How to get rid of sweat bees in yard?


Everything You Should Know About Sweat Bee Killing, Trapping & Repelling

About different types of bees: Read here.

Where do sweat bees nest?

Sweat bees are soil nesting bees: they usually nest and live in the earthen burrows in sunny dry areas, but sometimes their nests can be found in soft wood. Some are semi-social or communal, while others are solitary. Because they are attracted to sweat and water, they are often located close to people working outdoors or, for example, near a pool. There are especially a lot of them in humid jungle climate conditions, as well as on meadows and in the orchards.

When does the sweat bees’ activity peak?

As a rule, sweat bees can be encountered from Match to the end of summer. In certain states, though, for instance, in Georgia, the activity of several sweat bee species peaks from March to October.

Do sweat bees sting?

Yes, females do stings, but in general sweat bees aren’t considered aggressive. According to the information from the University of Kentucky entomologists, they don’t attack humans for the sole purpose of stinging. They merely land on your skin to collect the sweat drops. If you attempt to attack them, they will sting you as they will feel the danger. The same will happen if you keep them in your fist or try to destroy their nest. If you don’t touch the bees, they won’t hurt you, as sweat is their only target.

How dangerous are sweat bee stings?

Sweat bee stings are not dangerous and stung people hardly feel any pain. But this pain still exists and it even has its own rating. Thanks to Justin Schmidt, an American entomologist of the Southwestern Biological Institute and University of Arizona, today the humanity has quite a fascinating scale of various insects’ bites pain. According to Mr. Schmidt, sweat bee stings have the least pain level which is equal to 1 as your skin can barely feel it. “A tiny spark has singed a single hair on your arm”. Still, keep in mind that allergy reactions to these bees are known to happen, just like with any other insect/bee sting or bite.

Is it true that sweat bees are beneficial insects?

Yes, the entomologists frp, around the world confirm that all kinds of bees including the sweat bees are essential to the ecosystem functioning. The latter, in particular, play an important role in the pollination of plants and crops scattered over long distances. The University of Florida entomologists consider stone fruits, pomme fruits, alfalfa, sunflower etc to be such crops. Sweat bees are generalists and will forage on a wide variety of plants. In recent years, people have become more aware of the sweat bees’ ability to save crops and tend to keep them alive.

Still, if sweat bees have become a real misfortune for you, deal with them even despite their usefulness.

How To Get Rid Of Sweat Bees: Should You Kill, Catch Or Repel Them?

So, in which cases does getting rid of sweat bees become a necessity?

  1. If the best have nested on your property and one-time attacks have become permanent.
  2. If you like travelling to in the hot humid jungle where sweat bees can stick around you almost from the outset.
  3. If you work or workout outdoors and the bees distract and disturb you.
  4. If you are allergic to bees and getting rid of them is vital.

What is better: killing on contact, repelling or catching sweat bees?

Killing on contact means instant elimination of single sweat bees with insecticides.

Catching is large-scale trapping and killing the bees, and is the most desperate measure for those who are unfortunate enough to share their property with the sweat bees nesting there. It is suitable for the extreme cases where the sweat bees at your place have become too intrusive.

Repelling is the most humane and lenient towards the useful sweat bees control method. Repellents can protect you from the bees circling around or when camping, when you don’t have the time to install proper traps.

Below we will describe all three methods to you, and it will be up to you to decide which one works best for you.

How to Trap Sweat Bees with the Best Sweat Bee Catcher

To get rid of sweat bees, you neither have to look for a special sweat bee trap, nor buy a random one. Carpenter bee traps, for instance, are not suitable for getting rid of sweat bees. Various species have different types of nesting behavior and so the wooden traps that are specifically designed for catching the former bee species are used. To catch sweat bees you’d better buy an ordinary bee trap (today there are few of them available on the market). For our review we have chosen the best one.

Seicosy (TM) Non-toxic Wasp Trap, Sting Free, Trap Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Yellow Jacket, Fruit Fly and More – The Best Selling Reusable Bee Trap

This is the quickest and least expensive (Check current price) ready-to-use trap for getting rid of sweat bees. The plastic trap comes empty. You just need to fill it with a sweet solution, which will play the role of sweat bee bait. You can use water with sugar, honey, syrup, juice, and a mixture of soap solution, fruit nectar – these are only few recipes from the experienced buyers. Fill the sweat bee trap with this solution to the level of the lower hole and hang it where the bees swarm: the porch or a tree, for example, but not too high. Bees can fly inside, being lured with the sweet smell, but won’t be able to get out and will drown.

All you have to do is empty the trap as necessary and re-fill it with a sweet solution. It is a simple, convenient, and cheap sweat bee trap with the high rating of 4.3 stars out of 5 stars.

Price: Check current price

We feel obliged to present an alternative to killing the bees, namely repelling the sweat bees. This option should be perfect for you if you don’t want to kill anyone.

How to Repel Sweat Bees with the Best Sweat Bee Repellent

Repelling the sweat bees is the most humane way of getting rid of them. You can use a universal repellent which has already been tested in the fight against wasps, moths and other pest insects for these purposes as it will also repel sweat bees. Has a bee flown into your patio and does it prevent you from performing your outdoor activities? We’ve found a cheap solution for you.

Hot Shot 5580 No Pest Strip Unscented Hanging Vapor Insect Repellent

The manufacturer recommends that you use this Check current price versatile repelling strip in garages, basements, attics, warehouses, but many users hang it on the porch, the patio, on the clothesline pole, in the street laundry and so on, and it is really effective against the bees. The strip does not produce any strong odors and does not take up much space. If you use it indoors, ventilate the room and consider its size as the Hot Shot Strip protects a130 sq ft area for 4 months. The active ingredient is dichlorvos.

This repellent has been given a 4 out of 5 stars rating along with the positive reviews of the users who have obtained it to repel the bees. Even the allergy patients were satisfied. Read over 900 customers’ reviews on to learn more.

Price: Check current price

How to Kill a Single Sweat Bee with the Best Insecticide

Imagine the most common situation when a single or a couple of annoying sweat bees won’t leave you alone. An insecticidal spray will help you get rid of them and their aggravating buzzing. Most importantly, you should always have it handy and aim accurately.

