- Identifying & Treating Hollyhock Diseases And Pests
- 5 Do-Not-Miss Winter Activities in Shipshewana
- Scenic Fall Drive in Shipshewana, Indiana
- 15 Best Things to Do in Shipshewana, Indiana
- What Are Hollyhock Weevils: Alleviating Hollyhock Weevil Damage
- What are Hollyhock Weevils?
- Hollyhock Weevil Damage
- Controlling Hollyhock Weevils
- Puccinia malvacearum (hollyhock rust)
- Symptoms and Signs
- Ecology and Spread
- Geographic Distribution
- Diagnostic procedures
- Resources and References
- Hollyhock rust
- Living Life Graciously
- What is Hollyhock Rust?
- Hollyhock rust – Puccinia malvacearum
Identifying & Treating Hollyhock Diseases And Pests
Hollyhocks can grow to eight feet or more in height and produce large flowers in shades of purple, pink, and yellow. A major problem with hollyhocks is a fungal disease called rust which can survive on infected plant parts from year to year. Other pests such as weevils, caterpillars, and slugs can damage or kill your hollyhocks.
Rust is a very common infection that’s caused by the fungus Puccinia malvacearum. You can help to prevent initial rust infection by giving the plants good ventilation. Avoid planting hollyhocks too close together as crowding causes high humidity and low air circulation, which is the perfect breeding ground for rust. Water the soil around the plants rather than the plants themselves because the rust spores can attach easier to damp or wet leaves. Avoid overly wet and overly dry soil conditions. These will weaken your hollyhocks, making them more susceptible to rust. Any time you prune your hollyhocks, immediately dispose of the cuttings. Never leave them on the ground, as the dying foliage may attract fungus.
The first sign of a rust infection is reddish brown spots on the underside of leaves near the bottom of the plant. The top side of the leaf can show a larger orange or yellow spot, sometimes with a red center. The more spots there are, the more chlorophyll is destroyed and misplaced. Hollyhock growth will appear deformed and stunted. In severe cases, hollyhock leaves will begin to fall off.
Halt the development and spread of rust by removing infected leaves as soon as you identify them. Heavily infected plants may need to be disposed of altogether since they will likely infect other hollyhocks. Do not use the leaves or any infected plant material for compost. Regularly treat this persistent infection with topical fungicides according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Many fungicides are made specifically to treat rust. Many gardeners have had luck with a lime sulfur solution. Make sure to treat the undersides of the hollyhock leaves as well. Always treat your hollyhocks after rain that may wash away fungicides. At the end of the season, remove all hollyhock growth down to the base and destroy it. Do not use the hollyhock seeds elsewhere.
TIP: Rachel Klein, our gardening expert, advises: “If you’ve had problems with rust in previous seasons, you may want to consider starting preventative applications of fungicide in the spring when the hollyhock’s first leaves appear.”
Hollyhock weevils are tiny insects that multiply rapidly. They are a dark grey color with reddish legs, usually growing to about 1/8 inch in length. Weevils multiply quickly and can produce many generations each year. The insect drills into the plant stem and flower buds for food. Weevils that are around when the seeds have developed will drill through the seed pods to get at the seeds and destroy them. Unless massively infected, a plant can survive a weevil attack—though the flowers, if they survive, will be damaged. For cases of light infestation, place a cloth underneath your hollyhock and shake it vigorously to dislodge the weevils. Quickly dump them in a bucket of soapy water. Introducing helpful nematodes into the garden can help to kill them off. Nematodes can be bought at garden supply stores or ordered online.
TIP: Rachel also suggest: “An insecticidal soap can be effective against weevils, but a specific pesticide is the only real solution for extensive infestations. Find a pesticide that lists hollyhock weevils specifically and use it as instructed.”
Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of many types of moths. They become active early in the spring and can do heavy damage to newly emerging plants. They can grow as long as 2 inches and come in a variety of colors ranging from grey to pink, green, and black. They tend to be active only at night and when they are not moving, will typically be curled up. Cut worms will eat the leaves between the veins, turning them into skeletons. They can also do serious damage to new growing stems, often causing collapse.
Mature hollyhocks are not very attractive to cutworms, but you do need to protect any new growth. Because cutworms travel across the surface of the soil, you can erect a fine mesh fence to keep them off new plants. A long strip of material about 12 inches high and set into the soil at the bottom will be an effective barrier. BT (Bacillus Thuringiensis) is a biological control that will paralyze the cut worm’s intestinal tract. Sprinkle BT on the soil surrounding your hollyhock, and reapply after rainfall. This will keep cutworms from ever reaching them. Be careful not to get any BT on the leaves of the plant, as this may effect beneficial insects as well.
TIP: Rachel notes that: “Gardeners have also had luck sprinkling coffee grounds and crushed eggshells around their hollyhocks to discourage cutworms. Parasitic nematodes will hunt and kill cutworms. You can purchase nematodes from a garden supply center or order them online.”
Slugs and Caterpillars
Slugs and caterpillars will attack hollyhocks, but if the numbers are small the plant will be able to cope with minor damage. Kill slugs with a simple application of table salt. Unless you can identify the caterpillar as being from an unwanted creature, it is best to leave them alone or move them to a less important plant.
The Hollyhock (Alcea rosea) is truly an old fashioned garden plant I like to grow for their tall spikes with showy flowers. They are the quintessential cottage garden flower and are great for filling in large areas like the back of a flower bed, along a fence or a wall.
Hollyhocks are biennial plants. They spend the first year of their life building roots and storing energy, growing close to the ground in a circular rosette fashion. After going dormant for the winter, they re-emerge, growing into a much taller flowering plant that will set seed and then die. Allowing the seed to fall to the ground will ensure more plants for following years. This plant likes full sun and fertile, well drained soil. Surround them with a 2 to 3-inch layer of mulch to keep weeds at bay, retain moisture and keep the soil cooler during the hottest days of the summer.
The major disease problem that hollyhocks face is rust, a fungal disease. It starts as orange, powdery looking spots on the underside of leaves. Swellings soon emerge within these spots. As the swellings develop they release masses of reddish-brown spores covering a major portion of the underside of the leaf. Leaves that are infected eventually turn gray or tan and die. The reddish spores are easily spread by splashing water, rain and wind. Lower leaves will show the condition first and the disease will progress upward during the growing season. The extent and severity will depend on weather conditions. This fungus will overwinter in plant debris and if not disposed of, the symptoms will appear early the next spring in new growth when weather conditions are favorable.
You can help to prevent rust infection by giving the plants plenty of space and ventilation. Place plants in a sunny, dry location so that moisture can quickly evaporate form the foliage. Water the soil around the plants rather than the plants themselves as the rust spores will attach easier to wet foliage. Remove infected leaves as soon as you have identified them and do not use the infected leaves or plant parts in your compost pile. Treatment would include use of a fungicide. As in any use of a chemical, read and follow all label directions. Start spraying in the spring as new growth starts. You may need to spray several times to protect the young plants. At the end of the season, remove all infected hollyhock plant material down to the base and destroy it.
When it comes to pests, the hollyhock sawfly is quite common. The larval form of the hollyhock sawfly is a leaf skeletonizer that eats it way through the leaves, leaving them looking like swiss cheese. The little green worms are up to ½” long with a black spot on their head and full stomachs. The plant should be treated as soon as the first holes are seen with Sevin or Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). If you decide to forego treatment, the plant will still live, it just will not look very good. Hollyhock weevils are tiny insects that drill into the stem and flower buds for food. Spider mites, caterpillars and slugs also plague hollyhocks.
As always, Happy Gardening!
