- Growing Rosellas
- Roselle Plant Care – How To Grow Roselle Plants In The Garden
- Roselle Plant Care
- How to Grow Roselle Plants
- Your comments and tips
- Planting and Care
- Sidebar: Florida Cracker
- Red Thai Roselle Hibiscus Tea: Growing Your Own
- Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)
By Penny Ossowski
This is a plant that you can grow anywhere in your garden, with its distinctive red stems, attractive light yellow flowers with deep red centres and open structure it is equally at home in the veggie patch, the ornamental garden or even in a pot and add to this that it can feed us as well, now is the time to add a couple to your garden.
The rosella, Hibiscus sabdarilla, is a member of the Malvaceae family of plants. Other well known members of this family include the ornamental hibiscus, cotton, cacao and okra. It is native to India and Malaysia but long ago was naturalised by many other tropical and sub tropical countries including Australia. Because of its popularity the rosella has many names some include roselle, Jamaican Tea, Maple-Leaf Hibiscus, Florida Cranberry, October Hibiscus, Red Sorrel and the list goes on. There are over 100 varieties of Hibiscus sabdarifla throughout the world. Not all varieties have red calyxes and not all calyxes are fleshy. Different varieties are grown for different purposes. In India a variety of rosella is cultivated for the bast fibre obtained from the stems, these fibre strands can be up to 1.5m long, are used to make yarn which is used in Hessian type fabrics, but primarily throughout the world the rosella is cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes.
Rosellas will grow in almost any type of soil but do best in a well drained soil prepared with lots of organic matter and in full sun. They ideally need 5 or 6 months of
warm weather to produce to their full potential, making South East Queensland the ideal place to grow them. In cooler areas, plant as early as possible so they fruit early as frost will kill them. The rosella is a perennial but for optimum harvests it is grown as an annual. While usually grown from seed they can be grown from cuttings. Seeds can be planted directly into the garden or into seed trays, about 1/2 cm deep (seed trays in a warm protected position will give an earlier start to plants in cooler regions). It can help to soak seeds for about an hour before planting then water in with a mixture of 1 teas. Epsom Salts to five litres of water. Keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate. This is the time of the year to plant some rosella seeds. Plant out seedlings about 90cm apart when they have at least 4 leaves. Put in a Iittle blood and bone, soil conditioner or vermicast into the hole when you transplant them then water in with some Seaweed Spray. I usually give them a good watering with seaweed spray or fish emulsion a day or two before I transplant them.
The bushes should flower about 7 or 8 week after germinating, then it takes about another 3 or 4 weeks until the calyxes are ready to harvest. Water plants regularly until they start to flower then water only if necessary. Mature plants are fairly drought resistant. But if leaves droop give them a drink. The rosella bush will grow to between one and two meters tall. If you plant your seed early spring it is possible you can be harvesting in January or February. As the plant grows young shoots and leaves can be used both raw in salads or cooked like a spicy spinach in curries, stir fries or just as a green vegetable. Technically the calyxes are not a fruit but part of the flower and the seed pod inside should still be green when harvested. The most common and popular use for these tasty calyxes is to make Rosella Jam but they make a delicious tea, stew well for us in puddings, in jellies, heavenly liqueurs and syrups, cranberry like sauces and raw in salads. For use in teas it is usually better to dry the calyxes (they can easily be dried on a piece of old roofing iron) for later use but when collecting them for jams, jellies etc. clean them as they are harvested, dry then freeze them. In the West Indies the rosella calyxes are often made into cordials and punches as follows: pour hot water over about a kilo of dried Rosella with about one fresh grated ginger root added. Leave this to steep overnight. Strain off the exquisite pink liquid the next day and add sugar syrup (sugar and water heated) to taste, lime juice and crushed ice. White Rum can also be added for a famous medicinal rum punch. Each plant can produce up to 2 kg of calyxes. Pick them regularly and this will encourage more flowers and therefore more calyxes. In some African countries the seeds, although bitter, are ground and used like coffee or as a coarse powdered meal. Tea can be made with both the flowers and calyxes. Make an easy refreshing tea with calyxes, ginger and sugar.
