- Health Benefits of Consuming Kidney Bean
- Kidney Beans Farming Guide:
- Care Of Kidney Beans – Learn How To Grow Kidney Beans
- How to Grow Kidney Beans
- Care of Kidney Beans
- Harvesting Kidney Beans
- Kidney Beans
- How to Cook, Soak and Freeze Dried Red Kidney Beans
- Cooking With Legumes: Kidney Beans
- A Slight Sneak Peek at the Life Cycle of a Bean Plant
- Kidney Bean Pods Stock Photos
- Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Depending on the variety, the kidney bean crop will be ready for harvesting within 120-130 days. You can expect to harvest when the pods are fully grown and ripe and their color turn to yellow. Majority of the leaves turn yellow or drop when the crop becomes ready for harvesting. Timely harvesting kidney beans is important, because delaying can cause shattering.
Keep the harvested plants in sun for 3-4 days. And after proper drying, thresh with either sticks or bullocks. Then clean the seeds, and use seed bins for storing the clean seeds.
Total wield depends on many factors such as type of soil, variety of seed and farm management practices. But on an average, you can expect 1000 to 1200 kg kidney bean seeds per hectare.
Health Benefits of Consuming Kidney Bean
The kidney bean is very nutritious and healthy. Some notable health benefits of consuming kidney beans are listed below.
- The kidney beans may help in improving brain function and also in preventing cancer.
- Consuming it on a regular basis may help to control blood sugar levels and may prevent diabetes.
- The kidney bean seeds are a very good source of protein and are rich in fiber.
- Consuming the seeds may help in preventing bad cholesterol and it may help in bone strength/prevent osteoporosis.
- Regular consumption may help to keep your heart healthy, and it also help in maintaining healthy skin.
- Regular consumption of kidney beans also help in weight loss, due to it’s high fiber content.
Growing kidney bean is becoming popular day by day throughout the world, and it’s a very important crop around the world. The beans are very tasty and nutritious. Actually the delicious taste and flavor of the kidney bean seeds is something which is irresistible to the food lovers. Growing kidney bean commercially can be profitable if you follow everything mentioned above perfectly. Good luck!
Kidney Beans Farming Guide:
Kidney Beans Farming.
Introduction of Red Kidney Beans: – Kidney beans have become popular all over the world due to its health benefits as well as their savory texture. Kidney beans are termed as “King of Nutrition”. Brazil is top producer of kidney beans in the world. Red kidney beans are popularly known as “Rajma” in northern India. Various healthy dishes can be prepared using this bean in India. These beans are grown in most of the states northern and southern parts of India. Kidney beans are also called as “common bean”, “haricot bean”, “navy bean or snap bean”.
Health Benefits of Red Kidney Beans:- Some of the health benefits of kidney beans are as follows.
- Kidney beans may help in preventing cancer.
- Kidney beans may improve brain function.
- Kidney beans may control blood sugar levels and may prevent diabetes.
- Kidney beans are high source of protein.
- Kidney beans may help in bone strength/prevent osteoporosis
- Kidney beans may help in preventing bad cholesterol (LDL).
- Kidney beans help in maintaining healthy skin.
- Kidney beans are rich in fiber.
- Kidney beans may help in preventing irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
- Kidney beans are heart healthy.
- Kidney beans help weight loss due to its high fiber content.
Health Benefits of Kidney Beans.
Major Red Kidney Beans Grown States in India:- Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand ,West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh ,Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
High Yielding Hybrid Varieties of Red Kidney Beans in India:- Some of the improved varieties of Rajma beans are, VL Rajma 125,VL Rajma 63,. PDR‐14, HUR‐15 (Malviya Rajma 15),HUR‐137 (Malviya Rajma 137), Amber, Utkarsh, Arun.
Climate Required for Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop grows well in tropical and temperate areas receiving 60 to 150 cm of rainfall annually. Ideal temperature for better yield is 15°C to 25°C.
Soil Requirement in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Red kidney beans thrives on a wide variety of soils. However, well drained loamy soils are the best for its cultivation. This crop is very sensitive to salinity and soil pH should be 5.5 to 6.0 to obtain better yields. Soil with high organic matter/FMY promotes more vegetative growth. This crop requires fine seedbed and good moisture in the soil for better germination of the seeds. A deep ploughing should be followed by 3 to 4 harrowing will get to the fine tilth of the soil.