More information is available online. The Purdue Extension Service can be reached at 499-6334 in LaGrange Co., 636-2111 in Noble Co., 925-2562 in DeKalb Co. and 668-1000 in Steuben Co.
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What Are Hollyhock Weevils: Alleviating Hollyhock Weevil Damage
Hollyhocks (Alcea rosea) lend an old-fashioned charm to the back of the garden border, or serve as a seasonal living fence, creating a little extra privacy through the spring and summer. Even though these plants are often extremely tough, a little hollyhock pest control will keep your bed filled with blooms for years to come.
What are Hollyhock Weevils?
Hollyhock weevils (Apion longirostre) are gray snout beetles with orange legs, measuring 1/8 to 1/4 inch long, including their pronounced proboscis, which is significantly longer in females than males. Hollyhock weevil adults overwinter in the soil of infested hollyhock beds, emerging from hiding in spring to feed and lay their eggs. The female chews a small hole in a flower bud before inserting a single egg, repeating this process many times.
The hollyhock weevil egg doesn’t interfere with flower formation, but instead becomes enveloped inside the hollyhock seed pod as it develops. Here, the larvae feed and pupate, emerging as adults and dropping into the soil from late summer to early fall. Hollyhock weevils produce just one generation a year in most locations.
Hollyhock Weevil Damage
Weevil pests on hollyhocks cause only minor visual damage, chewing small holes in hollyhock leaves and flowers. However, they can cause serious damage to the overall lifespan of hollyhock stands. Larval hollyhock weevils develop within the hollyhock seed pods, using embryonic seeds for food. When the seed pods are mature, they are often empty, preventing hollyhocks from self-seeding. Since these plants are short-lived perennials at best and may require two years to produce blooms, hollyhock weevil larvae can seriously disrupt the life cycle of your hollyhock bed.
Controlling Hollyhock Weevils
A careful watch for adults and feeding damage in the spring will clue you in to the nighttime visitations of hollyhock weevils. You should examine your plants carefully after dark with a flashlight to determine the extent of your pest problem before deciding how to proceed. Often, hollyhock weevils can be handpicked from hollyhock leaves and buds and dropped into a bucket of soapy water to drown.
Safer insecticidal options are available when hollyhock weevils cling tightly to leaves or there are so many feeding on your plants that hand-picking becomes an insurmountable task. Spray insecticidal soap directly on these pests; it will kill them on contact. If caught early in the season, you may be able to prevent them from laying eggs by checking nightly, destroying the pests you find, until no more hollyhock weevils are detected.
If your hollyhock seeds couldn’t be spared from the hollyhock weevil’s efforts, you should destroy seed pods as soon as they become visible to destroy eggs, larvae and pupae. Although this will have a serious impact on the next generation of hollyhocks, chances are good that many of the seeds would have already been consumed. In the long-run, removing one season’s seeds may save your entire stand and keep the area friendly to future hollyhock plantings.
The wreckage of the RMS Titanic may soon be lost, thanks to a newly discovered rust-eating bacteria.
Researchers at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Canada have been examining the bacteria eating away at the remains of the famous ship as it sits on the ocean floor.
Using DNA technology, Dalhousie scientists Henrietta Mann and Bhavleen Kaur and researchers from the University of Sevilla in Spain were able to identify a new bacterial species collected from rusticles (a formation of rust similar to an icicle or stalactite) from the Titanic wreck. The iron-oxide-munching bacterium has fittingly been named Halomonas titanicae.
The bacteria have critical implications for the preservation of the ship’s wreckage.
“In 1995, I was predicting that Titanic had another 30 years,” Mann said. “But I think it’s deteriorating much faster than that now. Perhaps if we get another 15 to 20 years out of it, we’re doing good … eventually there will be nothing left but a rust stain.”
The wreck is covered with rusticles; the knob-like mounds have formed from at least 27 strains of bacteria, including Halomonas titanicae.
