Hawaiian ti plant brown leaves

Indoor Ti Plant is rapidly dying

Cordyline terminalis, or Ti Plant, needs very bright light, including up to 4 hours of direct sun daily. Lack of adequate light is most likely the main reason why it has declined so rapidly. Ti Plants also like high humidity, temperatures between 60-85 degrees, and regularly moist soil. In the Northwest, many gardeners grow them as annual potted plants in the landscape because of their light requirements.
If you are seeing webs, spider mites may have been attracted to the plant because of its weakened state. Spider mites thrive in low humidity. Wash the plant thoroughly with clean water to remove existing mites. Visit the independent nursery center near you and read the label on insecticidal soaps to see which one you can use for spider mites on houseplants. There are some good low toxicity ones on the market, but be sure to use them as the label states–spider mites are persistent and may require repeat treatments at regular intervals.
To try to save the plant, try moving the plant outdoors for the warmer months of the year and moving indoors in the brightest location you have to overwinter indoors with regular misting to keep humidity high. Don’t move it right out from inside to full, bright sun, though. Gradually over the course of weeks, move it from shade to increasing sun exposure or the plant will sunburn, too.
There is no way to get the lower leaves to grow back, as this naturally occurs as the plant grows taller. If you aren’t successful with a “comeback”, you might consider replacing the plant with a different kind that thrives in lower light. I would suggest Sanseveria (snake plant) or ZZ plant as more carefree options that need less light and less humidity.

Drooping And Yellow Leaves On Hawaiian Ti Red Sister Plant

Answer #1 · Maple Tree’s Answer · Hi Michelle-The Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant – (Cordyline fruticosa ‘Red Sister’) is faily easy to grow as long as you are in a warmer location in Texas. It does well in hardiness zones 10 and 11. Several pests and disease can affect the health of this plant. Correct soil moisture, too little or too much, is many times the problem that will affect the growth and coloring of the leaves.
Fungal diseases can infect the cordyline plant with symptoms such as tan to reddish-brown spots on the leaves. Other spotting with yellow hallos around the spots can be fungal disease also. These diseases can cause yellowing, then browning of the leaves before dying and then dropping. Spotting or discoloration of the leaves can also be caused by pests that can cause these symptoms also. Too much watering of the plant and watering from above can cause crown rot and fungal diseases when the leaves and soil are constantly wet.
If the leaves are turning yellow and drooping with no signs of spotting or pests I would assume the problem is soil moisture. Although the cordyline is a tropical plant it does not require overly moist soil or wet roots. The soil whether planted in ground or in a pot needs to be very well draining. If planted in a container make sure it has drainage holes in the bottom so roots are never sitting in standing water. Too much water over a period of time can cause fusarium root rot with symptoms of wilting and yellowing of the lower leaves. Too little water can also cause yellowing of leaves, leaf drop, and reduced growth. I would first check for the correct amount of moisture. Dig down 4 to 6 inches a few places aroung the plant. Make sure the soil feels cool and moist, not wet. If too wet let the soil dry out somewhat before watering again. If the soil feels dry it will need to be watered more often to keep moist. The soil may also feel moist near the top of the soil, but may not be getting enought watering to penetrate to the roots depth. Every so often the plant should be deep watered using a slow running hose for awhile to soak the area well. If in a pot make sure when watering that it is watered enough so that water exits the drainage holes in the bottom. Its important to make sure all the soil is moistened. Sometimes while watering dry soil in pots the water will drain quickly between the dry soil and the sides of the pot before it has moistened or been absorbed by all the dry soil in the pot.
You can upload a picture of the plant and an upclose picture of the yellowing leaves. This may help to determine better what might be causing the drooping and yellowing. Let me know what you find as far a the soil moisture after checking and be sure to check for any signs of pests or disease. I have had good results growing cordyline here in zone 9b-10a with no pest or disease problems, but watering can easily affect the growth and coloring of the foliage.
Hope this helps.

Despite its name, the Hawaiian Ti plant, or Cordyline, actually does not originate in Hawaii. It is believed to be native to Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea, later transported around the Pacific Islands, where it was used as a source of food by early Polynesians. Currently, the plant also grows in the wild in Australia, Hawaii, and the islands of the Pacific. Hawaiians have found many used for the plant since its introduction, including using the leaves to make up a hula skirt and to make covers for surfboards.