Bee and Wasp Spray: Professional Freeze 17.5 oz

What is so great about this spray? It is cut-rate (it costs only Check current price) and effectively kills bees and wasps n contact even within 15 ft in a couple of seconds! The active ingredient of the spray is Prallethrin of the pyrethroids group, and its effectiveness has been proven the most influential scientists of the world. The WHO study showed that the “Prallethrin is very toxic to bees and fish but of low toxicity to birds”, which means it can be used with confidence to kill any bees including sweat bees.

When dealing with any synthetic chemicals, follow the safety rules! Pyrethroids are dangerous to be inhaled, so you can only use tis killing spray outdoors, in attics and in crawl spaces

Price: Check current price

NB! Since sweat bees are rather useful pollinating insects than harmful, it is not necessary to destroy their nest and try to kill all of its inhabitants by flooding the burrow with liquid insecticides! First of all by doing this, you will cause great damage to vegetation and crops, which the killed insects might have pollinated. Secondly, angry bees will defend the nest and violently attack you, and so you get a lot of bites. Third, if the nest is on your property, you risk ruining the fertile layer of soil, which will not recover after such a chemical irrigation soon enough.

What should you do then if there are too many sweat bees at your place and they bother you by constantly circling around and making it difficult to work? You need a more powerful treatment scheme then, and so it’s high time we covered the traps.

Best Sweat Bee Control Products Comparison Chart

Product Type Active Ingredients Price
Bee and Wasp Spray: Professional Freeze

Killer Spray Prallethrin
Seicosy (TM) Non-toxic Trap Trap Sweet bait (not included)
Hot Shot 5580 Repelling Strip Dichlorvos

3 Homemade Ways to Get Rid Of Sweat Bees

Apart from ready-to-use options there are many homemade ways of getting rid of sweat bees. We’ll list several most popular pieces of advice below:

  1. A DIY sweat bee repellent: rub your skin with mint soap as the peppermint smell repels the bees
  2. A DIY sweat bee spray: take an empty spray bottle; fill ¼ of it with dish soap and the remaining ¾ with water. If you aim well enough when spraying, you are supposed to knock off the bees on the ground. But will this device kill them?
  3. Sweat bee bait is a method for the patient ones. Take a fresh mango, cut into pieces, place them in the box and hang the box on a tree. Watch the sweat bees swarm around the box with the juicy smell. On the next day, hang the box far enough from the previous spot as possible to make the bees fly and reach the bait. Repeat until the box is too far from you (with the bees). Remember to replace mango once in a while.

We have only listed three tips out of the many that people use in an attempt to rid themselves of annoying neighborhood with the bees. Do they work? It is not known. You can check if you have patience and plenty of spare time, or you can buy ready traps and sprays that have already collected tens and hundreds of detailed reviews on major online platforms and have been tested by the experts and customers.

7 Tips to Protect Yourself and Your Garden from Sweat Bees

Finally, we’ll reveal how to behave in order to protect yourself from attacks of unpleasant sweat bees and your property from the sweat bees’ nesting:

  1. Obviously, take shower regularly. This is a golden rule when it comes to getting rid of sweat bees. The less sweat there is the less attractive for the bees you see.
  2. Try to worry less as stress can trigger sweating (refer to point 1).
  3. Wear less perfume as the sweat bees as well as other species are also attracted by sweet odors. Refrain from using any perfume at all when working or spending much time outside.
  4. Wear closed clothes and cover your head whenever possible to make it more difficult for the sweat bees to reach your skin or crawl into your hair.
  5. Mulch the soil and water it in time. This will reduce the attractiveness of your backyard to the sweat bees looking for a nesting spot as they like open and dry land.
  6. Remove old tree stumps and dead trees from your property: if there are no other options, the bees can settle there.
  7. Eliminate any unnecessary water sources as the water also draws the bees.

If you think carefully, you’ll realize that getting rid of sweat bees is not scary and is a feasible task. Even investing into ready-to-use control products will hardly damage your budget and will help you have fun and work outside in peace. Use the proven products only and follow the prevention measures so that the sweat bees could not bother you anymore!

How to Get Rid of Sweat Bees – Be Friendly but Persistent (2019)

November 24, 2019 0

Ever noticed how some little bees seem to follow you everywhere you go when working outdoors?

And the problem is even worse during the humid and hot days or months of the year. These little bees are the sweat bees, and they are one of the most common types of these pollinating insects. In fact, you can get them in all continents except Australia.

But what makes them different from other bee types?

The answer to this age-old question is simple and it because unlike many other bee species, the scent of sweat seems to attract them.

Sounds odd, doesn’t it?

As weird as it might seem it is a fact and they can be very annoying. No one wants to have some pesky insects clinging on to their clothes. However, once you understand how to get rid of sweat bees on your own, they will never be a problem. But first, it is essential to know what they are and the danger they pose.

So let’s get started.

What is a Sweat Bee?

You have probably seen a sweat bee when working outdoors as they are quite common. But do you know what sweat bees are or how they look? For one to be able to exterminate or repel them, it is vital to understand what sweat bees are and how to tell them apart from other well-known bee species like the honey and killer bees.

The most distinctive feature of the sweat bees is that they are smaller than most of the other bee types. You can see these bees flying around flower and vegetable gardens with the hind legs loaded with some pollen that they carry back to their underground nests.

These bees get their name from the fact they have an almost insatiable craving for human sweat. But, what attracts them is the salt in the sweat because they need to eat it to keep an active lifestyle.

These little bees love sweat so much that they can even crawl under your clothes when they smell it. And although most people do not know this, their real name is Halictid bees, and they only come second to the honeybees when it comes to the common bee types.

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How Do Sweat Bees Look?

Sweat bees or the Halictid bees are a collection of up to 3,500 species. The bees in this category come in different colors, but all are small in size. In many instances, they will not be associated with bees since they do not come with the typical yellow bee coloring. Most of the sweat bee species will have a dark to metallic black shade, but there are also some species that are blue, purples or metallic green.

The sweat bees have a short but sharp tongue, and their hind legs are long and quite hairy. But, the males are the most recognizable since they spot a black abdomen with some yellow stripes. When it comes to the size, they range between 5 and 11 mm in length, but in some rare instances, some species can grow longer (but just slightly) than this.

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How Dangerous Are Sweat Bees?

Well, now you know what sweat bees are and how they look. So what’s next?

Before we get to the crucial part of how to get rid of them, first we highlight the dangers they pose if at all any. You would not want to spend a fortune to exterminate or repel something that might not even be dangerous, would you?

So are sweat bees dangerous?

