- How Long Does it Take to Grow a Mango Tree?
- Growing Mango Trees: Information On Planting And Caring For A Mango Tree
- How Do You Grow a Mango Tree?
- Mango Tree Planting
- Growing Mango Trees from Seed
- Caring for a Mango Tree
- How To Grow Mango Tree From Seed Faster
- Step-by-Step Guide For Growing A Mango Tree From A Seed
- How to Grow a Mango Tree from Seed Indoors
- Mango Trees 101: How To Plant (And Care For) Your Very Own
- How to grow, plant and fertilise mangoes
- Best Varieties
- Pests & Diseases
How Long Does it Take to Grow a Mango Tree?
Seed Grown vs. Grafted Mango Trees
The method of propagation defines how many years you will have to wait before you can expect the mango tree to bear fruit. Once they reach the appropriate age, depending on the method of propagation, all mango trees seem to continue to bear yearly crops for about 10 years, then seem to bear heavier crops one year and a lighter crop the next.
Trees Propagated Through Seeds
Mangos are easily propagated through their seeds, though the type of seed defines what type of fruit you can expect. Seed-grown trees take about six years before they begin flowering and bearing their first crop of mangos. The different types of seeds and their characteristics include:
- Polyembyonic Seeds: Trees produce the same quality of fruit as the parent tree. Indochinese mangos produce these type of seeds and you can identify these trees by their fruit. The fruit is elongated and usually green or yellow.
- Monoembyonic Seeds: Trees produce fruit of the same, lower, or a better quality than the parent tree. Indian mangos produce these type of seeds and you can identify these types of trees by their fruit. The mangos are colorful and roundish.
Grafted Mango Trees
Mango trees propagated through grafting have had a section of the parent tree, which has desirable qualities, grafted onto a desirable rootstock, usually one that is hardy and withstands disease. If you look closely at the lower portion of the tree’s trunk, you can see the union where the two sections were grafted together.
You are most likely to find grafted trees at your local nursery, because the quality of the fruit is certain. If you are looking for a mango tree that produces fruit sooner, you’ll want to plant a grafted tree. Grafted mango trees start bearing their first flowers and fruits around three to five years of age.
An Abundant Bounty
Once your mango trees starts flowering and developing fruit, you can expect to harvest your bounty in about four or five months. These are long-lived trees and if grown in proper conditions and given appropriate care, you can expect your tree to live for a hundred years or more.
Once the mango tree reaches 10 to 20 years-old, you can expect to harvest approximately 300 mangos yearly. Double that age and you can double the amount of annual fruits you can expect. It’s not unusual for mango trees to produce 1500 mangos per year. One of the oldest known mango trees, over 100 years-old, produced 29,000 mangos one year.
With a little patience and continued care, before you know it, you’ll be harvesting more of these delectable tropical fruits than you’ll probably know what to do with. Mangos are tasty eaten fresh, used in drinks, salads or used in preserves.
Expert Tip: Always wash the sap off fresh mangos. If not, the sap causes black spotting, which leads to rot. In addition, some people are allergic to the sap, so consider wearing gloves when handling them.
Growing Mango Trees: Information On Planting And Caring For A Mango Tree
The juicy, ripe mango fruit has a rich, tropical aroma and flavor that summons thoughts of sunny climates and sultry breezes. The home gardener in warmer zones can bring that taste out of the garden. However, how do you grow a mango tree?
Mango tree planting is suitable in zones where temperatures do not usually dip below 40 F (4 C.). If you’re lucky enough to live in a tropical to sub-tropical climate, take these tips for mango tree care and enjoy the fruits of your labors in just a few years.
How Do You Grow a Mango Tree?
Mango trees (Mangifera indica) are deep-rooted plants that may become large specimens in the landscape. They are evergreen and generally produced off rootstocks that increase the hardiness of the plants. Mango trees begin fruit production in three years and form fruit quickly.
Choose a variety that is best suited for your zone. The plant can thrive in almost any soil but requires well-drained soil in a site with protection from cold. Position your tree where it will receive full sun for best fruit production.
New mango tree planting is done in late winter to early spring when the plant is not actively growing.
Mango Tree Planting
Prepare the site by digging a hole that is twice as wide and deep as the root ball. Check the drainage by filling the hole with water and watching how fast it drains. Mango trees can survive some periods of flooding, but the healthiest plants are produced where soils percolate well. Plant the young tree with the graft scar just at the soil surface.
You don’t need to prune the young plant but watch for suckers from the graft and prune them off. Young mango tree care must include frequent watering as the plant establishes.