Though they thrive outside, Hawaiian Ti plants also make excellent houseplants as they are easy to grow and take care of. Known for their vibrant colors, Hawaiian Ti plants come in a range of colors, with leaves varying from shades of green to purple, red, pink, yellow, and white. Some varieties also produce fragrant flowers and berries.

Cordyline plants, commonly known as Ti plants, are often confused with Dracaena plants, as both types of plant are sometimes labeled and sold as Ti plants. The most popular variety of Ti plant used as a houseplant is the Cordyline terminalis, though this is frequently mislabeled and sold as Cordyline fruticosa, or Dracaena terminalis. Similarly, the Dracaena fragrans is also sometimes sold to consumers under the label of ‘Ti plant,’ as they both look very similar in appearance.

It’s important to distinguish exactly which type of plant you have, as they will have various needs and requirements in terms of care. The simplest way to identify whether your plant is a Cordyline or Dracaena is checking the roots. A true Cordyline will have white roots, while the Dracaena plant will have orange or yellow roots.

Hawaiian Ti Plant Overview

Quick Facts

Origin Southeast Asia
Scientific Name Cordyline
Family Asparagaceae
Type Evergreen
Common Names palm lily, cabbage tree, good luck plant, Hawaiian ti plant, baby doll ti, ti leaf
Maximum Growth 10 ft
Ideal Temperature 65-80º F
Varieties 27 recognized varieties exist, including Cordyline minalis, and Cordyline fruticosa
Light Brightly lit areas
Watering Enjoys consistently moist soil, water frequently
Repotting Every two years when young, every four years when mature
Humidity Enjoys high humidity
Pruning Not essential
Toxic Poisonous to cats and dogs
Pests Spider mites and thrips

How to Care for Your Hawaiian Ti Plant

Cordyline in a pot


The Hawaiian Ti plant likes to be kept in continually moist soil, though will need less frequent watering during the winter. Rather than watering little and often, water deeply during growth periods in order to maintain a damp soil and prevent it from drying out. In winter, be careful to avoid overwatering and allow the soil to dry out between each watering during colder months. Use a well-draining pot to ensure waterlogged soil does not occur, which can result in root rot. The Hawaiian Ti plant can be harmed by fluoride, so collect rainwater to water your plant if you live in an area where high levels of fluoride are present in your tap water.


If you have planted your Hawaiian Ti plant outside, then it will benefit from a mix of shade and bright direct light. However, when grown as a houseplant, the Hawaiian Ti plant enjoys bright light, out of direct sunlight. The exception to this is green leafed varieties, which thrive in direct light. Other colors of Hawaiian Ti plant can suffer burn on their leaves when in direct light, so if your plant lives on a windowsill, be sure to filter the light with curtains or window blinds.


As a tropical plant, the Hawaiian Ti plant enjoys high levels of humidity. To replicate this inside, frequently mist your plant with a water misting spray bottle. Another way to create humidity is to place the plant pot on a tray of pebbles surrounded by water. As the water evaporates, it will create a more humid environment for the plant. Alternatively, use an electric humidifier. Although Hawaiian Ti plants thrive best in humid atmospheres, they will do just fine in lower levels of humidity as long as the air is not very dry.


This plant does well with temperatures ranging from 65-80º F (College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources- University of Hawaii). It will struggle if the temperature drops below 60º F and should be kept away from cold draughts. If you keep your plant on a windowsill or near an external doorway, make sure your move it to a more protected area during colder seasons so as not to let it get too cold.


Use a fertilizer high in nitrogen for the Hawaiian Ti plant. A half strength solution should be fed once every two weeks while the plant is in the growing season. It is not necessary to feed the plant outside of growing season.


Propagation of the Hawaiian Ti plant is usually successful and can be achieved by using stem cuttings. Cut a stem from a mature plant to about 3 to 5 inches and remove all of the leaves. Plant the stem cutting in the sand and heat it from the underneath to a temperature of at least 62º F. Shoots will grow from the stems eyes and turn into leaves. When a handful of shoots have appeared on the stem cutting, it is time to replant it in potting soil. To encourage growth, you could use rooting hormone on the stem cutting; however, this is not necessary for successful propagation.