Rusticles are porous and allow water to pass through; they are rather delicate and will eventually disintegrate into fine powder. “It’s a natural process, recycling the iron and returning it to nature,” Mann said.
For decades following the ship’s sinking in 1912, the Titanic’s final resting spot remained a mystery. Discovered by a joint American-French expedition in 1985, the wreck is located a little more than 2 miles (3.8 kilometers) below the ocean surface and some 329 miles (530 km) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.
In the 25 years since the discovery of the wreck, the Titanic has rapidly deteriorated.
While the disintegration of the Titanic makes preservation of the ship impossible, the bacteria doing the damage may be useful in accelerating the disposal of other old ships and oil rigs. Further, it could also help scientists develop paints or protective coatings to guard against the bacteria for working vessels.
While the loss of the wreck over time concerns Dan Conlin, curator of maritime history at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, he notes scientists know much more about the Titanic than most shipwrecks.
“What is fascinating to me is that we tend to have this idea that these wrecks are time capsules frozen in time, when in fact there all kinds of complex ecosystems feeding off them, even at the bottom of that great dark ocean,” Conlin said.
The researcher’s findings will be published Dec. 8 in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.
- Titanic Quiz: Fact or Fiction
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This article was provided by OurAmazingPlanet, a sister site of LiveScience.
Rust, plant disease caused by more than 4,000 species of fungi and funguslike organisms of the phylum Oomycota. Rust affects many economically important plant species and usually appears as yellow, orange, red, rust, brown, or black powdery pustules on leaves, young shoots, and fruits. Plant growth and productivity are commonly reduced, and some plants wither and die back. Control involves growing resistant varieties and rust-free plants, destroying alternate host plants, observing stringent sanitation measures, and using appropriate fungicides.
During their life cycle, rust pathogens parasitize either one species of plant (autoecious, or monoecious, rust) or two distinct species (heteroecious rust). One heteroecious rust with five spore forms during its life cycle is black stem rust (Puccinia graminis) of wheat and other cereals and grasses. Other heteroecious rusts include cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae), which primarily uses Eastern red cedar as one host and various apple and crabapple (Malus) species as the other; white pine rust (Cronartium ribicola), with five-needled pines as one host and currant and gooseberry (Ribes) species as the other; and a rust (Melampsora medusae) with Douglas fir as one host and poplars as the other. Autoecious rusts include those that attack asparagus, bean, chrysanthemum, coffee (see coffee rust), hollyhock, snapdragon, and sugarcane.
White rust, caused by several funguslike oomycetes in the genus Albugo, attacks many herbaceous plants. Light yellow areas develop on leaves, with chalky-white, waxy, and then powdery pustules that finally darken on the underleaf surface and other aboveground parts. Leaves may wither and die early, stems and flower parts may be greatly swollen and distorted, and growth is stunted. Control methods are similar to those employed for other rusts.
Puccinia malvacearum (hollyhock rust)
Taxonomy Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycota Class: Pucciniomycetes Order: Pucciniales Family: Pucciniaceae Genus: Puccinia Species: P. malvacearum Subspecies: P. malvacearum Scientific Name Puccinia malvacearum
Bertero ex Mont. Common Names and Diseases hollyhock rust
Elizabeth Bush, Virginia Tech
Reviewed by: Margery L. Daughtrey, Cornell University
Hollyhock rust is caused by Puccinia malvacearum. Teliospores and basidiospores are the only spores produced. During the summer, light chestnut-brown teliospores form in blister-like pustules on the lower leaf surface, petiole and stem; later they fade to whitish and germinate to produce basidiospores. The two-celled teliospores (occasionally 1-, 3- or 4-celled) are oblong (12-26 µM x 35-75 µM), generally tapering toward both ends, and have a hyaline pedicel that is up to twice the length of the spore. The smooth, yellow to cinnamon-brown teliospore wall is 1-4 µM thick on the sides of the teliospore and 5-10 µM at the apex.