Growing Mango Trees from Seed
Mango trees grow easily from seed. Get a fresh mango pit and slit the hard husk. Remove the seed inside and plant it in seed starter mix in a large pot. Situate the seed with ¼-inch protruding above the soil surface when growing mango trees.
Keep the soil evenly moist and place the pot where temperatures remain at least 70 F. (21 C.). Sprouting may occur as early as eight to 14 days, but may take up to three weeks.
Keep in mind that your new mango tree seedling will not produce fruit for at least six years.
Caring for a Mango Tree
Mango tree care is similar to that of any fruit tree. Water the trees deeply to saturate the long taproot. Allow the top surface of the soil to dry to a depth of several inches before watering again. Withhold irrigation for two months prior to flowering and then resume once fruits begin to produce.
Fertilize the tree with nitrogen fertilizer three times per year. Space the feedings and apply 1 pound per year of tree growth.
Prune when the tree is four years old to remove any weak stems and produce a strong scaffold of branches. Thereafter, prune only to remove broken or diseased plant material.
Caring for mango trees must also include watching for pests and diseases. Deal with these as they occur with organic pesticides, cultural and biological controls or horticultural oils.
Growing mango trees in the home landscape will give you a lifetime of fresh pungent fruit from an attractive shade tree.
How To Grow Mango Tree From Seed Faster
Many people wonder whether a mango tree can be grown from a seed. Yes, it is possible, you can grow a mango tree from its seed, even in a pot. Continuing reading below for detailed step-by-step guide on growing a mango tree starting from a seed. You can grow the mango tree in a pot.
One year old mango tree grown from a seed.
Mangoes can be grown from seeds and grafting. Mango plants from the garden nursery are usually grafted and will fruit within 3-4 years. Mango tree grown from seeds may take longer, 5 years. However mango grown from a polyembryonic variety like Kensington Pride can produce fruits in just 2-3 years!
The seedling mango trees have stronger root system and grows vigorously than the grafted trees. But they do not grow true to the parent mango tree, even if you have planted the seed of a good tasting mango; you will know only when the tree produces fruits.
growing a mango tree from stem cuttings | Mango tree care | Premature falling of mangoes| How to ripen mangoes faster | Mango nutrition facts | Mango maturity guide | Mango seeds that grow mango quickly in 2 to 4 years | How to force mango tree to fruit | Grow Mango Tree From cutting video
Step-by-Step Guide For Growing A Mango Tree From A Seed
Selection of Mango Seed
Growing mangoes from seed is extremely easy. However, the selection of seed is very important. I grew my first mango tree from a seed about 20 years ago, but that did not produce any fruit for the next 12 years. At that time, I was not knowing that the seed should come from a polyembryonic variety.
Mangoes are of mono-embryonic or polyembryonic seed varieties. Mono-embryonic mango type produces one seedling from the seed, and the fruit they produce are not true to the parent type, if grown from the seed so they should be grafted.
If you want to grow a mango tree from a seed that produces fruits in a few years, the seed should come from polyembryonic variety (mango seeds that grows fruits in 2 to 4 years.)
The detailed steps are given below. Whatever seed type you choose to etc. grow, the steps are the same.
- The most important step is the seed selection. Choose only a (polyembroyic mango seed ). Buy a good quality ripe mango from your grocery store and eat it, remove as much flesh as you can.
- Seed Preparation
Clean the seed as soon as possible after its removal from the fruit, otherwise it will lose viability very rapidly and will not germinate. You may wash and dry the seed in shade for a day. Remove the outer hard husk tp take out the embryo. However, I have sown several mango seeds without removing the husk successfully, however it took a bit oonger to germinate.
- The best time to grow mangoes from seed is the beginning of summer. The mango seed is best germinated when the temperature is 25 to 35 °C (75 to 95°F). If the temperature is low, you can place the planted seed indoors.
- You can directly sow the seed in ground in a sunny place. I like to sow the seed in a pot and then transplant the seedling to a larger pot or into the ground.
- You can also germinate the mango seed by the paper towel method.
Fill a pot, about 10 inch diameter with good quality potting mix and mix some river sand. Sow the seed about 3 inch deep and water well. Place the pot in a warm sunny place, keep moist.
Multiple seedlings from Polyembryonic mango seed
Germinated Bowen Kensigton Pride mango seed
- The seed will germinate in a few weeks. You will see that the seed will sprout into several seedlings, all identical to each other (except one) and to the parent tree. They are actually the clones. Usually the centrally-located shoot which is the most vigorous shoot than all the other shoots is different and should be removed.