Land Preparation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- 2 to 3 ploughing should be given by tractor or local desi plough in the main field and the soil must be pulverized with levelled field which makes the soil to fine tilth. Apply Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) or any organic compost to make the soil rich in fertility. Field must have good internal drainage, so the water stagnation could be avoided.
Seed Rate in Red Kidney Beans Farming:– The seed rate required in Red Kidney Beans Farming is about 50 kg/ha.
Seed Treatment in Red Kidney Beans Farming:-The Red Kidney Beans seeds to be treated with Captaf (or) Thiram @ 4 grams/per Kg of seeds. The bio-fertilizer is 200 grams for every 30 Kg of seed mixed with about 1300 ml of water or cooled off boiled rice starch. The seeds need to be dried in shade for 30 to 45 minutes before sowing.
Growing Season of Red Kidney Beans:- Red kidney beans are cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif season in various parts of India. Sowing season of kidney beans varies from state to state.
For Up and Bihar regions–> 1st and 2nd fortnight of Nov month.
For Maharashtra – Mid of October
Early varieties can be sown in October end where as late varieties can be sown till November mid.
For Kharif season crop, Middle of May to Middle of June is best sowing season.
For spring season crop, Feb to 1st week of March is best for sowing.
Propagation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Propagation should be done by seed.
Spacing in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Row-to-Row spacing is about 30 cm and Plant-to-Plant spacing is about 10 cm to 15 cm. Seeds should be sown @ depth of 6 cm to 7 cm to absorb moisture in the soil.
Manures and Fertilizers in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop lack biological Nitrogen fixation due to poor nodulation. Therefore it needs good amount of Nitrogen about 100 to 125 kg/ha. This crop also requires 60 to 70 kg of P2O5/ha and adding potassium hardly effects the yield.
Irrigation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop requires pre-sowing irrigation for better germination of the seed and critical stage for irrigation is about 3 weeks to 4 weeks after sowing. Four irrigations @ 25, 50, 75 & 100 days after sowing the seed are required for optimal yield. This crop does not require frequent irrigations in rainy season. In case of heavy rains and make sure the soil has excellent drainage to avoid the water logging.
Weed Control in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Initial stages plantation, this crop suffers from weeds. first 1 month period is critical stage to control the weeds. One hand weeding can be carried out after 1 month of sowing seeds. Pre-emergence of pendimethalin @ 1 kg per hectare (or) 1 kg/ha of fluchloralin should be incorporated as part of pre-plantation process.
Pests and Diseases in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- To protect the plants from anthracnose or any leaf diseases, spray Captaf (or) Diathene M-45 every 9 to 14 days interval. Captaf, 1 gram/liter of water (or) Diathene M-45, 2 grams/liter of water should be sprayed.
To control the Pod borer pest, spray Endisulfan @ 1.5 to 2 liters/500 liters of water per hectare.
Harvesting of Red Kidney Beans:- Red Kidney Beans crop will be read for cutting when the pod turns to brown colour and the harvesting to be done after 120 to 130 days for maturity. Harvested plants should be kept on sun for 3 to 4 days and threshing can be done by bullocks or with sticks/sickle. Use seed bins for storing the clean Red Kidney Bean seeds.
Yield of Red Kidney Beans: – Yield of any crop mainly depends on three factors: i) Type of Soil ii) Farm Management Practices iii) Variety of Seed. In Red Kidney Beans farming, an average yield is about 10 to 12 quintals/ hectare.
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Care Of Kidney Beans – Learn How To Grow Kidney Beans
Kidney beans are a healthy inclusion to the home garden. They have antioxidant properties, folic acid, vitamin B6 and magnesium, not to mention they are a rich source of cholesterol lowering fiber. One cup of kidney beans provides 45 percent of the recommended daily intake for fiber! High in protein, kidney beans and other beans are a vegetarian’s mainstay. They are also a good choice for folks with diabetes, hypoglycemia or insulin resistance because this rich fiber content keeps sugar levels from rising too rapidly. With all that goodness, the only question is how to grow kidney beans.
How to Grow Kidney Beans
There are a number of kidney bean varieties to choose from. Some of them, like Charlevoix, are more prone to viruses and bacteria, so do your research. They come in both bush and vine varieties.