Always save some seeds for next year’s plants. From your early fruits select some good looking ones that can be allowed to mature for seed collection. I mark mine by tying a coloured ribbon on their stem so they are not accidentally harvested. When the seed pods inside are dry remove the calyxes (the calyxes can be used for eating cooking), open the pods to collect seeds. These seeds should remain viable for two or three years. I store mine in an airtight container in the bottom of the down stairs fridge.
The rosella bush has few pest and disease problems. Occasionally mealy bug and scale insects may be found on stems, caterpillars and beetles may eat leaves or calyxes and at times aphids can take up residence inside the calyx. Most of these problems can be solved with a soap spray or a molasses spray. If you have root node nematodes these can affect the rosella. Hibiscus beetles can sometimes be a problem. If they are they can be controlled by placing white ice cream containers with detergent and water among the plants, empty and replace with fresh water and detergent when necessary.
In many countries of the world all above ground parts of the rosella bush are used in traditional medicine.
Some of these include
- Infusions of the leaves or calyxes can be used for lowering blood pressure, as an antibacterial, as a remedy for the after effects of drunkenness
- It has been used as an antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic.
- In East Africa, the calyx infusion, called “Sudan tea”, is taken to relieve coughs and Roselle juice, with salt, pepper, asafetida and molasses, is taken as a remedy for biliousness.
- In Thailand, drunk as a tea, believed to also reduce cholesterol.
- Many Egyptians now use it to lower their blood pressure; an idea may be taken from folk medicine.
- The heated leaves are applied to cracks in the feet and on boils and ulcers to speed maturation.
- A lotion made from leaves is used on sores and wounds.
- The seeds are said to be diuretic and tonic in action and the brownish-yellow seed oil is claimed to heal sores on camels.
- Philippines use the bitter root as an aperitif and tonic.
- In folklore it is used as a remedy for abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and strangury.
Researchers now are doing studies to see if Rosella is indeed active in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Click the seed variety name for more information.
- Strip calyxes from Rosellas and rinse
- Put seeds in large pot, cover with water, bring to boil and boil for 1 hour, strain in muslin and squeeze very tightly (get all the gel liquid out of them), discard the seeds
- Add drained calyxes to liquid from seeds, bring to boil and boil for 1 hour
- Measure pulp (with liquid) and add sugar weight for weight (or cup for cup)
- Bring to boil and boil rapidly for 20 minutes while stirring
- Bottle into jars and seal
(This syrup will keep for at least a year. Once opened, it will keep for months if refrigerated. The syrup is delicious over crepes, fresh fruit, custard, ice cream. To make cordial, a very small quantity of syrup can be added to a glass and filled with water. The syrup can also be added to milk to make delicious drink.)
5 cups sugar 4 cups water 4 cups calyxes, chopped
Heat the sugar and water in a large saucepan until the sugar is completely dissolved. Add the calyxes and brine, bring to boil. Lower the heat and simmer gently until the volume of liquid is reduced a third. Remove from the heat and strain. Bottle the syrup while still hot into clean bottles and seal. The strained calyxes can be eaten as a desert with ice cream or custard.
To buy Australian Rosella seeds you can purchase online through Eden Seeds.
Roselle Plant Care – How To Grow Roselle Plants In The Garden
What is a roselle plant? It’s a tall, tropical, red and green shrub that makes for a colorful garden addition or hedge and tastes an awful lot like cranberries! Keep reading to learn more about how to grow roselle plants.
Roselle Plant Care
Native to tropical Africa, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is common in the tropics worldwide. It can be grown from seed in USDA zones 8-11, and as far north as zone 6 if it’s started indoors and then transplanted outside.
Growing roselle plants from cuttings is another option, though the resulting plants tend not to produce as many flowers, which is what they’re often grown for… sort of. The hibiscus-like flowers are beautiful, but it’s the calyx – the bright
red sheath that opens up to reveal that flower – that is so prized for its flavor.
Harvest the calyces when they’re still tender (about 10 days after the flowers appear). They can be eaten raw in salads, or boiled in water in a ¼ fruit to water ratio and strained to make a delicious and refreshing juice. The leftover pulp can be used to make jams and pies. The flavor is very similar to cranberry, but less bitter.