- When the seedlings are about 4-5 inch tall, cut all but one of the seedlings to grow to a mango tree.
- You could gently separate each seedling and grow them all to have many mango trees.
- Or, you can carefully split open a mango seed and take out small bean shaped seeds. You can plant them individually to get many trees.
Germinating Mango Seed in Water
- Rub the outside of the mango seed with sandpaper or knife to break the outer skin of the seed.
- Put the seed in water in a bowl and place it in a warm place for 24 hours.
- Remove the seed wrap it in damp paper towels. Place the wrapped seed inside a plastic bag or zip lock bag, keeping some opening for air.
- Place the bag in a warm place, keep the bag damp. The seed will sprout in 1 to 3 weeks.
Transplanting Mango Seedling
Transfer the seedling when the thickness at its base of the trunk becomes the size of about 2 inch diameter and about 10 inch high. At this size, the baby mango tree will have established a good healthy root system.
If you want a small tree, transfer it in a large pot. The advantage of growing mango tree in the pot is that it can be managed easily and can be moved in a sunny place or indoors when the temperature drops.
Transplanting Mango Tree in Ground
- Dig a hole about three times the size of the root ball. Add potting mix and some garden in the hole. Place the seedling (baby mango tree) in the hole, add the soil to fill the hole and water it thoroughly.
- Water your mango plant regularly.
- Do not over fertilize, otherwise there will be more leaves and less fruit produce. Take care of your mango tree.
See the YouTube video of how to grow a mango tree from seed that can produce fruits in 2-3 years.
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Cloning Mango Tree From cutting
How to increase mango yield
1. Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Qld Inc.: Mangoes – Polyembryonic
2. Y. Aron, H. Czosnek, and S. Gazit. Polyembryony in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Is Controlled by a Single Dominant Gene. Horticultural Science. 1998. 33(7):1241-1242
3. Sub-Tropical Fruit Club of Qld. Inc Newsletter February – March 2007
4. Francoise Corbineau, et al.,Seed germination and seedling development in the mango
How to Grow a Mango Tree from Seed Indoors
Growing plants from seed can be a really fun rewarding and enlivening process. This video shows how to grow a mango tree from seed indoors no matter where you live.
If you are in a tropical climate you could move the tree outdoors after your sapling grows a bit and becomes more hardy. As Mango trees are tropical plants it is unlikley your indoor plant will fruit unless you provide a very deep pot, the best soil specifically for mangoes (I reccomend more research than this video shows, this is a amazing article going deeper) and controled temperatures and lighting / sun exposure. This video goes over the simple steps to get a mango tree growing from seed indoors no matter where you are in the world.
I love Mangos, in fact they are one of my altime favourite fruits especially when one considers versatility, flavour and satiation. (PS – Check out this Video for my Favourite Salad Dressing, Hint it contains Mango) Having eaten a ton of mangos and traveled the world following mango season I cant help but feel connected to the mango tree. While your indoor mango tree may not ever bear fruit a indoor mango tree is still a very beutiful house plant that can add plant variety, great air quality and beauty to your home. Depending on the variety mango trees can grow huge (to 35 m and 15 m across for seedling trees of older varieties). But you can keep a mango tree small by pruning it regularly.
How to Plant A Mango Tree From Seed
It starts at the best place, eating a great tasting mango and deciding that you want to plant it. I have tried many mangos and planted many variteties of mango from seed, I find even hot water treated mangos can sprout and grow, have fun trying many different varieties.
In the video I chose a Pakistani Honey Mango, one of my all time favourite varieties. After eating the mango all the way to the seed clean the seed off with a brush and warm water.
From here you have two options (1 or 2, then follow the rest of the steps)
- Dry the mango seed in the sun for 3 – 7 days depending on the heat and consistency of the sun, otherwise place in a dehydrator for 36 hours at 115. If you use this option skip step 2 and 3 and go straight to planting.
- Stirate the shell (cut strips into the seed casing so water can get inside) or carefully break the seed casing /shell and carefully remove the inner seed.
- Place and then wrap the seed in a slightly damp paper towel, place the wrapped seed in a ziplock bag leaving one corner slightly open. Place in a dark warm place (on top of fridge) and forget for 1 week. At the end of the week it should have a nice little sprout, if its moldy try again.
- Select a well draining deep pot and fill with loose soil made up of one of, or a mix of soil from your yard / potting mix / compost. Allow to come to room temperature, mangos like it warm.
- Dig a 6 inch deep hole and place the sprouted mango seed stem side up (largest part of the seed) and loosely cover with a few inches of soil.