In the same family as black beans, pinto and navy beans, these big red beans are a staple in most chili recipes. They are only used dried and then cooked, as the raw beans are toxic. A few minutes of cooking time, however, neutralizes the toxins.
Kidney beans do best in USDA growing zones 4 and warmer with temps between 65-80 F. (18-26 C.) for most of their growing season. They don’t do well transplanted, so it’s best to direct sow them in the spring after the last frost date for your area. Don’t plant them too early or the seeds will rot. You may want to lay down some black plastic to warm the soil.
Plant them in a full sun exposure in well-draining soil. Beans don’t like to get their “feet” wet. When growing kidney beans, space the seed 4 inches apart for vining beans and 8 inches apart for bush varieties, one inch to 1 ½ inches below the soil surface. The growing kidney bean seedlings should emerge between 10-14 days from planting. Keep in mind that the vining types will need some sort of support or trellis to grow on.
Beans shouldn’t be grown in the same area more than once every four years. Plants such as corn, squash, strawberries and cucumber benefit from companion planting with beans.
Kidney beans can be container grown, but it is best to use a bush variety. For each plant, use a 12-inch pot. Keep in mind that it takes 6-10 bean plants to supply enough for one person’s use so container growing, while possible, may be impractical.
Care of Kidney Beans
The care of kidney beans is minimal. Beans produce their own nitrogen, so it usually isn’t necessary to fertilize the plants. If you feel compelled, however, be sure not to use a food that is high in nitrogen. This will only stimulate lush foliage, not bean production.
Keep the area around the beans free from weeds and keep them lightly moist, not wet. A good layer of mulch will aid in retarding weeds and maintaining moist soil conditions.
Harvesting Kidney Beans
Within 100-140 days, depending upon the variety and your region, the harvesting of kidney beans should be near. As the pods start to dry out and yellow, quit watering the plant. If it is not too humid and you have left plenty of space between plants, the beans may well dry on the plant. They will be hard as rocks and desiccated.
Otherwise, when the pods are the color of straw and it’s time to harvest, remove the entire plant from the soil and hang it upside down inside in a dry place to allow the beans to continue to dry out. Once the beans have completely cured, you can keep them in a tightly sealed container for about a year.
4.3 Red kidney beans
The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean (P. vulgaris), so named because of its kidney-like shape and its colour. The optimum moisture range is 12–14%. The colour of kidney beans ranges all the way from very light red to very dark, almost purple. ‘Hard seed’ is a term reserved for those seeds that take up water slowly or not at all during soaking because of a relatively impermeable seed coat. ‘Hard seeds’ are often found after storage of dried beans in an atmosphere of very low humidity. A small percentage of hard seeds may be expected in kidney beans held under such conditions. These beans generally do not soak up completely and may remain undesirably hard, even after canning.
Storage. Storage of the dry kidney beans for several days prior to canning in atmospheres of moderate humidity increases the permeability of the seed coats of hard seed and reduces the probability of incompletely soaked hard beans being found in the canned product. However, dry beans of any kind cannot be held at high humidity for periods longer than several days, or they will become mouldy.
Cleaning. If the beans have not been previously cleaned, they should be passed through a clipper cleaner or similar grain-winnowing mill before use to eliminate loose dirt and small pieces of foreign material. Destoners may also be used. It is good practice to conduct some inspection at this time for the removal of any off-coloured or mouldy beans. The extent of preliminary inspection required depends on the quality and source of raw material.
Water. The hardness of the water used for soaking, blanching, and brine for canning of kidney beans is a very important factor influencing the tenderness of the finished product. In general, when soft water is used, the texture of the canned beans is soft, and when the water is hard, its effect is to toughen the skins and firm the texture of the beans.
Water most desirable for use in canned kidney beans has a total hardness of approximately 85–120 ppm. If water of zero hardness, or a water with high bicarbonate or carbonate content is used for soaking, blanching, and brine, the canned beans may have objectionably soft texture, and matting in the can may result. In this case, shorter soaking and blanching periods are advantageous, and the processes recommended for sterilisation may suffice to provide sufficiently soft texture. If the water hardness exceeds 170–200 ppm, longer soaking, blanching, and processing times are necessary. Excessively hard water may be softened and mixed with unsoftened water in the proportion necessary to provide water of the most desirable hardness. When starting a canning operation on kidney beans, trial packs should be made to determine the optimum soaking and blanching schedules.