No, they are not. In fact, only the females will develop stingers. However, like most other bees the females can sting when they think they are in danger or feel threatened. But, they are not very aggressive, and in most cases, they will only react when you squeeze them against the skin.

These bees will only land on you to collect the sweat drops, and if you do not touch them, they will just fly away.

Although the sweat bees are not dangerous, it is important to note that the female sting also carries some venom. If you have a bee sting allergy or you get stung by many of them (which is quite unlikely since they rarely move in swarms) you can be in significant danger since there will be a lot of venom in your system.

But, for the occasional sting by one or a couple of sweat bees applying some ice is just enough to reduce the swelling and ease the pain.

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How to Get Rid of Sweat Bees

In most circumstances, you will only get one or a couple of sweat bees following you around. And so you can always ignore them or find something to brush them off your clothes or kill them.

But what do you do when you keep seeing the sweat bees or discover their nest in your yard or garden?

Well, this means that you have a sweat bee problem and you need to find a solution. Luckily there are many ways of tackling the problem. Let’s jump straight into the three main ways of dealing with sweat bees.

  • Trapping

Different bee types will have different nesting behaviors, and so you cannot use one particular trap to deal with all of them. If you are facing a sweat bee infestation, you need something that can attract them and contain or kill them.

An example of one such trap is the Aspectek Yellow Jackets Trap for bees and other insects. This fantastic trap will lure the bees inside with a sweet mixture of water and sugar (which by the way is irresistible for most sweat bee species), and so it will make trapping them almost effortlessly.

It is also possible to make a homemade bee trap with materials that you already have around the house. But, building one that can trap these little insects will require a lot of inventiveness. Remarkably, some innovative individuals can make some impressive sweat bee traps with a bottle for containing the bees.

However, why should you go through all this trouble when you can buy a simple and efficient trap for a few dollars?

  • Repelling: How to Repel Sweat Bees?

Repelling these little bees provides the most humane way of keeping them out of your home.

But what exactly repels sweat bees?

There are a few things that can keep them away from you and your home. While some will counter the smell of sweat, others produce a scent that the bees do not like or associate with insect-eating predators. So what are some of these useful sweat bee repellants?

  • Mint Rub

The mint rub is a fast, easy and cheap method of repelling the sweat bees. In fact, in most instances, you will not need to spend any cash to make this rub. The mint rub counters the smell of your sweat and hence making it hard for the bees to detect and they also just seem to hate the smell of mint.

Although you can also buy some mint soap or lotion, the cheapest idea is to make it at home.

And to do this, you will only need to fill a small water bottle about half way with clean tap water. Next, add a few drops of peppermint extract and finish by shaking the bottle to mix the two compounds. Now the sweat bee repellent is ready and the only thing left is for you to spray it on your skin.

NOTE: Chopped fresh mint is even better, but remember to make a new bottle of solution every 3-4 days.

Sounds easy, doesn’t it? Yes, it is just that straightforward.

  • Commercial Sweat Bee Repellents

Let’s face it!

You will not always have the time to make a mint rub, and sometimes you might not feel like doing it. We all have that lazy day when something simple as adding peppermint to water seems like a lot of work. And so a commercial sweat bee repellent can come in handy.

But, it is also a cheap and quite efficient method of keeping the bees out of the house. For a few dollars, you can have a potent bee repellent.

There are many insect repellents out there that can keep these pesky bees away from your home, but the wise idea is to go for something without harsh chemicals. Remember that you only want to repel them and not kill them. Some of the ingredients to watch out for when buying the commercial repellants include eucalyptus, lemongrass, soybean oils and citronella.

  • Extermination

Extermination is the other method or the last resort when everything else fails. Here you can use the services of a professional if you are willing to spend the extra cash to buy commercial pesticide. But since a colony or nest of sweat bees will only contain a few dozen bees you may not even need to call in the professional for extermination because with the right pesticides and some free time you can do it yourself.

Whether you are doing the extermination on your own or calling in an expert, the nest size is always the primary factor that determines the cost. Again, total annihilation should be the last option because the chemicals can be harmful to the plant life around the sweat bee nest and also to your pets.

We strongly recommend using this method in the severe or extreme cases. Remember about bees extinction!

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Sweat Bees Prevention

Wouldn’t things be easier for you if you never hard to deal with the sweat bees at all? Although they are one of the simplest pests to control, prevention is always better for you and also for the insects as it ensures that you do not have to harm them.

But how do you keep the pesky bees out of your home?

The most effective method of prevention entails creating an environment that is not suitable for the sweat bees. When the humidity levels are quite low, you will not see a lot of these pesky bees. But what can you do about this since you cannot control the weather? Simple, make the ground unsuitable for them to build a nest.

One of the best methods or tricks to do this is adding several layers of mulch near their nesting area. Since they prefer to nest on dry and thin soil, they will move on to a more suitable place away from your compound.

Even as you make the ground unsuitable for nesting, it is crucial to keep in mind that the sweat bees can also look for alternatives. Dead trees and stumps are one of the favorite nesting alternatives for sweat bees. And so it is also essential to remove them to make sure that they do not have anywhere to settle.

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  • How to Get Rid of Lizards – Rules to Follow in 2018
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Additional Tips for Protection from Sweat Bees

  • Try to keep stress levels in check because too much worry can trigger sweating and hence attract the sweat bees.
  • As obvious as it might sound you need to take a shower regularly. But, when you are dealing with sweat bees this is a golden rule because the less you sweat, the less attractive you will be for the bees you come across.
  • Cover your head and wear closed clothes when possible to make it hard for the bees to crawl into the hair or reach your skin.
  • Drain any standing water in your compound and eliminate all unnecessary sources of water because they can also attract sweat bees.
  • If you must exterminate or hire someone to do it make sure that the chemicals or pesticides that you use do not contain any harsh compounds.
  • Do not wear a lot of perfume and avoid it entirely when spending a lot of time outdoors because like many other insects sweet scents will also attract sweat bees.


Dealing with sweat bees is that simple if you need to clear them from your home. But, the good news is that you will rarely need to do anything since in most cases you will only come across one or a couple of them. Since they are not as dangerous as the killer bees, you will not have a lot to worry about when getting rid of them.

However, it is also important to know that their stings can still trigger an allergic reaction to those with allergies. And being stung by too many of them can pose a significant danger. All in all, sweat bees are one of the easiest insects to exterminates or repel from your house.