- Water regularly but do not keep them soaked, mango trees like alternating wet and dry conditions.
- Watch your mango tree grow, place in bright but not direct sunlight. Once the plant starts to grow, give it as much light as possible, including moving it outside if warm enough.
I hope you have fun spouting and planting mango trees from seed, I know I have and only plan to continue planting and growing other fruit trees from seed. Imagine what would happen if everyone grew a few fruit trees from seed themselves, indoor plants, outdoor plants, fruiting trees and otherwise. It all starts with us, if we want to see a greener, more fruitful future for the youth its time to start planting tree’s today!
I hope you enjoyed this post, let me know if you want to see more like it!
Wishing you Much
Mango Trees 101: How To Plant (And Care For) Your Very Own
An evergreen tree with a luscious fruit, mangoes are best enjoyed from well cared for trees.
The mango tree, scientifically known as the Mangifera indica, is a hardy evergreen tree best suited for the tropical and sub-tropical regions. If the temperature doesn’t go below 40°F or about 4°C where you live, then yes, you can grow some heady, luscious mangoes. And mangoes are not just good for the palate; they are delicious, but come loaded with a host of benefits.
How to begin
Frankly, it’s easiest to get a mango sapling from your local nursery. Remember, there are many different varieties or cultivars of mangoes – let your gardener guide you in choosing the mango cultivar that would work best for your garden, depending on the temperature and soil quality. Plant the sapling in a hole that’s twice as wide and deep as the root ball – make sure the sapling is planted straight in an area with good drainage and adequate sunlight. The grafted scar, if any, should be just on the surface and make sure you prune off any shoots from the scar.
You can choose to grow a mango from seed, but it is a long and slow process. To do so, split the husk covering the seed. You can plant the seed in a pot filled with starter mix, but make sure that 1/4th of the seed is above the surface. Lightly water the seed and it will sprout in 10-20 days. Remember that planting of the seed means your young mango tree will only fruit after 5-6 years.
General care for your mango tree
Like with most fruiting trees, mango trees do well with deep watering of the tap root. If there’s a natural irrigation in the form of rainfall then do not additionally water the tree, but in dry weather water the tree deeply every 3-4 days. Remember to let the top soil dry in between watering.
- Stop watering about two months prior to flowering, and when the flowers start bearing fruit, resume watering.
- A good dose of NPK fertilizer twice a year, once after the fruit has been picked and once in the spring when the tree starts to freshly leaf, will make even the most recalcitrant trees start to fruit every year.
- Prune the trees every 4-5 years, making sure the canopy doesn’t turn too dense. Snap off any deadened branches and twigs on sight.
- Do not let any weeds grow near the trees and make sure the soil maintains good drainage. Stagnant water near the roots can cause rot.
- The mango tree is pretty hardy, but susceptible to over fertilization. NPK fertilizers are organic and work well on most soils. Nitrogen is essential for leaf growth, Phosphorus for good root formations and stem growth, as well as fruiting, while Potassium is needed for flowering, as well as raising the plant’s immunity against diseases.
Common pests of the mango tree
Copper fungicides are a one-stop shop that targets most of the molds and other fungi that affect a mango tree – the symptoms of which are spots on the fruit and leaf, lesions on the bark, and fruits dropping before ripening. Copper can also improve the soil quality of calcium rich soils. Spraying can and should be done in the affected areas – and on the flowering-fruiting set before ripening. Neem-based sprays (Azadirachtin) and manure can be added on a regular basis to target and kill mealy bugs, fruit flies and other such soft-bodied larvae. Fruit flies can also be curtailed using apple cider vinegar traps. In case your mango tree is plagued with wood borers, you will have to get an insecticide which can then be sprayed on the bark.
When to pick the fruits
To know whether your fruit is ready for picking, tug on it gently – if it easily snaps off, you have a delicious fruit just waiting to be eaten. If not, then the fruit hasn’t ripened yet. In case you are picking the fruits before they ripen, especially if you have a fruit fly infestation, tug on the fruit firmly – you have to hand pick mangoes. If you simply shake the tree and make the fruit fall on the ground, they will bruise and go bad rather quickly.You can choose to pick the fruits before they ripen and then wrap them in newspaper. Leave them in a warm, dry place for a couple of days – doing this releases ethylene gas which works towards ripening fruits.
So these are the basic steps into ensuring a good, healthy mango crop from good, healthy trees. And if you have a surfeit of this fruit, try this amazing mango curry recipe sure to please your tongue… Do share your mango tree tips or mango recipes with us in the comments section below.