Soaking and destoning. Follow the same procedure as mentioned earlier in Section 4.2.
Blanching. Blanching procedures are similar to those mentioned in Section 4.2. Kidney beans are usually blanched from 5 to 10 min in water at 93–99 °C (200–210 °F). Overblanching causes splitting of the skins and results in excessively soft texture, leaching of starch into the brine, and matting of the beans in the cans. Immediately after blanching, the beans should be washed in cold water. Inspection after blanching is the same as mentioned earlier in the chapter.
Cans. Cans made from fully lacquered electrolytic tinplate are recommended.
Filling. Filling is done automatically with equipment that places a desired quantity of beans in the can and completes the fill with brine. Standard high-speed pea fillers are commonly used. It is necessary to fill the can with sufficient brine to cover all the beans after processing because beans that protrude above the brine into the headspace area are subject to dark discolouration.
The fill-in weight of beans required to give a satisfactory fill in the processed can varies according to the amount of water absorbed during soaking and blanching. For beans that have absorbed water during soaking and blanching to the extent of 90–100% of their original weight, a fill of approximately 9–10 oz. (255–284 g) in a No. 2 of fill capacity 19 oz. (540 g) can will be satisfactory. Variations in soaking or blanching schedules, or any other factors that result in variable moisture pickup, must be compensated for by changing the fill-in ratio of beans to brine. When starting operations, canners should pack trial cans using varying fill-in weights to establish the proper fill for the prevailing conditions and soaking–blanching schedules.
Brine or sauce. A salt and sugar brine is commonly used for canning soaked dried kidney beans. There is considerable variation in brine formulae used by various canners, and an example of a brine is given in Table 4.11. The brine should be added to the cans at a temperature as near the boiling point as possible. Red kidney beans may be packed in mild spiced brine (e.g., spice oil with cayenne pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and onion may be used), the recipe varied according to the taste of the canner or the demands of the trade.
Table 4.11. Brine for red kidney beans
|Water||Make up to 100 L|
With continuous agitating cooking, the beans may require some additional hardness added to the brine to avoid an objectionable degree of starch weeping during processing. With a soft water supply of less than 140 ppm hardness, 100–200 ppm of calcium chloride added to brine or use of combination salt tablet containing 2.0% calcium chloride is usually very beneficial.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration food additive regulations permit the addition of 165 ppm of Na2EDTA to preserve colour. EDTA treatment can best be incorporated through the use of combination salt tablets containing 1.6% Na2EDTA and, with continuous agitating cooking, 2.0% calcium chloride. Local legislation must be consulted before any additives are used.
Closing. When adequate filling temperatures are maintained, atmospheric closure is satisfactory for canned red kidney beans. If the average can temperature is below 60 °C (140 °F), steam-flow closure may be used to secure a higher vacuum. It is important that there be no delay between the can closing and processing operations.
If the beans are packed in a heavy, thickened sauce, or if they are baked, the guideline processes are the same as those given in Table 4.5.
These processes are considered sufficient to sterilise the product. It is frequently necessary, however, to use longer processes to soften the beans to a satisfactory tenderness. The hardness of the water used for soaking, blanching, and brine makeup is the principal factor influencing the effect of the process on the tenderness of the beans. It has often been found necessary to increase the time of processing from 10% to 50% above the processing times required for sterilisation, as listed in these tables, to obtain the desired tenderness in beans packed under various canning conditions.
Cooling. Immediately after processing, the cans should be water cooled until the average temperature of the contents is 95–105 °F (35–41 °C). No. 10 cans should be pressure cooled to prevent buckling of the ends or straining of the seams.
Discolouration. Canned kidney beans are somewhat susceptible to discolouration, resulting from metal contamination. Equipment containing copper or copper-bearing alloys should be eliminated as far as possible. The presence of only a few parts per million of copper and iron results in off-coloured beans and, in extreme cases, causes dark coloured brine. Discolouration of any beans protruding into the headspace area is likely during processing and the early portion of the storage period. Adequate brine fill is necessary to prevent this type of discolouration.