This plant also grows well from seed, which should be sown during the warmer part of spring. Start seeds in a propagator, moving the plant to a bright spot once the weather heats up. They can be potted up individually as soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle manually. The young seedlings should spend winter in a greenhouse or on a bright windowsill, ready to be planted outside or in pots when the next spring arrives.


Hawaiian Ti plants are capable of growing up to 10 feet, though this is usually too tall for a houseplant. If you are growing your Ti plant inside, you can trim back the stem to your desired height. Trimming the plant will also help give it a fuller appearance. Aside from trimming the height, Ti plants do not need to be pruned, aside from removing the occasional dead leaf or flower. You can also prune if you become unhappy with the look of the plant, in which case, you can thin out the leaves of the plant if it becomes too wild looking. For outdoor Ti plants, remove any leaves or stems which have suffered from winter damage.


Cordyline Fruticosa Rubra Flower

The Hawaiian Ti plant sometimes produces flowers, and more commonly when grown outside. The flowers appear in clusters in shades of pink or white and are very fragrant. The flowers are quite small, usually around half an inch in width. The plant also produces fruit in the form of red berries.


While the plant is in its early years, it will need to be repotted once every two years, once the roots have filled the current pot. Carefully remove the plant from its current pot and place into a slightly bigger pot where it will have more growing room, and cover the roots in a light loam-based soil. Once the plant reaches maturity, it will need to be repotted less frequently, around every four years. During the time in between repotting, you can also change the topsoil in the plant pot to maintain the health of the plant.

Outdoor Planting

If you wish to grow your Hawaiian Ti plant outside, plant it during spring so that it has enough time to become strong before winter approaches. To plant in the ground, dig a hole roughly twice the width of the root ball and add some compost to sit the plant on. To ensure good drainage, you could add some horticultural grit, as the Ti plant does not like to sit in wet soil. Place the plant in the hole, cover it over with soil, and water fairly heavily. Once mature, the plant should do well without too much attention and will not need any physical support to steady it.

If planting in a container pot outside, use compost that is loam based, and a horticultural grit to aid in good drainage (University of Illinois Extension).

Outdoor Care

For Hawaiian Ti plants living outside, it may be necessary to provide some winter care to help protect them from winter damage. Collect the leaves upward and secure together using a soft fabric. This will protect the leaves from harsh winds and will also prevent water from sitting on the crown of the plant and rotting. In especially cold areas with little shelter, you may want to wrap the plant up in fleece. This will help to prevent damage from frost or snow. If your Ti plant is in a container pot, you should move it indoors or to a greenhouse during colder months. If this is not possible, wrap the plant in fleece and shelter it against a wall or fence to help protect it from winter damage.


There are many varieties of the Cordyline, which all fall into the category of Ti plant. Some of the most popular are listed below.

Cordyline australis- ‘Red Star’

Cordyline australis – Red Star

This plant features long burgundy sword-like leaves and enjoys lower humidity and dry conditions. When grown outside, it produces small white flowers. This Ti plant works particularly well outside in planters and suits a minimalist style garden display.

Cordyline pumilio- ‘Dwarf cabbage tree’

Cordyline pumilio- ‘Dwarf cabbage tree’ – Credit toKahuroa

Unsurprisingly, this Ti plant is one of the smallest varieties, growing up to a maximum of around three feet. It originates in New Zealand and is grown primarily as a food crop for its ability to add sweetness to foods.

Cordyline Electric Pink

Cordyline ‘Electric Pink’ – Credit to cultivar413

This striking pink plant was produced from a mutation of another Ti plant, the Cordyline banksii. It is extremely popular in outdoor gardens because it is very tolerant of an array of conditions, able to survive even extreme temperatures once matured. The vivid pink leaves make this plant an ideal centerpiece in the design of a garden, adding color to the landscape all year round.

Cordyline baptisii

The leaves of this Ti plant are pink and yellow-streaked.

Cordyline amabilis

This plant features leaves with white and pink spots.

Cordyline tricolor

Cordyline fruticosa ‘Tricolor’ – Source

This plant’s leaves are streaked with bold splashes of pink, green, and yellow.