How to Grow Roselle Plants
Roselle begins producing flowers when the days get shorter. In other words, no matter how early you plant your roselle, you won’t be harvesting your calyces until October at the earliest. Unfortunately, roselle is very frost sensitive, meaning that in temperate zones you may not get calyces at all.
In areas that experience no frost, however, you can plant roselle in May and expect continuous harvest of calyces from October through late February, as the harvest of flowers encourages new growth.
Roselle plant care is relatively easy. Sow your seeds or plant your cuttings in sandy loam that receives full sun and water regularly. Little to no fertilization is necessary.
You should weed around them in the very beginning, but the plants grow vigorously and will shade out weeds on their own soon enough.
Your comments and tips
Post a comment or question Display Newest first | Oldest first, Show comments for Australia | for all countries 02 Nov 19, Jack Naidu (Australia – temperate climate) Do you have Rosella seeds or plants 04 Nov 19, (Australia – sub-tropical climate) This website doesn’t sell any seeds etc. Try a nursery, Bunnings or even facebook- market place. A person is selling seedlings in the Bundaberg area now on marketplace. 06 Oct 19, bernard wilson (Australia – temperate climate) surely to goodness somebody must know the answer as to why rosella plants wilt all of a sudden,It is nice to see all the qustions mentioning the various stages of wilting all of a sudden.this is all very well and good to know that I am not the only one this is happening to.Where are all the answers.Surely their must be some experts with the solution to this problem.Or don’t they want us to know for some unknown reason? Surely some of the commercial growers must know.or do they have access to the cure that the home gardener is banned from using such as fruit fly prevention etc.it is very frustrating not to know the reason why this is happening.i am trying Yates Root Rot prevention at the moment.am I on the right track? 07 Oct 19, anon (Australia – sub-tropical climate) There are no experts on this website I’m sorry to say. I’m just a home gardener trying to help genuine people. I grew parsley a few years ago and about this time of year it just died in the space of a week, very healthy plant to brown in a few days. When I have a problem I go looking on the internet. Ring up your state government agricultural department. Agricultural supply companies. 16 Jun 19, Judy Budgen (Australia – sub-tropical climate) Full grown rosella bushes looking very healthy, and then suddenly wilting and dying for no visable reason. They were just starting to flower and some very starting to set fruit. Any help would be appreciated. 31 May 19, BRUCE CHAPMAN (Australia – temperate climate) When to prune Rozella plants 13 Apr 19, Sandra (Australia – temperate climate) One of my Roselle bushes growing well but no producing flowers or calyxes. Any ideas? 06 Apr 19, R Townsend (Australia – sub-tropical climate) are Rosella plants able to be kept growing for a second season, our crop this year of four plants are around four foot high and seem extremely sturdy and just starting to fruit now.April, if so do they need to be pruned back to ensure a second crop. 24 Mar 19, Ardelle (Australia – sub-tropical climate) One of my rosella is big and tall but no flowers, the others are fruiting well. Does anyone know why? Thanks 14 Aug 18, ron (Australia – sub-tropical climate) When and where to buy Rosella Plants Showing 1 – 10 of 348 comments
Roselle calyces. Photo by Roy Cui (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).
Looking for something a little different for the garden? Why not try roselle? A relative of hibiscus and okra, this plant was once a very popular edible. While not native to the state, it seems that most Florida Cracker homesteads grew it (more on this term).
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is also called Florida cranberry, red sorrel, or Jamaica sorrel, although it is actually native to Central and West Africa and is grown around the world. The part of the plant that is edible are the calyces of the roselle flower which can be used to make a variety of jams, sauces, and teas.
Roselle produces attractive foliage and flowers and will reach a height of about 7 feet. Many parts of the plant, including the seeds, leaves, fruits, and roots, are used medicinally or in foods. The leaves are lobed and reddish-green and can be used as a cooked green or added raw for a nice “zing” to a salad. Appearing in October, the flowers are typically yellow with a dark center and about 3 inches wide. The part of the plant most popular however, is found at the bottom of each flower. This fleshy, bright red cup-like structure contains the plant’s seeds and is called a calyx. The color and tart taste of the calyces makes them a good replacement for cranberries.