The Death Of Bees Explained

Video about The Death Of Bees Explained

I have sweat bees that hang around the pool and sting whoever is swimming. They also sting when I am mowing the yard because I am sweating. What can I do to get rid of them in my area?

Sweat bees will become very active in late spring and as summer sets in and people start to sweat, their presence will become more pronounced as they conflict with humans in the vicinity where they’re nesting. Sweat bees are mostly ground nesting meaning they commonly nest in soil. They’ll also nest in trees, just under the bark or in old abandoned holes left by other insects, so any stumps or wood piles are prime locations for sweat bee nests. We have several hundred species of sweat bees here in the United States and they have a wide range of looks and sizes. But the one thing they all have in common is that controlling them at their nest site can really help eliminate direct conflict and getting stung. Since they like to nest close to water and in a protected area, it’s quite common to find them around the pool and in the yard.

To see if you have nests in your yard, do a good inspection of the turf looking for any flying insects coming and going that are using a sort of “path”. Sweat bees can be solitary meaning only one will occupy a single nest. But some species will have multiple members in the colony. In these larger nests you’ll stand a greater chance of seeing them active. Solitary nests can be tough to locate but in most cases where there is a single nesting sweat bee there will be multiple nests all independent of one another. In fact, it’s not uncommon to have hundreds and even thousands nesting in the yard if left untreated for just a few years. Since sweat bees will tend to migrate back to where they were born, a single nest will rapidly become many in very little time. If you have a lot of them flying around you in the yard or by the pool, chances are high you have a lot of nests somewhere on the property adjacent to all the activity.

Two other things worth noting; lawns which are watered or otherwise moist will tend to attract sweat bees as will turf where the grass is recycled and not removed. In other words, if you don’t bag your grass clippings you’re only inviting more bees. The point is both decreasing the amount of water being used in the yard along with removing grass clippings will help cut back on their propensity to nest on your property.

Now if you’d like to chase the bees away from the lawn and grass, a good repellent is NBS. This material uses nothing but plant essential oils and will provide 30+ days of relief when applied where the bees are active.

Add 3 oz per gallon of water and expect to get 1,000 sq/ft of coverage per mixed gallon.

NBS can be safely applied to grass, shrubs, decking, etc. using a standard PUMP SPRAYER.

For large areas, use a HOSE END SPRAYER. If you get our sprayer, you’ll add the whole pint of NBS to the sprayer and then add water so it’s half full. This will be up the 10 gallon line. Next, hook it to your garden hose and spray it over 5,000 sq/ft. Repeat monthly.

Keep in mind NBS will not kill anything; its merely a repellent. So if you’re looking to control an ongoing issue in the turf with some kind of bee, spray ADONIS over the affected area. This product is commonly used for a range of turf infesting pests so anything nesting there or spending time on the grass will be affected. Adonis does not work quickly; it will take 2-3 days to kill targeted pests. But over a few days time insects moving in the area will pick up the active and die.

For spot spraying, add 1 of of Adonis to a pump sprayer and spray the entire amount over 1,000 sq/ft. For use in the hose end sprayer, add 2.5 oz and fill to the 5 gallon line to cover up to 5,000 sq/ft of turf. Adonis is fine to use on the home, any plant, etc. so anywhere these pests are active, spray in the evening and retreat in a week if you see ongoing activity. But in general, one application will usually solve any problem.

Augochlora Sweat Bee (Augochlora pura)

The small and charming Augochlora Sweat Bee looks like a little winged jewel with its brilliant metallic gleam that has a few color forms.

The shiny, metallic green color of this bee is vivid and uncommon compared to more typical yellow and black relatives. Augochlora Sweat Bees are small, with brown wings. Their bodies are shiny and metallic, covered in short hairs. In the warmer southeastern U.S., they may appear more blue or purple in color. Augochlora Sweat Bees are more tolerant of cool weather than other bee species and are visibly active in late winter and early spring. Sweat Bees have pollen baskets on their legs and collect it like other bees. They can sting like other bees, but are very reluctant to do so.
They are generally more solitary in nature. Adults feed on flower nectar they collect, or they steal it from aphids. They can be found on flowers or on tree bark. They are called Sweat Bees because they also seem to enjoy licking sweat off of arms and legs. The salt attracts the insect and allows for closer observation. They are not aggressive and are unlikely to sting. Like flies, one can shoo them away with gentle encouragement.
Females nest in rotting wood, in tunnels bored out by other insects (like beetle larvae), or underground in loose soil. A female digs cells into the end of the tunnel with and stuffs a pollen grain in each one with some nectar. She then lays one egg on each grain. The larvae overwinter and emerge as adults in the spring having grown to maturity by feasting on the nectar and pollen grain left by the mother.

Sweat Bees



SIZE: Sweat bees are small, ranging from 0.125 to 0.5 inches in length, and their small size may prevent many people from noticing their presence. Male sweat bees are typically more slender than females.

COLOR: These bees are known for their metallic coloring. Most are shades of green, blue and bronze, although some are a dull, metallic black.

BEHAVIOR: Sweat can sometimes occur in large numbers, but they are not typically aggressive. They have short tongues, which come in handy for lapping up human sweat, which has earned them their name. A sting usually only occurs if a bee is pressed against the skin, and according to the Schmidt Sting Pain Index, a sweat bee has the least painful sting of all stinging insects.

These bees are equal-opportunity pollinators, and they will pollinate virtually any type of available flower. They play an important role in pollinating the native plants of the areas they inhabit. Females are equipped to carry pollen on the backs of their legs, although males are not.

Sweat bees pollinate wildflowers and various crops, including stone fruits, alfalfa and sunflowers. According to the United States Agricultural Department, sweat bees have more complex digestive and detoxification systems than other bees in order to handle and process the different types of pollen they collect.


These bees are found throughout the world, and there are more than 1,000 species in the United States, Canada and Central America, including 44 species in Florida alone. These bees thrive in temperate regions but are widespread throughout the United States.

Like other bee species, sweat bees may be solitary or eusocial, meaning they live in colonies with each bee performing a specific role. It depends on the species. Sweat bees live underground and burrow holes below the soil. Solitary bees live in individual cells located far apart from one another. Eusocial bees, on the other hand, live in cells that are much closer together.