Symptoms and Signs
Initial symptoms of the disease are yellow-orange spots on the upper leaf surface and raised, blister-like pustules that develop on the lower leaf surface, petiole and stem. Leaves on diseased plants brown, shrivel and die. Leaf symptoms typically start near the bottom of plants and progress upward. Severely diseased plants defoliate prematurely, but plants typically are not killed.
Symptoms on upper leaf surface of the weed, common mallow.” style=”max-width:120px; max-height:80px;”/>
Ecology and Spread
Puccinia malvacearum is an autoecious, microcyclic rust, causing disease on many species in the Malvaceae family. On Alcea rosea (hollyhock), the disease is a common and very destructive disease. The disease also occurs on other ornamental hollyhocks: Alcea rugosa (Russian hollyhock) and Alcea ficifolia (fig-leaf hollyhock), although these two species have some resistance to the disease. Weed hosts, such as Malva rotundifolia (common mallow), are significant in that they provide a reservoir of inoculum for new infections on hollyhock. Like other rust fungi, P. malvacearum is an obligate pathogen. The resting spores (teliospores) can survive on host plant debris. Since P. malvacearum is systemic, it also survives in infected plant host tissue through the winter.
Hollyhock rust is reported on a number of genera in the Malvaceae family worldwide.
Plant hollyhock in full sun in locations with good air circulation and soil drainage. Space plants to promote foliar drying and avoid overhead irrigation. Remove diseased leaves as soon as symptoms appear, to reduce inoculum for new infections and remove severely diseased plants. Since hollyhock rust is systemic, it is advisable to remove any diseased plants at the end of the growing season: Bury, burn or bag plant debris and dispose in the landfill. Start new plants from seed or purchase disease-free transplants each year (note that hollyhock is a biennial). Manage weeds in the vicinity to reduce the chance of new infections from inoculum produced on other hollyhock rust hosts, such as common mallow. Of the ornamental hollyhocks, A. rosea is very susceptible to the disease; A. rugosa (Russian hollyhock) and A. ficifolia (fig-leaf hollyhock) have some resistance. Resistant varieties are available in the seed trade but these are not reliable in all situations, since different races of the pathogen exist and resistance is not effective against all races of the pathogen. Fungicides labeled for control of rusts on ornamental plants can be used preventatively for management of this disease. The first application should be made when the first leaves are expanding and treatments should be repeated according to label directions throughout the growing season. A wetting agent is recommended, since hollyhock leaves are hairy and good coverage is necessary for fungicide efficacy.
The disease is easily recognized by yellow spotting on upper leaf surface and the blister-like pustules that form on the lower leaf surface. The disease can be confirmed by examination of the morphological characteristics of the teliospores. Since P. malvacearum is an obligate parasite it cannot be cultured.
Resources and References
1. Arthur, J. C. 1934. Manual of Rusts in United States and Canada. Hafner, New York.
3. Fox, R. T. V. 1995. Fungal foes in your garden: Mallow and hollyhock rust. Mycologist 9:129.
4. Gleason, M. L., Daughtrey, M. L., Chase, A. R., Moorman, G. W. and Mueller, D. S. 2009. Diseases of herbaceous perennials. APS Press, St. Paul.
5. Horst, R. K. 2013. Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook. Springer, New York.
6. Sivanesan, A. 1970. Puccinia malvacearum. .Sheet 265.
- National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 2011-41530-30708 as part of “Diagnostic Image Series Development for Supporting IPM in the Southern Region” (USDA-NIFA-RIPM-003351)
July 8, 2015
Rusts and smuts
Alcea, Althaea, Lavatera and Malva.
Small, brown spots develop on the underside of foliage. Raised, bright yellow or orange pustules are visible on upper leaf surfaces. When disease is severe, large portions of the foliage are killed.
Lesions caused by hollyhock rust on the upper leaf surface.