In the Caribbean, roselle is used to make a festive Christmas drink. Bakers can substitute roselle for rhubarb when making a fruit crisp or pie. The seeds, which are high in protein, can be roasted and brewed like coffee, or ground and added to soups and salads. The nutrient-rich calyces can either be stored frozen or dried for making cordials, punches, and jams. The calyces can also be used to add color and flavor to herb teas. Be sure to harvest calyces before they turn brown on the plant and separate them from the seeds before using them in recipes.
Planting and Care
Roselle is started from seed or cuttings and typically planted outdoors in April or May. The variety ‘Victor’ has proven to be a good choice for gardeners in South Florida. Early pruning will increase branching and the development of more flowering shoots.
Plants begin to bloom as the days shorten (in 4-5 months) and the calyces are ready for harvest in October or November. Calyces should be harvested when they are tender and plump; they will stay fresh for about a week after picking. Harvesting encourages more flower buds to develop. You won’t have to plant a lot of roselle to get a good harvest; one plant will give you many fruits—as much as 12 pounds with the right care.
Roselle does best in well-drained soil and appreciates watering when rainfall is inadequate. Be aware that this plant does not do well in the shade and needs plenty of sunlight to thrive. Roselle can also be planted in Florida in August. It is only hardy in zones 9-10, and is damaged by frosts or freezes; plan your harvest before temperatures drop below 40° F. Root-knot nematodes are the major pest you will have to deal with when growing roselle, so be sure to practice crop rotation to reduce nematode problems.
Since roselle grows as an annual, be sure to save seeds from one season to the next. It is an heirloom plant that is passed from gardener to gardener. You can also look for plants in the spring and summer at your local farmers market.
For more information on roselle, contact your county Extension office.
- Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Elsewhere on the Web
- Cooking with Roselle (from Production of Roselle by James H. Beattie, UNT Digital Library)
Sidebar: Florida Cracker
“Cracker Cowboy” illustration by Frederick Remington
Unfamiliar with the term “Florida Cracker”? The Cracker Cowboys of Florida were colonial-era settlers, often of Scots-Irish descent. The term Cracker in Florida usage relates to the whip these “cow hunters” used to herd cattle in Central Florida.
To learn more, we recommend A Land Remembered by Patrick D. Smith. The story of three generations of a pioneer family in Florida, A Land Remembered was winner of the Florida Historical Society’s Tebeau Prize as the Most Outstanding Florida Historical Novel.
Red Thai Roselle Hibiscus Tea: Growing Your Own
Purchase Red Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Jamacian Sorrel – 50+ Rare Organic Heirloom Seeds in a Glass Vial with Silica Beads and Organic Cotton For Excellent Long Term Storage
In August 2011, I was on a tour of the gardens at Acorn Community, home of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, when we came upon the hibiscus plants—specifically Thai Red Roselle. This was entirely new to me and the Acorn residents were visibly excited about it. Well, you know how it is when you see your friends really excited about something. I just had to give it a try. I put it into my 2012 garden plan.
Hibiscus is what puts the color and zing in Red Zinger tea. Hibiscus tea could lower your blood pressure, boost your immune system and supply you with antioxidants. Since it has an effect on your blood pressure, if you are taking medication for that, you might want to check with your doctor before making it a part of your life. The leaves can go into your salads, but I was after tea ingredients—whatever it was that would give me a red, zingy tea.
This plant is a perennial in the tropics and grown as an annual as far north as New Jersey. The variety Thai Red Roselle is the variety you want to grow if you live north of the Sunbelt. It matures earlier, which means more harvest before frost. Even at that, my harvest didn’t begin until late in August. I’ll pay more attention this year and make it a priority to get the transplants in the ground around the time of the last frost, or soon after.
This book by Cindy Conner
When it began to flower, I realized I didn’t know exactly what I should be harvesting. I learned to harvest the calyx, which is the part beneath the flower. When the flower fades, the red calyx grows into a pod that holds a green ball. The seeds that are beginning to develop are in that ball, but I only needed the calyx. The seeds are not yet mature at the point you want to take it for tea. I left some to grow larger and harvested them for the mature seed later. I bought seeds to start from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, but will be planting my saved seeds this year.
Once the harvest began I would check every 3-7 days for something to pick, prepare it at my garden washing station and put the calyx pieces in the solar dryers. After a day or two, when they were dry, I’d bring the trays in and store the dried pieces in a jar. It’s just that easy and it was a good use for the solar dryers in September and early October when my vegetable drying slowed.