In eusocial colonies, the mated female, known as a gyne, is the queen. She digs burrows underground and carves out cells, then fills each cell with pollen and places an egg inside. Eventually, the eggs turn into larvae and then pupae. Then the worker bees come out of the pupae stage. worker bees will emerge from these eggs. One worker bee guards the colony, while the others dig additional burrows and the queen returns to laying eggs.

The only task of the male sweat bee is to mate with females.

Tips for Control

Sweat bees do not generally pose a threat to people, perhaps with the exception of hot summer days when they may seek out sweat to supplement their diets. However, they can be a nuisance if they swarm in large numbers around your home. Still, it’s important to remember their critical role as pollinators and to allow them to perform their tasks undisturbed if possible.

Additionally, because some species burrow underground and may fly a long distance, colonies can be difficult to track down. If you need help getting rid of a sweat bee infestation near your home, contact a bee removal company. Or, you can contact Terminix® and we can help you find a solution.

A mosquito bite? That’s child’s play. Spider bite? No problem. But a bee sting – heck, does it ever hurt!

About 2 million people in the U.S. are allergic to the venom of stinging insects, according to WebMD, and even those who aren’t allergic can be afraid because of the acute pain caused by those fuzzy little critters.

Redness, swelling and a dull ache are the hallmarks of a bee sting, after the initial sharp blast of pain at the time of incident, of course.

The hurt inflicted by a bee is two-pronged.

First, when bees sting they release a chemical called melittin into their victim. This venom immediately triggers pain receptors, causing a burning sensation. Second, because a bee’s stinger is in fact barbed like a jagged sword, when it penetrates the victim’s skin it actually dislodges from the bee, remaining there. The longer the stinger stays in the skin, the more venom is released, continuing its toxic assault for up to a minute.

As long as you’re not allergic to bee venom, your immune system will react to the sting by sending fluids there to flush out the melittin, causing swelling and redness. The pain may last several days, but can be soothed with a cold compress or an antihistamine.

Like you, dogs and cats suffer pain from bee stings, too.

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Bee Sting Allergy: Symptoms of Anaphylaxis

What causes a bee sting?

Bee poisoning refers to a serious body reaction to the venom from a bee sting. Usually, bee stings don’t cause a serious reaction. However, if you’re allergic to bee stings or have had several bee stings, you may experience a severe reaction such as poisoning. Bee poisoning requires immediate medical attention.

Bee poisoning may also be called apitoxin poisoning or apis virus poisoning; apitoxin and apis virus are the technical names for bee venom. Wasps and yellow jackets sting with the same venom, and can cause the same body reaction.

What Are the Symptoms of Bee Poisoning?

Mild symptoms of a bee sting include:

  • pain or itching at the site of the sting
  • a white spot where the stinger punctured the skin
  • redness and slight swelling around the sting

Symptoms of bee poisoning include:

  • hives
  • flushed or pale skin
  • swelling of the throat, face, and lips
  • headache
  • dizziness or fainting
  • nausea and vomiting
  • abdominal cramping and diarrhea
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • decrease in blood pressure
  • weak and rapid heart rate
  • loss of consciousness

Who Is at Risk for Bee Poisoning?

Certain individuals are at a higher risk for bee poisoning than others. Risk factors for bee poisoning include:

  • living in an area near active beehives
  • living in an area where bees are actively pollinating plants
  • spending lots of time outside
  • having had a previous allergic reaction to a bee sting
  • taking certain medications, such as beta-blockers

According to the Mayo Clinic, adults are more likely to have serious reactions to bee stings than children.

If you have a known allergy to bee, wasp, or yellow jacket venom, you should carry a bee sting kit with you when you’re spending time outdoors. This contains a medication called epinephrine, which treats anaphylaxis — a severe allergic reaction that could make breathing difficult.

When to Seek Medical Attention

Most people who’ve been stung by a bee don’t require medical attention. You should monitor any minor symptoms, such as mild swelling and itching. If those symptoms don’t go away in a few days or if you begin to experience more severe symptoms, call your doctor.

If you’re experiencing symptoms of anaphylaxis, such as trouble breathing or difficulty swallowing, call 911. You should also seek medical help if you have a known allergy to bee stings or if you have had multiple bee stings.

When you call 911, the operator will ask for your age, weight, and symptoms. It’s also helpful to know the type of bee that stung you and when the sting occurred.

First Aid: Treating Bee Stings at Home

Treatment for a bee sting involves removing the stinger and caring for any symptoms. Treatment techniques include:

  • removing the stinger using a credit card or tweezers (avoid squeezing the attached venom sac)
  • cleaning the area with soap and water
  • applying ice to ease pain and swelling
  • applying creams, such as hydrocortisone, which will reduce redness and itching
  • taking an antihistamine, such as Benadryl, for any itching and swelling

If someone you know is experiencing an allergic reaction, immediately call 911. While waiting for paramedics to arrive, you can:

  • check the individual’s airways and breathing and begin CPR if necessary
  • reassure the individual that help is coming
  • remove constricting clothing and any jewelry in case of swelling
  • administer epinephrine if the individual has a bee sting emergency kit
  • roll the person into the shock position if symptoms of shock are present (This involves rolling the person onto their back and raising their legs 12 inches above their body.)
  • keep the individual warm and comfortable

Medical Treatment

If you need to go to the hospital for bee poisoning, a healthcare professional will monitor your vital signs, including:

  • your pulse
  • breathing rate
  • blood pressure
  • temperature

You’ll be given medication called epinephrine or adrenaline to treat the allergic reaction. Other emergency treatment for bee poisoning includes:

  • oxygen to help you breathe
  • antihistamines and cortisone to improve breathing
  • beta antagonists to ease breathing problems
  • CPR if your heart stops beating or you stop breathing

If you’ve had an allergic reaction to a bee sting, your doctor will prescribe you an epinephrine auto-injector such as EpiPen. This should be carried with you at all times and is used to treat anaphylactic reactions.

Your doctor may also refer you to an allergist. Your allergist may suggest allergy shots, also known as immunotherapy. This therapy consists of receiving several shots over a period of time that contain a very small amount of bee venom. This can help reduce or eliminate your allergic reaction to bee stings.

Bee Poison Prevention

To avoid bee stings:

  • Don’t swat at insects.
  • Have any hives or nests around your home removed.
  • Avoid wearing perfume outdoors.
  • Avoid wearing brightly colored or floral printed clothing outside.
  • Wear protective clothing, such as long-sleeved shirts and gloves, when spending time outdoors.
  • Walk calmly away from any bees you see.
  • Be careful when eating or drinking outside.
  • Keep any outside trash covered.
  • Keep your windows rolled up when driving.