Cordyline firebrand

Cordyline fruiticosa ‘Firebrand’ – Credit toMokkie

This plant features pale veins and leaves in a purple/red color. It is also sometimes called the Red Dracaena.


The Hawaiian Ti plant is poisonous to dogs and cats when ingested. It contains toxins called saponins, which can result in symptoms such as vomiting, lack of appetite, and low mood. If you become aware that your pet has eaten some Ti plant, take them to a vet quickly for evaluation, where the animal may need medication to help them recover. Though the plant can produce unpleasant symptoms when ingested, it is not known to be fatal.

The plant is not toxic to humans and can be eaten when cooked.

Common Problems

Spotted Leaves

Spots can appear on the leaves of Ti plants when they are stressed or have been physically damaged. When living outside, this usually happens as a result of cold wind, snow, or heavy rain. To prevent this, you may need to bring potted Ti plants inside for the winter months or provide some winter protection outside with temporary shelter or covers.

Leaf Drop/ Yellow or Brown Leaves

Ti plants suffering from foliage discoloration or leaf drop is usually a result of improper growing conditions. As a jungle plant, they prefer warmer temperatures and high humidity, though too much heat will cause similarly troublesome conditions. If your Hawaiian Ti plant is suffering from these symptoms, try to increase the humidity with regular misting sprays or by using a humidifier, especially in dry seasons. You may also find that your Ti plant struggles to grow if it does not experience good levels of humidity or if it is allowed to get too cold or wet during winter.

Slime Flux

This condition occurs in outdoors Ti plants following a particularly bad winter, producing a foul-smelling, slimy liquid. The problem is caused by two things: initially, frost damage can cause ice to form in the stem and root vessels, which results in damage to the tissue. The damage then provides entryways for the second problem, bacteria. Bacteria, which usually lives harmlessly in nearby soil, access the plant through the frost wounds. When spring comes around the sap in the plant rises, it becomes fermented by the bacteria, and bacterial slime flux sets in.

Young Ti plants are at most risk from frost damage, though it has been known for frost to destroy mature Hawaiian Ti plants beyond repair. To identify frost damage, look for rotting on the stem of the plant where frost has invaded the tissue. The center of the plant where leaves grow from can also become brown and rotten. Another sign of frost damage is a pile of fallen leaves on the ground surrounding your Ti plant, along with floppy and wilting leaves.

Slime flux is even easier to spot, with an oozing, smelly liquid appearing on the stem of the plant. The liquid may be orange in color and can create patches of black staining on the stem.

There is no cure for bacterial slime flux, though, fortunately, it is rarely a death sentence for the Ti plant. If your plant falls victim to slime flux, you can scrub away the slime to try to reduce the smell and help with the appearance of the plant, though there is nothing you can do to remove the slime completely without cutting down the plant. If the slime is severe, you may wish to prune the plant right back down to its trunk, allowing it to regrow in the summer. Depending on the positioning of the slime, it may be necessary to cut the plant back down to ground level, where new shoots should sprout in late summer (Royal Horticultural Society).

Protection from frost damage is your best bet to prevent slime flux from reoccurring. Collect your Ti plant’s leaves up to the center in an umbrella-like fashion, and cover the whole plant with several layers of fleece fabric. This should help to prevent frost damage during exceptionally cold months, but it is not a failsafe solution.


The Hawaiian Ti plant is quite resilient against pests, though it sometimes falls victim to spider mites and thrips. Spider mites are hard to identify as they are incredibly tiny, and it is often only possible to know the plant has spider mites by spotting their webs. Spider mites will suck the sap from the Ti plant, resulting in discoloration on the leaves. To remove spider mites, use a strong stream of water to spray them away, and maintain a regular watering schedule.

Thrips can also be a problem for Hawaiian Ti plants, as they suck the sap, resulting in discolored, scarred leaves, and sometimes, stunted growth. Thrips are harder to treat and may require the use of an insecticidal spray after cutting off badly affected areas of the plant. Alternatively, for outdoors Ti plants, introduce beneficial predators to the area, such as ladybirds, which will help control the thrip population.

Thank you for reading, and good luck with your Hawaiian Ti plant! Comment below with any thoughts or questions.

