Åland Islands, south-west Finland and in the Uusimaa province on the south coast, but long-lasting stands have been observed as far north as Tampere. As a casual plant feverfew has been observed in the north too, at least as far as Kajaani.

Other species from the same genus
Other species from the same family

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Feverfew flowers

Feverfew flowers

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Feverfew

Feverfew

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Height: 18 inches

Spacing: 8 inches

Sunlight:

Hardiness Zone: 3a

Ornamental Features

Feverfew has masses of beautiful yellow daisy flowers at the ends of the stems from early summer to late fall, which are most effective when planted in groupings. The flowers are excellent for cutting. Its deeply cut ferny pinnately compound leaves remain dark green in colour throughout the season. The fruit is not ornamentally significant.

Landscape Attributes

Feverfew is an herbaceous perennial with a mounded form. It brings an extremely fine and delicate texture to the garden composition and should be used to full effect.

This plant will require occasional maintenance and upkeep, and should be cut back in late fall in preparation for winter. It is a good choice for attracting butterflies to your yard, but is not particularly attractive to deer who tend to leave it alone in favor of tastier treats. Gardeners should be aware of the following characteristic(s) that may warrant special consideration;

  • Self-Seeding

Feverfew is recommended for the following landscape applications;

  • Mass Planting
  • General Garden Use
  • Herb Gardens

Planting & Growing

Feverfew will grow to be about 15 inches tall at maturity, with a spread of 12 inches. When grown in masses or used as a bedding plant, individual plants should be spaced approximately 8 inches apart. It grows at a fast rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for approximately 3 years.

This plant should only be grown in full sunlight. It prefers to grow in average to moist conditions, and shouldn’t be allowed to dry out. It is not particular as to soil type or pH. It is highly tolerant of urban pollution and will even thrive in inner city environments. Consider applying a thick mulch around the root zone in winter to protect it in exposed locations or colder microclimates. This species is not originally from North America.

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