If you are allergic to bee venom, you should always carry epinephrine with you and wear a medical I.D. bracelet. Ensure that your friends, family members, and co-workers know how to use an epinephrine autoinjector.

How to Differentiate among Bees, Hornets, Yellow Jackets And Wasps

Honey Bee | Bee Facts & Habitat

‘Bees’, ‘wasps’, ‘yellow jackets’, ‘hornets’- the mere mention of these words is enough to make many of us shudder. The fear of those painful stings has, however, caused a great distrust and dislike for these creatures, more than they actually warrant. A lot of people are getting into entomology and apiculture as a passion.

Have you ever wondered the nuances of their characteristics – bees versus hornets versus wasps versus yellow jackets? Understanding begins with knowledge. Their similar physique and pattern lead to confusion and unnecessary fear. There are approximately 20,000 species of bees found across the world (except in the South Pole). The most common types are honey bee, carpenter bee and bumblebee. Wasps are old, so old as to be found in fossils from the Jurassic Period. Till date, around 70,000 species of wasps are known to exist worldwide.

Hornets belong to the genera Provespa and Vespa, and are the largest among the eusocial wasps. Only three belong to Provespa. And all of them are nocturnal. Yellow jackets, on the other hand, are predatory wasps and belong to the genera Dolichovespula and Vespula. It should be noted here that hornets are a subspecies of the latter in spite of being very different in the case of some species. They both belong to the Vespidae family. The yellow jacket is not exactly a hornet. And, the hornet is a type of wasp not native to North America.

Here’s a tabular representation of the creatures and the scientific names of the families they belong to.

Creature Family
Hornets Vespidae
Yellow Jackets Vespidae
Bees Superfamily Apoidea

Clade Anthophilia

Wasps Vespidae

Already confused? Don’t be. Here is a pretty comprehensive guide to help you with a proper understanding of how each of these species differs from the other.

Scientific Name

This one’s for the scientifically aligned. The best thing is always to get your science correct. So here we go.

Bees – Superfamily Apoidea and Clade Anthophilia

Wasps – family Vespidae

Hornets – family Vespidae

Yellow jackets – family Vespidae

Know them by their looks

It is a bit tricky to distinguish wasps from bees, but is possible with a little bit of practice. Bees display a great variety in size, ranging from a few millimeters to a 39 mm, as do the wasps. The largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, measuring around 2 inches in length, and the largest solitary wasp is the Megascoliaprocer, with a wingspan of 11.5 cm. The smallest wasp species is the Chalcid wasp, measuring an unbelievable 0.0055”.

Bees have a darker shade of yellow and are fatter than the wasps. Wasps are thin and long, and unlike bees, have little or no hair. Bees have flat and wide legs while wasps have waxy and roundish ones.

Yellow jackets are very bright with yellow and black markings throughout their bodies while hornets have the yellow alternating with some shade of brown. Hornets with a light reddish brown colour stick out and are easier to distinguish from yellow jackets as compared to the ones with dark brown markings. The bald-faced hornet is very distinctive thanks to its black and white combination. Hornets are larger than yellow jackets. While an average worker yellow jacket is 0.5” and the queen is 0.75”, some hornets can be as long as 2.2”.

Behavioral differences of bees versus wasps

Bees and wasps share a strange relationship. In spite of being close relatives and belonging to the same suborder, behaviorally they are very different. Bees are pollinators whereas wasps are chiefly predators. For example, honey bees are the best and the most celebrated pollinators and they live on only nectar from flowers. Wasps also scavenge, though some species have been known to feed on nectar.

Hornets are the most aggressive among the insects considered here. Bees are very gentle and social in comparison and will sting only to deal with an absolute threat.

Read here – How to keep away wasps

Sting difference

Bees are much more sociable than wasps, and will not sting unless aggravated. They can sting only once in their lifetimes as their sting gets embedded in the skin. Their predatory nature and their habit of scavenging make hornets very aggressive and bring them into more frequent contact with humans. As they retain their stings, hornets can sting multiple times without sustaining any harm to themselves.

Yellow jackets versus hornets is a fascinating comparison. Yellow jackets cause more nuisance than hornets because they find sweets simply irresistible. Meaning that you need to watch out for your glass of fruit juice. This is very important as they have probably visited the garbage dump looking for food before coming to you. Hornets feed on other live insects, meaning they can be actually beneficial.

Bites are hard to deal with everywhere. Yellowjackets sting more frequently than hornets, but those are much less painful, and they usually die after stinging as their stingers get caught in the skin. Hornets can repeatedly sting humans as their stings are not barbed, unlike yellow jackets. This leads to human deaths now and then.

Where do you get the honey from?

Honey bees are the only ones who produce honey, and European honey bees are the most popular. Neither hornets nor yellow jackets, or any other wasp species for that matter, produce honey.

Read here – Know How is Honey Made and Why Do Bees Make Honey


Bees have highly developed nests called hives; these creatures exhibit awesome social order. These bees live in groups called colonies with highly organized practices around division of labor. Their hives can have as much as 40,000 bees during the peak season of spring, but will have only one queen! Bees have wax-producing glands which come to use while building the hexagonal cells known as honeycombs. While members of the subgenus Apis use natural cavities, hollow trees and caves as nesting sites, other subgenera are okay with exposed aerial combs. Some solitary bees rest in the ground near each other, giving the appearance of a colony.

Since wasps have no wax producing glands, they work harder and produce a papery substance using wood pulp. This is made from the action of saliva on chewed wood fibers gathered from local wood. While combs made of these are common, they rather prefer a substrate like the soil or plant stems to create burrows. Nests are also constructed from mud. Solitary wasps, on a completely different note, are often parasitic and build nests only if they are predatory. The division of labor in colonies is similar to that of the bees, though there can be more than one queen present in a single colony.

Hornets and yellow jackets, in spite of their characteristic similarities, have widely different nesting habits. Hornets have nests in the shape of pendulous teardrops which look like the typical beehive. Yellow jackets prefer to nest in confined spaces below the ground, often taking up abandoned rodent nests.

Parasitic wasps, which are solitary, do not have nests at all but depend on the bodies of other creatures, at least in their initial stages. Sometimes, the host is paralysed by certain toxins before the female lays eggs. The host usually dies after the larvae become self-sufficient. Some parasitic wasps develop symbiotic relationships with polydnavirus which severely weakens the host’s immune system.