Hibiscus should be planted at least three feet apart, but as much as five feet between the plants may increase your yield per plant. They need plenty of sun. I had three plants in 2012 and was really encouraged by my experience. I’m looking at my yard for just the right microclimate to plant them in this year.
You can make hot or cold tea from just your dried Red Thai Roselle or add it to different herbs. It is interesting to make herb mixes for tea. Using spearmint or bee balm as a base, you could add any number of things. Hibiscus is great alone, and its red color and fruity taste is a nice addition to blends. Sometimes I’ll make a jarful of a mix, putting the ingredients in a blender, then storing them in the jar, ready for tea-making.
Lent is approaching—it begins February 13—and as I’ve done the past few years, I’ll be observing Homegrown Fridays. Homegrown Fridays is a personal challenge of mine when, during the Fridays in Lent, I only eat (and drink) what I’ve grown. Water from our well, of course, and salt in the pickle ferment is allowed in my challenge. Although I don’t necessarily do it for religious reasons, Lent is an appropriate time, since it is a time for reflection. Also, doing this in February and March makes it more challenging and fun. I’ve written of my Homegrown Friday experiences in 2011 and 2012. This year Red Thai Roselle tea will be on the menu!
Photos: Cindy Conner/Copyrighted
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)
Two main types of roselle can be found in commerce. Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima is cultivated in India, the East Indies, and other places for its jute-like fiber. Stems are green or red, and leaves are green with red veins. Flowers are yellow with red or green, non-fleshy calyces that are not used for food. H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa race ruber is more frequently grown as an ornamental and for its edible calyces. The topic of this article is the later variety. A red-leaf type is sold as H. sabdariffa var. rubra.
Roselle is an erect, bushy herbaceous subshrub that tops out at anywhere from four to seven feet tall and almost as wide. Stems are typically round and smooth. Alternate, deeply lobed green leaves are usually three to five inches long with reddish veins and toothed margins. When flowers first open, they are light yellow with a rose or maroon eye. As they mature during their one-day life span, they gradually darken to a dusty rose color. Flowers hug the stem, as they are borne in the leaf axils on short petioles. However, the 3- to 5-inch flowers are visually significant as they bloom up the length of the stem during the late summer and early fall months when the days grow shorter.
At the base of each flower is a fleshy, bright red structure called a calyx (sepal). It is this part that is harvested and used to make juices, sauces, jellies, wines, pies, and other tasty edibles. The calyces (or calyxes) are separated from the seeds for use in recipes. If left on the plant, the calyces eventually turn brown and split open to reveal the seeds. The leaves, stems, and calyces are all edible. Their flavor is reminiscent of cranberries, though less bitter.
Plant roselle in a full sun location. Start from seeds planted where they are to grow in Zones 8-11. In colder areas, start seeds indoors and transplant outside after the danger of frost is past. Place transplants at least three feet apart, or thin seedlings to that distance so that plants have plenty of room to grow. New plants are also easily started from cuttings.
Roselle is not particular about soil pH, but it requires a permeable soil. Sandy soil amended with humus is preferred; however, it adapts to a variety of soils. It appreciates frequent watering and is even tolerant of floods and stagnant water. Plant them anywhere an attractive shrub is needed during the summer. Scatter them in a mixed border, or plant in rows to make a dense hedge by midsummer. They also perform well in large containers.
Since it is susceptible to root knot nematodes, roselle should not be planted in the same place every year. A good mulch will help to control the nematode population, conserve water and inhibit weeds.
Begin harvesting the tender calyces about 10 days after the flowers bloom. Pick regularly to keep the plants blooming and producing. Remove the calyces from the seed pods. Most recipes call for 2 quarts of calyces and one quart of water. After boiling and simmering for about 10 minutes, the juice can be strained and used for a variety of recipes. It can be sweetened to make a flavorful drink, or jelly or wine if you prefer. The remaining pulp makes a delicious jam or pie filling.
Dave’s garden members have quite a bit of information to share on this useful plant. Not only are all parts of the plant edible and used in many foods, but they have also been used extensively for medicinal purposes. Its usefulness as an intestinal antiseptic has been touted, as well as its effectiveness in treating arteriosclerosis and other ailments.