Spores can overwinter on diseased plant tissues and infect new foliage the following year. Spores are also produced on susceptible weeds. These can subsequently infect and cause disease on hollyhocks. Spores are wind-dispersed.
Numerous rust pustules on hollyhock foliage.
Disease control on seedlings is especially important. Fungicide applications at regular intervals are necessary when disease is severe. Plants should be cut back as soon as flowering is done. Plant debris should be removed and destroyed, not composted. Several weeds in the mallow family are also susceptible and should be controlled to limit inoculum in the growing area.
Raised, orange-brown pustules of hollyhock rust on the lower leaf surface.
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Living Life Graciously
Well this is on of my ‘learn as you go’ type of posts. I’ve had gorgeous hollyhocks for a few years now (grown from seed originally!). They really are a showstopper by sheer size alone! Last year I noticed that the leaves started to become mottled just about at the same time that the flowers started appearing. I thought maybe it was just the lifecycle of the plant – obtaining its’ fruition and then dropping leaves as it slowly ends its cycle for the season. However, this year that started happening much earlier and it was much more invasive. I discovered the culprit is a rust fungus (Puccinia heterospora). It is very disfiguring and even though it does not destroy the plant, you’d almost rather it be gone that look at it. I am currently treating my plants with a fungicide. Not sure how I’ll do, but will update this post as I go along. Meanwhile, I have copied off some information from a site “Gardening Know How” below.
What is Hollyhock Rust?
Caused by the fungus Puccinia heterospora, hollyhock rust is a disfiguring disease that infects members of the Alcea (hollyhock) family. It begins as yellow spots on top of the leaves with rusty pustules on the undersides.
Over time the spots can grow together and destroy large sections of the leaves, causing them to die and drop off. At this point, the stems may also develop spots. Although the plant may not die, you may want to put hollyhocks with rust fungus out of their misery because of the severe disfigurement.
Does hollyhock rust spread to other plants? Yes, it does! It only spreads to other members of the Alcea family, so most of your other garden plants are safe. There are mallow weeds that are members of the family that can act as a host reservoir for the disease, so it’s best to keep weeds away from hollyhocks.
Hollyhock rust disease occurs anywhere you find hot, humid temperatures. This is especially true in the southeast where these conditions persist throughout most of the summer. Below are some hollyhock rust treatments to try. Bear in mind that you’ll have more success if you employ several of these strategies at once.
When you first notice rust spots, pick off the leaves and either burn them or seal them in a plastic bag and discard them.
- Keep the soil around the plants free of debris, and keep the garden weed free.
- Spread a thick layer of mulch under the plants to prevent last year’s spores from re-emerging.
- Water the soil rather than the leaves. If possible, use a soaker hose so the soil won’t splatter onto the leaves. If you must use a spray of water, direct the spray at the ground and water early in the day so that the leaves that get wet will dry completely before sundown.
- Make sure the plants have good air circulation. They look great growing up against a wall, but the air can’t circulate around them and moisture builds up.
- Cut down hollyhock plants at the end of the season and burn or bury the debris.
Hollyhock rust – Puccinia malvacearum
Pathogen: Puccinia malvacearum
Hosts: Alcea, Althaea, Lavatera, and Malva.
Symptoms: Small brown spots develop on the underside of foliage. Raised, bright yellow or orange pustules are visible on the upper leaf surface. When disease is severe large portions of the foliage are killed.
Spread: Spores can over winter on diseased plant tissues infecting new foliage the following year. Spores are also produced on susceptible weeds these can subsequently infect and cause disease on hollyhocks. Spores are wind dispersed.
Management: Disease control on seedlings is especially important. Fungicide applications at regular intervals are necessary when disease is severe. Plants should be cut back as soon as flowering is done. Plant debris should be removed and destroyed, it should not be composted. Several weeds (in the mallow family) are also susceptible; these weeds should be controlled to limit inoculum in the growing area.
Plant & Pest Diagnostics
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