5 from 11 votes Jump to Recipe Published March 22, 2017 – Last Updated July 28, 2019
How to Cook, Soak and Freeze Red Kidney Beans – Learn how to cook dried red kidney beans to prepare them for use in recipes. Includes storage and freezing techniques.
This tutorial will teach you how to cook, soak, prepare and freeze red kidney beans for use in recipes. Red kidney beans are believed to have originated in Peru over 8,000 years ago, along with several other beans known collectively as “common beans.” They were cultivated in Louisiana during the 17th century and planted by Spanish settlers. When Haitians arrived in New Orleans, red beans and rice became a popular dish in the regional cuisine. Red beans hold up well during cooking, making them perfect for simmered dishes.
Kidney beans should always be well cooked. It is important to note that you should never cook raw, dried kidney beans in the slow cooker. According to the F.D.A., red kidney beans contain high concentrations of Phytohemagglutinin:
“The syndrome is usually caused by the ingestion of raw, soaked kidney beans, either alone or in salads or casseroles. As few as four or five raw beans can trigger symptoms. Several outbreaks have been associated with “slow cookers” or crock pots, or in casseroles which had not reached a high enough internal temperature to destroy the glycoprotein lectin. It has been shown that heating to 80°C may potentiate the toxicity five-fold, so that these beans are more toxic than if eaten raw. In studies of casseroles cooked in slow cookers, internal temperatures often did not exceed 75°C.”
Beans and legumes are a great source of fiber, protein, fiber, iron, B vitamins, potassium, magnesium and many other beneficial nutrients. I prefer dried beans over canned for several reasons. They are more economical than canned beans and do not contain the unnecessary additives like sodium.
The method below uses a ratio of 10 cups of water per pound of dried kidney beans. If you plan to use a different amount, please adjust accordingly using this ratio. You may notice that the color of dried kidney beans that have been cooked on the stovetop are lighter in color (more pink) than canned versions (which tend to be deep red in color). I believe this has something to do with the cooking method involved. Either way, it’s not a cause for concern.
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How to Cook, Soak and Freeze Dried Red Kidney Beans
5 from 11 votes Servings
13 servings Prep Time
1 hour Cook Time
45 minutes Kosher Key
Parve Total Time
1 hour 45 minutes Calories 117 kcal Print Recipe
Learn how to cook dried red kidney beans to prepare them for use in recipes. Includes storage and freezing techniques.
- 1 lb dried red kidney beans (please refer to instructions below if you plan to cook more or less)
- 20 cups water, divided
- salt (optional)
You will also need: large pot with lid, colander, freezer bags or containers (optional)
1 pound (16 ounces) of dried kidney beans = 2 pounds 7 ounces (39 ounces) cooked beans, or a little over 6 1/2 cups of cooked beans. Serving size is 1/2 cup cooked beans.
- The method here uses a ratio of 10 cups of water per pound of dried red kidney beans. If you plan to use a different amount, please adjust accordingly using this ratio. In a large pot or bowl combine the beans with water at a ratio of 10 cups of water per pound of dried beans. Soak the beans in the water, either overnight at room temperature or through the quick soak method (outlined below). Soaking speeds up the cook time, helps the beans to cook more evenly, and makes them easier to digest.
- Once the beans have soaked, you will notice that they have increased in size, indicating that they have absorbed moisture.
- To quick soak the beans, you will need 1 hour. Place the kidney beans into the bottom of a large pot and cover with water. Bring beans to a boil. Let them boil for 3 minutes, then remove from heat. The beans will expand, so make sure you cover by several inches of water to allow for this. After soaking using either method, drain and rinse the beans.
- Place the beans in a large pot and cover again with the same ratio of fresh water. It is important to use fresh water for boiling; the soaking water contains oligosaccharides, released from the beans during soaking, that can lead to digestive discomfort. Add salt to the cooking water if desired to give the beans more flavor (I use about 1 tablespoon salt for every 10 cups of water). Place on the stovetop and bring to a boil, then reduce to a simmer. Simmer for 45 minutes, or until you reach desired tenderness. I recommend stirring the beans a few times throughout the cooking process so that the beans at the bottom of the pot don’t soften before the beans at the top.
- Once the beans have finished cooking, drain them in a colander.