The red-leaf hibiscus, H. acetosella, commonly called false roselle or African rose mallow, is sometimes confused with roselle. This hibiscus, an ornamental plant from tropical Africa, bears red stems up to 8 feet tall and is hardy from USDA Zones 7-11. Leaves of newer cultivars are deeply lobed and resemble the leaves of Japanese maples. Typically the leaves are shades of green with red veins, or they range from red to bronze to deep burgundy. While some of them flower, they are almost incidental to the attractive leaves. Many do not flower at all. The seed pod is hairy and not fleshy like roselle. The young leaves are sometimes cooked, usually with rice or vegetables, but the calyces are not eaten. This hibiscus is a short-lived perennial sub-shrub, and several cultivars are available.
Whether you decide to eat your roselle or simply grow it in the garden, it is worth its space for its beauty, ease of care, and the variety that it adds to the landscape. Floral designers, ever vigilant in their search for design materials, have found that the colorful calyces add a touch of class to small designs.
Where to get it? Some Dave’s Garden members may have seeds to trade. Like gardeners everywhere, they’re eager to trade for some plant you have but they don’t. Why not give it a try?
At a Glance
Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa
Pronunciation: hi-BIS-kus sab-duh-RIF-fuh
Common names: roselle, rozelle, sorrel, red sorrel, Jamaica sorrel, Indian sorrel, Guinea sorrel, Queensland jelly plant, jelly okra, lemon bush, Florida cranberry
Origin: Old World Tropics, probably the East Indies
Family: Malvaceae (Mallow)
Hardiness: Short-lived perennial in USDA Zones 10-11; annual elsewhere
THANKS TO FLORIDIAN, ONALEE AND GARDENGUYKIN FOR THEIR PHOTOGRAPHS. (Mouse over images for credits.)
Hibiscus is both a culinary & medicinal herb. It is commonly used to for high blood pressure, liver health & hangovers to name just a few. The bright red calyxes of the hibiscus plant can be used to make “red zinger” tea (tea needs to be boiled to get the deep red color & flavor. Simmer for 10-20 min. or longer.), sauce, syrup & jam (you don’t need to add pectin because hibiscus leaves contain 3 percent pectin.), or candied whole. The leaves can be used fresh in salads. Cut open calyxes & remove the white seed capsule at the base, then rinse prior to use.
To grow hibiscus from seed you must first nick or sand the seeds to get moisture into the seeds in order to improve the germination rate.
In temperate zones, start hibiscus in pots at the same time as you would tomatoes. When seedlings are 3″ – 4″ high, transplant them to a sunny spot in the garden. Hibiscus grows well in soil with a high level of organic matter, but too much nitrogen will delay flowering. Keep plants evenly moist & well-weeded until they are 1 1/2′ – 2′ high. Once this height is reached, mulch the plants to keep weeds at bay for the rest of the season.
Pick young calyxes by hand when still tender or use garden clippers once stems have gotten tough. Pick approx. 10 days after flowers open at the beginning or the end of the day. Harvesting the calyxes early promotes greater yields. Around 6 weeks, the young edible leaves & shoots can be picked.
Fresh calyxes are typically dried or dehydrated prior to storage. You can keep them fresh in the ‘fridge for 4 – 7 days. Leaves & stem tips can be stored in the refrigerator for about a week.
Cut the base of the calyx with a knife & pop out the seed ball. Place the leafy red part in your dehydrator & dry per your dehydrators instructions. You can discard or safe the seed pods. If saving, it is best to dry them separately from the red calyx petals. Dry the seeds per your dehydrators instructions. Once dry, the pods will crack open. You can then shake & dump out the seeds into a light proof saleable container. Keep in a cool dry environment until ready to plant.
Temperature for Germination: 75 – 85°F
Sow Indoors: 4–8 weeks before average last frost.
Direct Sow: After average last frost.
Size: 36″ – 60″
Hardiness: Frost-tender perennial
Sun: Full (needs 13 hours of light to bloom)
Water: Low – Moderate
Plant Spacing: 3′
Seed Planting Depth: 1/4″ – 1/2″
Row Spacing: 5′
Days to Germination: 7 – 14 days
Maturity: 90 – 100 days
Harvest: 90 – 150 days