How to grow, plant and fertilise mangoes
One of the first fruits which come to mind when we think of summer is the fleshy, juicy mango with its golden sunny flesh tempting us. If you have a little room in your back garden, you won’t be disappointed planting one of these divine trees and raiding its offerings.
Plant young mango trees in a sunny position in the garden, where there is enough room to develop to full size. Grafted trees are best and bear faster than seed-grown trees. Mango trees are heavy feeders and need full sun to grow their golden fruit. Mix some 5 IN 1 Organic Plant Food into the existing soil before planting. 5 IN 1 is rich in composted manures, organic fertilisers and minerals to meet all their needs.
An ideal fertiliser to grow large fruit is one with high potassium. Searles Fruit & Citrus Food is boosted with minerals to encourage large fruit. Feed young trees in mid-spring and mid-summer and bearing trees during early summer, when fruiting, and again in late summer.
Established trees don’t require watering but young plants will need plenty of water in summer. Water sparingly in late winter and spring, before the onset of flowering.
“Kensington Pride” is the most popular variety and ‘Palmer’ is a smaller-growing tree which crops well. Small trees are much easier to manage in the home garden for pests, diseases, general care and harvesting. Others to look for include; ‘E2’, ‘Ono’, ‘Keitt’, ‘Nam Dioc Mai’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’. But check with your garden centre for what is the best available.
Harvest mangoes when the colour of the skin flesh turns from green to yellow, orange or red. Its final ripened colour may vary depending on variety. As the mangoes ripen, watch out for birds and bats. Paper bag each mango if practical or cover the tree with a bird friendly net. To find out the best time to pick the fruit, pick one first to sample. If the internal flesh is yellow throughout then your mangoes can be picked.
Pests & Diseases
Anthracnose is the major disease problem; its symptoms are flower death, dark markings on leaves and stems, and premature fruit drop or blackening. Anthracnose can come on very quickly during long periods of wet weather. The fungus appears as irregular shaped black spots and can spread very quickly and attack flower panicles, fruit and young developing leaves, preventing fruit development. Treat disease with alternative sprays of Mancozeb and Copper Oxchloride. Read more about Anthracnose
Fruit fly prevention is mandatory; if your tree is too large to spray effectively, use traps, like Searles Fruit Fly Trap. This trap is so easy to use.
The tree will be healthier and look better if once a year after fruiting you remove the dead wood. This is also the time to lightly shape the tree if required. Fruit is easier to pick, if the tree doesn’t grow too tall. So if you are sufficiently energetic, get up on a step ladder and cut back the top of the tree each year to develop a low, spreading habit which is easier to manage. Do this annually from when the tree is quite young and it will develop to the shape and size you require. Wear gloves and protective clothing when pruning because the mango tree has a very irritating sap which is hard to remove from skin or clothes.
Quick Recipe – Mango and avocado salad Recipe – Vietnamese Mango Chicken
LOCATION AND PLANTING
CARE AND FROST PROTECTION
SUN AND HEAT
MANGO VARIETIES AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS
Mangoes are the apple of the tropics and are one of the most commonly eaten fruits world wide. Mangoes vary in size, shape, and colors range from green, yellow, red or purple, but usually it is a combination of several shades. The flesh is yellow to orange and when ripe has the texture of a peach, the flavor also resembles a peach but with a distinct tropical sweetness. Mangoes originated in India and Southeast Asia and thus there are basically two types of Mangos, Indian and Indo-Chinese. Indian Mangoes have brightly colored fruit where Indo-Chinese mangoes typically do not.
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LOCATION AND PLANTING
Mangoes should be planted in full sun and well drained soil, however because of occasional frost in the salt river basin it is often a good idea to plant near your home or under the canopy of a larger tree. Think what would be the warmest part of your yard during the winter months and that will probably be the best suited location for your mango tree, don’t worry about summer sun and heat, they love it. When removing the tree from its container it is extremely important not to damage or disturb the roots, especially the tap root. Never pull the tree from the container by the trunk, it is most often the cause of irreversible shock. Loosen the soil 1-3 feet around the planting site, dig a hole twice as wide as the container and no deeper than the root ball, though do loosen the soil at the bottom of the hole. Carefully cut the bottom of the nursery container and place the tree with the remaining pot in the hole, the root ball should be 1-2 inches above the surrounding soil to allow for settling and better drainage. Next cut the sides and remove the container, now you may back fill the hole. Use any remaining soil to build a berm around the tree 3-4 inches high and fill with water. Use B-1 also for the first few times you water, just follow the instructions on the bottle.