- If freezing, allow the beans to cool, you can speed this process by rinsing them with cold water. Then transfer them to a freezer safe container, I recommend resealable bags, and freeze until needed. I like to measure out 1 ¾ cups of beans in each bag, which is equivalent to the amount in a standard sized can. They will keep in the freezer for up to 6 months.
- When ready to use your frozen beans, remove the beans from the freezer and thaw. They can be reheated on the stovetop, added to soups and stews or used however you would use canned beans.
Nutrition Facts How to Cook, Soak and Freeze Dried Red Kidney Beans Amount Per Serving Calories 117 % Daily Value* Sodium 23mg1% Potassium 474mg14% Carbohydrates 21g7% Fiber 5g21% Protein 7g14% Vitamin C 1.6mg2% Calcium 40mg4% Iron 2.3mg13% * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.
Cooking With Legumes: Kidney Beans
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Shaped like the organ after which they are named, kidney beans are large, dark red legumes (“white kidney beans” are a close relative, properly known as cannellini beans). Descended from the “common bean” along with black and pinto beans, kidney beans both hold their shape and absorb flavors extremely well, making them a first choice for dishes with long simmering times, such as chilis, soups, stews and curries.
In northern Indian cuisine, kidney beans, or “rajma,” are a staple, often served as a masala curry over rice. Kidney beans are also popular in the Creole cuisine of the American South, especially in New Orleans and the rest of southern Louisiana, where they are often enjoyed simply as “red beans and rice.” The dish is traditionally eaten on Mondays in order to use up ham bones left over from Sunday dinner (though with kidney beans’ robust flavor, they hardly need the addition of the meat).
But kidney beans aren’t just delicious – like all other pulses, they are loaded with nutrition, especially in the form of fiber and protein, with just one cup of cooked kidneys respectively providing 45 and 31 percent of the Daily Value of each, respectively. The same amount of kidney beans also provides 42 percent of the Daily Value of manganese, a mineral essential for energy production and antioxidant action.
Be aware that raw kidney beans contain a toxin called phytohemagglutinin, which is destroyed by boiling the beans for at least 10 minutes prior to slow cooking. Therefore, kidney beans cannot be enjoyed in their raw, sprouted form (as some other beans are). If you are going to slow cook them at a more moderate temperature please remember to boil them first for the required 10 minutes.
Cooking time: Boil 10 minutes, slow cook for 60-90 minutes
Liquid per cup of legume: 3 cups
How to cook kidney beans: Soak overnight. Drain water and replace with fresh, cold water for cooking. Place on stove and bring to a boil (for at least 10 minutes) in a pot with a lid. Once boiling, reduce to a simmer, tilting lid slightly to allow steam to escape, and leave to cook for up to 90 minutes, or until tender.
Recipe: Vegetarian Chili
A Slight Sneak Peek at the Life Cycle of a Bean Plant
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The bean plant is not only a favorite plant of kitchen gardeners, but also an experimental model that students can use to study plant growth and development.
The bean plant belongs to one of the largest family of flowering plants. A bean refers to the seed of a leguminous plant. The term “beans” is generally used as a blanket name for common beans, fava or broad beans, soybeans, chickpeas, lentils, and seeds of various other plants, under the bean family or Leguminosae family of flowering plants (Angiosperms). The common bean encompasses different species and subspecies under the genus Phaseolus, out of which, P. vulgaris is the most widely known variety. The other commonly known ones are, kidney beans, lima beans, white beans or navy beans, black beans, etc.
Tips for Care and Cultivation
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Bean plants require a moist, well-drained soil, having a pH value between 6 to 7.2. Undrained soil and water logging can result in the rotting of beans. The soil should not have extreme moisture or water-retaining capacity, since excessive water can cause the beans or the saplings to rot.
Excess use of fertilizers must be avoided. These plants do not have very high fertilizer requirements, and grow well even in normal soils. However, to improve the soil quality, organic manure may be used.
The optimum temperature range is 60 to 80 degrees F. Harsh weather conditions can affect the pod formation. The ideal time for sowing is one week before the last frost-free date of a particular region. Beans must be planted 2 to 3 inches apart, to ensure proper nutrient and space availability.
On an average, it takes about 2-3 months for a bean to grow into a mature plant. The exact period varies with the bean variety and the weather and soil conditions.
The bean remains dormant until favorable conditions. At temperatures between 60-80 degrees F, in a moist but well-drained and nutritive soil, beans begin to sprout in 2-3 days.