Red Cordyline (Ti Plant) Curling Leaves, Spotted & browing- issue?

It sounds like this was sold as a houseplant, in other words, it was not outdoors in full sun when you bought it. Then you had it in the house, and then moved it straight outside, where it gets direct sun, without hardening off or acclimatizing it first.

Grown indoors, these plants require bright daylight – a little direct sun early or late in the day is fine, but generally, they tend to burn in direct sun. Outdoors, if you want to put it in a sunny spot, it would have needed acclimatizing gradually to sunlight, so maybe starting off with dappled sun, then an hour or so morning or evening. The leaves may be suffering sunburn, and certainly wind damage – when the tips fray like this, its usually wind/sun combination.

Another thing – you should never, ever treat a plant with something for insects or fungal infection if you cannot see any insects, nor identify any fungal infection. The problems you’re seeing are more likely to be cultural rather than because of infestation or infection.

I can’t see the pot, so don’t know whether its large enough, nor whether you’re standing it in something underneath to catch water, but you should water thoroughly when the surface of the compost feels dry to the touch, and allow excess water to drain away freely, without leaving any in an outer pot or tray. In the meantime, its probably best to either bring it back indoors until it recovers, or just move it to a very sheltered, bright but sunless spot. Also inspect the leaves and stems thoroughly for signs of insects or anything that shouldn’t be there that isn’t flour or anything else you’ve put on the plant yourself.

Echter’s Plant Finder

Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant foliage

Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant foliage

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant foliage

Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant foliage

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Height: 5 feet

Spread: 3 feet


Hardiness Zone: 10a

Other Names: Good Luck Plant


Young leaves on this variety emerge brilliant pink, then gradually darken to cherry red with burgundy-black variegation; spectacular when massed on the landscape; perfect for adding a lush, tropical feel to indoor spaces

Features & Attributes

Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant’s attractive crinkled sword-like leaves emerge hot pink, turning cherry red in color with showy black variegation throughout the year. The flowers are not ornamentally significant.

This is an open multi-stemmed evergreen houseplant with an upright spreading habit of growth. Its relatively coarse texture stands it apart from other indoor plants with finer foliage. This plant should never be pruned unless absolutely necessary, as it tends not to take pruning well.

Planting & Growing

When grown indoors, Red Sister Hawaiian Ti Plant can be expected to grow to be about 5 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 3 feet. It grows at a medium rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for approximately 10 years. This houseplant will do well in a location that gets either direct or indirect sunlight, although it will usually require a more brightly-lit environment than what artificial indoor lighting alone can provide. It does best in average to evenly moist soil, but will not tolerate standing water. The surface of the soil shouldn’t be allowed to dry out completely, and so you should expect to water this plant once and possibly even twice each week. Be aware that your particular watering schedule may vary depending on its location in the room, the pot size, plant size and other conditions; if in doubt, ask one of our experts in the store for advice. It is not particular as to soil type or pH; an average potting soil should work just fine.

There are many factors that will affect the ultimate height, spread and overall performance of a plant when grown indoors; among them, the size of the pot it’s growing in, the amount of light it receives, watering frequency, the pruning regimen and repotting schedule. Use the information described here as a guideline only; individual performance can and will vary. Please contact the store to speak with one of our experts if you are interested in further details concerning recommendations on pot size, watering, pruning, repotting, etc.


Cordylines & Dracaenas

Cordyline fruticosa & Dracaena spp.

Cordylines and dracaenas have fabulous foliage for dramatic color and provide height and a look of the tropics to South Florida gardens.

These colorful foliage plants come in almost endless varieties and provide colors like pink, cream, bronze, lime-green, and red to areas with some shade.

Though they’re in different plant families, both are easy-care plants.

They look very similar and have almost identical landscape uses, so we’ve grouped them together here.

To learn the name of each pictured on this page – as on all photos on this site – run your cursor over the photo.

Cordyline plants are typically lumped together and called “ti plants.”

The most popular and commonly grown is “Red Sister” cordyline (pictured below), with its brilliant fuschia-pink new growth and bronze-magenta leaves.

Ti is correctly pronounced “tee,” though most of us fall into the habit of saying “tie” simply because everyone seems to do so.