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Mangoes require consistent soil moisture if they are to prduce high-qualify fruit so should be watered regulary. When first planting you should water every day or two for a couple of weeks, making sure not to let the root ball dry out, then gradually back off the watering frequency so that after 6 weeks you are watering every two-three days or so in the summer and every week to two weeks in the winter. If we have a normal winter with accompaning rains you may not need to water at all during those months After several years you tree will be well established and be less sensitive to moisture levels. Mangoes in the tropics typically experence one wet season and one dry season, meaning for about 6 months they receive little or no rain and the next 6 months rain almost every day.
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CARE AND FROST PROTECTION
Mangoes are tropical and very sensitive to frost and freeze damage, especially young trees. Fruit and flowers are damaged at 40 degrees fahrenheit, permanent damage can occur in any size tree at 32 degrees f. Luckily frost and light freezes are rare and when they do happen they are most often only for a few hours just before sunrise. Frost damage can be avoided or minimized by planting under a roof overhang or under the canopy of another tree. Covering with frost cloth is also a good idea but remember the cloth must extend to the ground in order to trap heat being released from the ground and must be removed in the day time when the temperature rises above freezing. Mulch traps ground heat so should also be removed during winter months. A hard freeze though not typical can occur in any year and covering alone is not enough. In these un typical years a heat source along with covering is your best defense. Since the cold nights correspond with the holiday months, old fashioned Christmas lights are a great idea. Other suggestions is using a 60watt or higher bulb suspended by a shop light.
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Don’t use chemical fertilizers on newly planted mango trees for the first two years. After this time you may give regular applicatinos of nitrogen fertilizer to promote healthy growth flushes and flower production, follow a feeding program similar to citrus. Chelated micronutrients, especially iron are also often necessary. Keep in mind if you use chemical fertilizers, less is more, apply at a rate and strength of 50 percent less than is listed on the package. You may use organic fertilizers such as compost, fish emulsion, liquid seaweed etc. once your tree is established.
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Mangoes need rich organic well draining soil. Mix 50 percent of your native soil and 50 percent of a All-In-One soil mix. Don’t use potting soil as it has too much peat moss. If you can’t find a All-In-One product you can mix your own by using equal parts of mulch, sand and your own soil. A bag of mulch around the drip line once or twice a year will also help keep your soil in check and provide valuable nutrients, just remember to keep mulch a foot or more from the trunk of the tree.
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Winds cause a great deal of damage to trees in the valley each year, especially during monsoon season. We recommend staking newly planted trees for the first year and afterwards stake during periods of high winds such as spring winds and monsoon season.
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SUN AND HEAT
Mangoes love heat and take full sun, yes even Arizona desert sun. Since young trees are green house grown, they should be acclimated to the full sun slowly. Use a temporary shade item such as a beach umbrella for the first couple of weeks. Trees planted in the midst of summer should be given protection from the western sun for the their first summer.
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MANGO VARIETIES AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS
|Name of Mango||Season||Plant size||Flavor||Shape||Color||Texture|
|Alphonso||June-July||Large||warm sweet, sometimes pleasantly tart||oval in shape, 4-6 inches long||golden yellow||almost fibreless|
|Bailey’s Marvel||July-mid August||Large||superb, juicy, sweet||medium-sized, oval-shaped||yellow to reddish||fiberless|
|Beverly||mid-July to mid-August||–||sweet creamy, aromatic||large, can weigh up to three pounds||dull green||fiberless|
|Bombay||July||Large||very sweet||medium, ovate, oblique||yellow or brownish yellow||almost fibreless|
|Brahm Kai Meu||June-July||medium-size tree||excellent sweet and crunchy as an apple||–||–||fiberless|
Medium size tree
|excellent sweet and tangy, highly aromatic||regular ovate, small, 10-12 oz||green to yellow||fiberless|
|Cogshell||June-July||semi-dwarf,this “condo mango” is suitable for container growing on a balcony||sweet||10-16 oz||green to yellow||fiberless|
|Cushman||July to August||medium-size tree||creamy||resembles a grapefruit in size and shape||yellow-greenish||fiberless|
|Edwards||June-July||Large||sweet, aromatic||12-15 oz||golden yellow with a reddish blush||fiberless|