Both eusocial bees and wasps have a division of labor based on the sex of the bees. And the way the sex of the larvae is controlled by the queen for all the social species is simply amazing. Bees and wasps are famously haplodiploid species, meaning that females develop from fertilized eggs while males develop from the unfertilized ones. This is to maintain the eusociality, which includes collective caring for the brood, division of labor according to sex, and generational overlapping. Some wasp species have females who use mechanisms to recognize their brothers and thus avoid inbreeding.
Bees have the most structured social order amongst similar insects. A single queen is the mother of all the drones and workers, which are sterile females. The presence and number of drones vary according to the colony cycle, but a large number of workers (unfertile females) are always present. Unlike wasps community, where the queen is alone at first, it is the workers who do all the work right from the beginning among bees.

The nests of social wasps including the hornet and yellow jackets are initially built by the queen in the form of paper-thin jacket like structures. The queen then lays eggs which hatch to produce sterile females. These then go on to construct the full-fledged nest, while the queen(s) lays eggs.

How long do they live – bees vs wasps vs hornets and yellow jackets?

The lifespan of the bees depends on their sex. Worker honey bees usually live up to six weeks in the honey production seasons, while the queen of the colony can live for up to five years. The drone lasts either a mating flight or the summer in case of failure of mating. Once summer is over they are kicked out of the hive and eventually die of cold and starvation.

Hornets and yellow jackets have similar lifespans as both are social wasps. This means on an average, the workers, which are sterile females and the most numerous, live for 12-22 days. The drones or fertile males live slightly longer than the former to ensure proper insemination. The queens, or the fertile females, which are the least in number, live the longest, like about 12 months. As the female can store sperm, she can do with only a single mating.

Are they as bad as you think them to be?

As you know by now, no. Bees, hornets, wasps and yellow jackets – all have their set roles to play in the system of nature. And we, as human beings, often benefit from them.

Honey bees, of course, are the only source of natural honey. They also happen to be the best pollinators around, making them the natural preference for gardens and orchards. They are also a source of beeswax.

Wasps do not produce honey nor do most of the wasp species help with pollination. But some of them do, and do it well. As most wasps are parasitic at some point in their lives, some species like those belonging to the Trichogrammatidae are used commercially as a biological control for pests.

Wasp species like the hornet are belligerently predatory and are used for active pest control in horticulture and agriculture. They also act as natural cleaners due to their scavenging nature.

Notable species

Bees – European Honey Bee, Bumblebee

Wasps – digger wasp, spider wasp, velvet ants

Hornets – Japanese hornet, Asian giant hornet, European hornet

Yellow jackets – European Yellowjacket, Eastern Yellowjacket native to North America.

Fascinating, aren’t they? Well, they definitely are more civil and intelligent than you had been giving them credit for all this time. So the next time you think of breaking that big hive in your garden, give second thoughts to the amount of work that has gone into it, and the role it plays in nature. Sure, insect control is always a viable option, but should be done very wisely and only when there are no other options left.

Know more – How to Get Rid of Africanized Honey Bees


Photo by Hartmut Wisch

Genus summary: The genus Agapostemon (ag-uh-PAHST-eh-mon) is widespread and abundant throughout North America, with approximately 40 species in total and five species in California. They are most diverse and abundant in temperate regions and southwestern U.S. deserts. Agapostemon are commonly called “sweat bees” because they are closely related to, and resemble bees in the Halictus and Lasioglossum genera. Unlike those bees however, Agapostemon, are not attracted to human sweat.

Key: Species of Agapostemon key.

Description: Agapostemon are brightly colored metallic green or blue bees. They are medium sized ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 inches (7 to 14.5 mm) long. Most species have a bright metallic green head and thorax, and a black-and-yellow striped abdomen; some females are entirely bright green or blue. Females carry pollen on scopal hairs located on their hind legs. Female Agapostemon are relatively fast-flying bees. Males fly much more slowly because they are often searching flowers for females. Under a microscope, you would look for a shield like indentation on the abdomen to confirm that a large bright green bee is an Agapostemon and the face of the propodeum on the thorax is completely encircled by a clearly raised line.

Similar insects: Osmia species can also be metallic green, but are more robust and carry pollen on the underside of the abdomen instead of on the hind legs. Some cuckoo wasps also look similar to Agapostemon.

Food sources: Agapostemon are generalists. Like other members of the family Halictidae, they are short-tongued and thus have difficulty extracting nectar from deep flowers. Males can be observed flying slowly around flowers looking for females.

Nests: Agapostemon dig deep vertical burrows in flat or sloping soil, or sometimes in banks. Most species are solitary, but some species nest communally. Up to two dozen females may share a single nest entrance, but each individual builds and provisions its own cluster of brood cells. Where a communal nest gallery shares a single entrance, one bee usually guards the hole, with only her head visible from above ground.

Flight season: These are summer to fall bees


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Bee Types

The following six families of bees are found in the New York City area: the Colletidae (18 species), Halictidae (46 species), Andrenidae (63 species), Melittidae (3 species, although these have not been observed in several decades), Megachilidae (40 species), and Apidae (59 species). Commonly encountered and recognizable genera are described below.

Family Colletidae—Plasterer and Masked Bees

Plasterer bees (genus Colletes, 7 species): Medium-sized bees (usually 1.0-1.5 cm long). Several species nest in loose soil and are often observed in early spring.

Colletes inaequalis
Photo by: E. Johnson

Masked bees (genus Hylaeus, 11 species): Very small (<0.8 cm). Not hairy like other bees; carry pollen internally instead of on hairs. Nest in cavities in hollow or pith-filled plant stems. Distinguished by white/yellow “mask” on face, but note that males have more white/yellow than females, and this can vary by species.

Yellow-faced Bee (Hylaeus sp.)
Photo by: S. Nanz

Family Halictidae—Sweat Bees

Small sweat bees (genus Lasioglossum, 49 species): Very small (<0.8 cm). Head and thorax brassy-green with very small hairs on tip of abdomen. Most are greenish but some are bluish. Nest in the ground. Some are social.