Cordylines show off their best color during cooler weather…a real boon for snowbirds.

They’re considered a good luck plant in Hawaii where every property seems to have at least one ti plant.

Dracaenas, like cordylines, have the benefit of shapeliness – they fit nicely into narrow spaces – and enough height to set off a tropical garden.

They’re also considered to be deer-resistant.

Dracaena marginata (pictured below), the most well-known of this group, has spiky green leaves rimmed with a thin line of red.

It’s a very popular houseplant in northern climates, but here it works well as a striking outdoor plant, especially useful in narrow areas.

This plant can add architectural interest against a blank wall or makes a unique accent by an entryway.

These plants – both cordylines and dracaenas – do flower…some more noticeably than others.

One, the “Corn Plant” (dracaena fragrans) – pictured below – has extremely fragrant flowers, though the blooms don’t look like flowers, more like a bunch of knots on a rope. However if you catch them at dusk tiny white blossoms open in each “knot” to release their heady perfume.

The smell is intensely sweet, especially at dusk.

The most common complaint about cordylines (and some dracaenas) is that eventually they can grow tall and leggy, with thin bare trunks (called “canes”) and foliage only on top.

To encourage a fuller look at varying levels, prune during warm spring weather. To do this, cut off a cane at a lower height and it will usually sprout a new “head” or two from the sides of the cut.

Rather than chopping off the heads of all the canes at once, cut the tallest one first.

After it sprouts new growth, do the next tallest one. This way some foliage is visible while you’re pruning the plant.

Plant each cutting back into the ground near the base of the original plant (or start it in a container) – most will root and grow. Remove most of the leaves to help the cutting get rooted.

In some cases, the openness of bare canes can create an interesting silhouette. But if you prefer to camouflage them, use cordylines and dracaenas as backdrop plants or use low spreading plants to hide a bit of the legginess.

A few varieties stay fuller at the base, such as the deeply-colored ‘Black Magic’ cordyline (pictured below). Strong windy weather can make this plant drop some lower leaves, so a protected spot is best to keep it full.

Plant specs

Heights vary by variety but most of these plants are slow growers.

Zone 10 is best but in Zone 9B keep them in containers to move inside during cold weather.

Bright shade works fine for all, though some can take more sun than others…morning sun, preferably.

You often see ti plants doing fine in sunny areas, but they can become brown-edged and raggedy, so give yours afternoon shade.

Ask at the nursery when you purchase one of these plants what kind of light it prefers.

Plant in an area protected from wind so the foliage doesn’t become shredded and unattractive.

Plant care

Add top soil or organic peat humus to the hole when you plant, especially if the area is very sandy and dry.

Trimming is totally unnecessary, other than pruning in late spring to early summer, if you like, to control height and/or encourage fuller growth.

These plants don’t like to stay wet, so give them regular irrigation with time to dry out a bit between waterings.

Dracaenas are a bit more drought-tolerant but, with either plant, too-infrequent waterings will cause the tips of the leaves to turn brown.

Fertilize twice a year (spring and fall) with a good quality granular fertilizer. Don’t over-fertilize these plants.

Plant spacing

You can plant groupings of most of these plants very close together for upright plants. A few exceptions are Song of India and Black Magic.

Song of India dracaena (dracaena reflexa) – pictured above – has a swirling, meandering habit, but dracaena marginata, corn plant dracaena and others grow straight up.
Black Magic cordyline grows in a large swirly pattern and can grow 8 feet tall or more. This one needs some elbow room to look its best, so place it at least 3 feet from the nearest plant.

Depending on variety, these plants can be placed as close as 2 feet from the house. Come in from walks and drives 3 feet to allow for future growth.

Both cordylines and dracaenas make excellent container plants. Dracaenas do fine as houseplants as well.

Landscape uses for cordylines and dracaenas

  • backdrop
  • tall accent for entry or garden bed
  • architectural accent
  • semi-privacy plant by a window, deck, porch or patio
  • along a blank wall

COMPANION PLANT SUGGESTIONS: Variegated ginger, firespike, croton, pinwheel jasmine, hope philodendron, Indian hawthorne, pentas, peace lily, and dwarf tibouchina.

Other plants you might like: Heliconia, Canna Lily

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