|Fairchild||June-July||Small, condo-mango||juicy, excellent||–||yellow-greenish||fiberless|
|Glenn||June-July||Medium size||sweet, delicious||12-18 oz||yellow to pink to red||little fiber|
|Haden||October to December, March to May||medium to large||luscious, full sweet||medium to large, an oval to round shape 6-24 oz||green to yellow with red highlights||little fiber|
|Ice Cream||June- July||dwarf tree, ideal for container growing||sweet||–||small green||little fiber|
|Irwin||June-July||dwarf tree, ideal for container growing||sweet||oblong-ovate, one shoulder oblique,12-16 oz||orange to pink with extensive dark-red blush||fiberless|
|Jakarta||June to August||large||juicy, sweet.||large||deep orange to red with numerous white dots||fiberless|
|Julie||July-August||dwarf tree ideal for container growing||juicy, sweet||oblong, obliquely, small (6-10 oz.)||orange||rather fibrous|
|Keitt||August to October||Medium||sweet, tangy||large, oval shape20-26 oz.||green with slight dark red blush||minimal fiber|
|Kent||January to March, May to August||Very large||sweet, juicy, tender||large, oval shape,20 – 26 oz||greenish skin with dark red blush and small yellow dots||fiberless|
|Lancitilla||August-September||semi-dwarf tree||sweet||large, five pound||blood red||fiberless|
|Madame Francis||June-July||medium to large||richly flavored||large, flattened, kidney-shaped||light-green, slightly yellowish or orange||low-fiber|
|Mallika||June-July||dwarf tree ideal for container growing||sweet, honey-like flavor,highly aromatic||10-16 oz||canary-yellow to Pink||fiberless|
|Nam Doc Mai||June-July||medium-size tree||tender, juicy||elongated 12-20 oz||green-gold to bright yellow||fiberless|
|Okrung||June-August||Medium size||soft, juicy, very sweet with low acid||medium||green-yellow||fiberless|
|Palmer||July and August sometimes into September||Tree is medium to large||–||oblong-ovate, large, 20-30 oz||orange-yellow with red blush||fiberless|
|Pim Seng Mun||early June||medium-size tree||refreshingly delicious with flavor similar to a green apple.||medium, 12-20 oz||green to yellow||fiberless|
|Southern Blush||June- July||–||juicy||medium-sized||orange-yellow with red blush||little fiber|
|Springfels||July to August||Medium size||juicy, sweet||large (to 3lbs)||pink to red with yellow||little fiber|
|Valencia Pride||July-August||Large||excellent, sweet, tangy||large, long, 21-32 oz||pink to red with yellow||fiberless|
|Zill||May, June, July||medium-size tree||sweet||almost round, apex oblique, small, 8-12 oz||yellow with red blush||little fib|
Choosing the right variety and practising regular pruning will ensure marvellous home-grown mangoes, writes Phil Dudman.
Photo: Phil Dudman
Mangoes are the king of fruits and they grow on giant-sized trees, but don’t let that stop you planting one. With regular pruning, you can keep a mango tree compact, healthy and productive. Growing your own ensures chemical- free eating, and you can enjoy many different varieties too, which will extend your harvest season. You can have fruit as early as three years after planting, which is pretty fast in the fruit tree world.
Mangoes grow best in frost-free tropical and subtropical areas, but some varieties will produce reasonable crops in warm, frost-free temperate areas. They like cool, dry conditions from late winter to early summer during flowering and early fruit development, which is the normal weather pattern in tropical areas where mango production is highest. Winter and spring rainfall in coastal subtropical regions encourages diseases that cause flower and fruit drop. This is why gardeners in these areas will have a good crop one year and nothing the next.
Mangoes grow in a wide range of soils, even those low in fertility, as long as they drain freely. Find a warm spot for planting – a northerly aspect is best – with protection from strong winds that can damage branches, flowers and fruit. Gentle breezes are fine, and the airflow helps to minimise disease problems.
So how much room do they need? If you let it go, a mango tree will grow into a 10m giant, but with annual pruning and choosing grafted dwarf varieties, you can keep trees around 2-3m tall and wide. This also makes maintenance and harvesting much easier. If you are planting multiple trees, allow a space of around 4-5m.
You can plant mango trees year-round, but the best time for most areas is
autumn when conditions are warm and mild. Remove the grass and dig over an area of around 1m2, incorporating a barrow load of well-aged compost. Mound the soil to improve drainage and plant your tree to the same depth as it was in the container.
Water the tree thoroughly after planting and cover the bare soil with straw mulch to retain moisture and reduce weed competition. Water trees twice a week for the first month and then gradually increase the depth and time between waterings to encourage deep roots.
Give the tree a light application of organic fertiliser after the first month, then repeat applications once every two months from spring to autumn for the first three years to aid establishment. A grafted tree will start producing fruit three years after planting.