Lasioglossum sp.
Photo by: S. Nanz

Green metallic bees (genera Agapostemon, Augochlora, and Augochlorella, 6 species): Medium-sized (~1 cm). Species in the genera Augochlora and Augochlorella are entirely brilliant green. Agapostemon species have a brilliant green thorax but black abdomen. Augochlora species nest in rotting wood while Agapostemon and Augochlorella nest in soil.

Augochlorella sp.
Photo by: J. Ascher

Sphecodes cuckoo bees (genus Sphecodes, 9 species): Small- to medium-sized, sparsely haired, and shiny. Females are often dark red. Parasitize nests of Agapostemon, Halictus, and Lasioglossum.

Sphecodes sp.
Photo by: Tom Murray

Family Andrenidae—Miner Bees

Miner bees (genus Andrena, 57 species): The most diverse group of bees in New York City but also the most difficult to observe. Most are solitary nesters that build their nests in the soil and emerge only in early spring. Can be small to medium in size and exhibit a variety of colorations.

Claytonia bee (Andrena eringinae)
Photo by: J. Ascher

Family Melittidae—Melittid Bees

Macropis oil-collecting bees (genus Macropis, 3 species): Small (< 0.8 cm). Males have entirely yellow face. In addition to gathering pollen, these bees also collect floral oils from yellow loosestrife flowers. These oils are mixed with the pollen as food for their developing larvae and are used to line their brood cells to provide a protective layer. These bees have not been found in New York City in many decades and are of regional conservation concern. They construct nests in the ground, often near wet habitats.

Macropis sp.
Photo by J. Ascher

Family Megachilidae—Leaf-cutter Bees, Mason Bees, and Allies

Leaf-cutter bees (genus Megachile, 18 species): Medium-sized (0.8-1.0 cm), with brown, black, or white bands on abdomen and hairs on the underside of abdomen. Build nests in cavities, including building walls and hollow plant stems such as rose, lilac, and Virginia creeper.

Megachile brevis
Photo by: K. Matteson

Leaf-cutter cuckoo bees (genus Coelioxys, 5 species): Medium-sized with tapering triangular abdomen. Parasites of leaf-cutter bees.

Coelioxys sayi
Photo by: J. Ascher

Mason bees (genus Osmia, 8 species): Rotund, medium-sized bees, at times with brilliant metallic green, blue, or purple coloration. Similar to Megachile species, they carry pollen on underside of abdomen.

Osmia bucephala
Photo by: J. Ascher

Wool carder bees (genus Anthidium, 2 species): Rotund, medium-sized bees with distinctive yellow and black coloration. The common name is due to the behavior of the females, who scrape hairs off of leaves to create a soft nest where they lay their eggs. Often observed on the garden plants lamb’s ear (Stachys lanata byzantina) and foxgloves (Digitalis species).

Wool carder bee (Anthidium manicatum)
Photo by: E. Johnson

Family Apidae—Bumble, Honey, Cuckoo, Long-horned, and Carpenter Bees

Bumble bees (genus Bombus, 11 species): Large (>1 cm) hairy bees. Hives are often constructed in tree cavities or abandoned rodent burrows. A colony includes a queen and up to 100 workers.

Bombus fervidus
Photo by: K. Matteson

Honey Bee (Apis mellifera, 1 species): The common honey bee, medium-sized with golden/brown coloration. Exist in New York City both as managed hives and feral colonies in parks, cemeteries, and other green spaces.

Honey bee
Photo by: P. Ersts

Nomada cuckoo bees (genus Nomada, 19 species): With yellow striations on abdomen, may appear wasp-like. Primarily parasitize miner bees (genus Andrena) but also other genera. Rare.

Nomada articulata
Photo by J. Ascher

Long-horned bees (genus Melissodes, 9 species): Medium-sized. Named for the long antennae found on males. Several species are very fast flyers.

Melissodes sp.
Photo by: S. Nanz

Ceratina sp.
Photo by: S. Nanz

Large carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica, 1 species): Males have white/yellow on face and more hair on abdomen, which may appear bumble bee-like. Females have no white/yellow on face and a shiny black, hairless abdomen. Build nests in lumber, including park benches, porches, etc.

Large Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa virginica)
Photo by: E. Johnson

Green Sweat Bee

Scientific Name: Agapostemon texanus

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Family: Halictidae Genus: Agapostemon

Other Common Names: halictid bee
Approximately 9–11 mm long. These bees can be easily spotted because of their bright metallic green or blue colouration. Females are bright green all over, whereas males have a bright coloured head and thorax with a yellow-and-black striped abdomen. Females have hair-like structures, called scopae, to transport pollen on their back legs.
Similar Species: Genus Augochlora and Osmia may be confused for the Agapostemon genus because all have metallic species within the genus. However the rear edge of the thorax is flat and curved with a ridge on Agapostemon, while Augochlora is rounded and ridgeless. Osmia is broader all over and carries pollen beneath the abdomen instead of the legs.
Photo Gallery:

Photo by: CWF

Tweets about “pollinators”
Range: Found across southern Canada.
Habitat: Green sweat bees can occur where there is a supply of nectar- and pollen-rich blooms and suitable nesting habitat. This is a ground-nesting bee that nests in bare soil where the ground is either flat or sloping.
Diet: These bees gather pollen and nectar for themselves and their developing young from many different flowers, which their short tongues can easily access.

These are solitary bees, meaning they nest alone. They dig burrows deep in the ground to lay their eggs. Sometimes these nests are communal, where a burrow entrance is shared by group of females. Each female branches out from the entrance to create her own tunnel where she nests alone and takes care of her own young. The responsibility of guarding the main entrance is shared among the group.

Primary Ecosystem Roles:

  • Pollinator


(verified February 13, 2014)

  • COSEWIC: Not assessed
  • Nature Serve: National rank: not available, Global rank: GNR (Not Yet Ranked)

NOTE: While these assessment organizations do their best to stay current, the process of assigning or updating a species status may take a while to reflect real life changes.

Threats and What You Can Do:
The two main threats to most pollinators are habitat loss and pesticide use. Although this species is not currently at risk, you can plant native plants such as wild roses sunflowers and asters in your garden to help support green sweat bees and other pollinators.

How to know the Insects. Third Edition. Bland, Roger G.; Jaques, H.E., 1978. WCB/McGraw-Hill. United Sattes of America.

Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity. Marshall, Stephen A., 2006. Firefly Books Ltd. Richmond Hill, Ontario.

The Xerces Society Guide Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies. Xerces Society Guide, 2011. Storey Publishing. North Adams, Massachusetts

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