Feeding and pruning
Most mango trees survive on natural rainfall once established, however it pays to give them a regular deep soaking during extended dry periods, particularly when fruit is setting. They don’t need much feeding, just a light application of organic fertiliser immediately after harvest. As the tree grows, increase the diameter of the grass-free mulched area to at least 2m.
Pruning and training should start early. In spring or summer, cut the top off young trees, 1m above the ground to stimulate multiple branching. Retain four to five main limbs and encourage them to form a low spreading vase-shaped framework.
For the following three years, continue to prune the tips of the main branches each summer to promote multiple shoots. Remove any vigorous upward growth to keep the canopy low and compact.
Once established, continue to prune every summer, immediately after harvest. Remove vigorous upward growth and thin out excessive internal growth to maintain good airflow throughout the canopy. Old flowering stems and other dead and diseased material should be removed. Shorten longer branches where necessary to maintain a compact shape.
Mangoes flower and fruit on the outer canopy, so trim the remaining end growths lightly to encourage lots of shoots and potential flowering sites.
Oversized trees and branches should be cut back hard in late winter. The resulting regrowth can be thinned and trained to form new low spreading branches as described above for a young tree.
Pests and diseases
Non-organic commercial mango crops are repeatedly sprayed with insecticides and fungicides during growth as well as post-harvest. This is unwarranted in backyard growing where common pests and diseases can be managed without harmful chemicals.nd on the undersides of leaves.
Anthracnose and bacterial black spot are common mango diseases, which are most prevalent during wet weather. Anthracnose shows up as small leaf spots that gradually enlarge. Flowers and young fruit can blacken and fall. Black patches appear on older fruit, causing them to rot as they ripen.
Bacterial black spot is the black angular lesion you see between the veins on leaves. It can cause flower and stem dieback and star-shaped cracks in the fruit. The key to controlling these diseases is good plant hygiene.
Disease organisms live in dead material on the plant and then spread by water splash, so remove and bury or burn dead stems, flowers and other infected material regularly. Pruning to maintain good airflow through the canopy will also minimise disease.
Some gardeners spray trees with copper hydroxide (organically approved) just prior to flowering and once a month during fruit set. Some varieties offer a degree of disease resistance (see chart on page 33).
Scale insects are often found on the undersides of leaves, causing yellow blotches on the upper surface. Control small outbreaks by spraying the underside of leaves with white oil or soap sprays (see organicgardener.com. au for recipes), or trim off affected growth to control large outbreaks.
Fruit fly is a problem in some areas. Exclusion bags made of cloth, paper or mesh can be used to cover and shield individual fruit. To protect entire trees, set up a frame over the canopy and cover with a sheet of fruit-fly fabric.
Netting will also protect fruit from possums and flying foxes, however it’s important that nets be installed correctly to ensure the welfare of wild animals. (See ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/ livingwith/flyingfoxes/netting_fruit_ trees for more on this.) Another way to reduce bat and possum damage is to pick the fruit earlier.
Harvesting and storage
Mangoes bear harvestable fruit from October (in northern tropical areas such as Darwin) to March (in southern areas). The first sign of fruit maturity is a change of colour from green to yellow, orange or red (depending on the variety). At this stage, cut open a fruit and inspect the colour of the flesh near the seed. If it is yellow, they are ready for picking.
Always clip the fruit from the tree, leaving a short stem. The milky latex, which is released when picked, can irritate skin so cover up. It can also burn the fruit skin and should be washed off straight away.
Picked fruit will ripen at room temperature within a week. Unripened fruit can be stored in the fridge for short periods then brought out to ripen when needed. Ripened fruit will keep in the fridge for a few days. Excess fruit can be scooped out and frozen, or dried in a dehydrator. You can also eat green mangoes fresh and cooked or use them in chutneys.
Mangoes need to be protected from bats, possums and birds.
GROWING FROM SEED
Planting the seed of a ‘Bowen’ or ‘Kensington Pride’ mango produces a tree with the same growth habit and fruiting characteristics. The same goes for the popular ‘R2E2’ variety. Remove the flesh, cut a small section from the pointy end and plant into potting mix.
Keep it moist and it will shoot within a month or two. ‘Bowen’ and ‘R2E2’ seeds are polyembryonic, which means they contain multiple embryos. These can be separated and repotted once they shoot. Seedling trees can take five to eight years to fruit. If you can’t wait that long, try grafting a stem from your favourite local mango tree onto your seedling.
By: Organic Gardener
First published: December 2013