A bean consists of two cotyledons, a radicle (develops into roots), a plumule (forms the shoot), and hypocotyl (develops as the stem), all enclosed in a seed coat.
The process of sprouting begins with swelling of the bean, due to inhibition of water. As a result, the seed coat breaks, and the radicle emerges out.
The hypocotyl present in a curved form (like a hairpin), connects the radicle and plumule.
The direction of hypocotyl growth is influenced by sunlight (aka phototropism). Hence, once exposed to sunlight, it begins to grow upwards and straightens resulting in reorientation of the plumule, so that it can grow upwards and develop into leaves.
The cotyledons degenerate and fall off, and the sapling grows into a mature bean plant in about 6 weeks.
Bean plants have bisexual flowers, that is, the flowers have both, male and female reproductive organs.
Stamens, consisting of filaments with anthers attached to their free ends, form the male reproductive organs. Whereas, a carpel consisting of a stigma, a style, and an ovary, is the female reproductive organ.
The male gametes, called pollen grains, are formed in specialized sacs inside the anthers, whereas, the female gametes are formed inside the ovary.
Pollination and Fertilization Stage
Once the male and female gametes are formed, the next event to take place is pollination. The pollen grains fall on a receptive stigma, of the same flower or on that of another bean plant, and trigger a series of events (mentioned below).
Once the pollen grains attach to the stigma, they germinate, and a pollen tube is formed. This pollen tube extends through the style, into the ovary, and serves as a passageway for the sperms in the pollen grain. The sperms travel through this pollen tube and enter the ovary.
Here, fertilization process takes place resulting in the formation of a zygote and the endosperm, which serves as a nutritive tissue for the zygote.
Green Bean Stage
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The zygote, inside the ovary, grows by utilizing the nutrients from the endosperm, and further develops into beans, whereas the ovary grows into the pod.
At this stage, the bean pods are very delicate and green in color. These young pods and beans lose moisture, and mature to a descent form, resulting in the dispersal of beans from the pod.
These beans are now fully equipped to begin a new cycle, and give rise to another bean plant.
The bean plant is an annual plant, and completes its life cycle within one growing season. This aspect, coupled with the high nutritive value of beans, makes it a popular plant, as far as agricultural cultivation and kitchen gardens are concerned.
Kidney Bean Pods Stock Photos
Kidney bean pods. The background of kidney bean podsKidney bean pods. The background of kidney bean podsGreen and purple kidney bean pods tied with jute thread. Isolated on white backgroundBackground of fresh red kidney bean pods lying on the table.Background of raw red kidney bean pods. Background of fresh red kidney bean pods lying on the table Kidney bean pods. The background of kidney bean pods Kidney bean pods. The background of kidney bean pods Kidney bean pods on a plant. In the garden Purple kidney bean pods. Tied with jute thread isolated on white background Purple kidney bean pods. Tied with jute thread isolated on white background Purple kidney bean pods. Tied with jute thread on white background Kidney Bean, pods. On white Fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods and green leaves on rustic wooden background. Natural Fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Dry and fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Dry and fresh green haricot / kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text White spilled beans and dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Spilled white beans and dry white kidney bean-pods on very old rustic aged Spilled white beans and dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Spilled white beans and dry white kidney bean-pods on very old rustic aged Dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Dry white kidney bean-pods on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food. Copy space for text Kidney bean. The many kidney bean pods are growing Kidney bean. The close-up of kidney bean pods Kidney bean. The many kidney bean pods are growing Kidney bean. Some pods of green kidney bean on the white Woman takes out white kidney beans from pods. Lifestyle. Harvesting concept. Top view. Flat lay Bean pods on a shopping arcade. View from above Purple bean pods haricot on a linen fabric. Legumes harvest Bowl with haricot bean pods. On grey napkin Branch of kidney bean with pods. Vegetable plant a kidney bean is isolated on a white background Branch of kidney bean with pods. Vegetable plant a kidney bean is isolated on a white background Branch of kidney bean with pods. Vegetable plant a kidney bean is isolated on a white background Kidney bean plants with pods on a plantation. Top view of the plants of kidney bean with speckled pods on a plantation Kidney bean plants with flowers and pods on a plantation. Plants of the kidney bean with flowers and unripe pods on a plantation from low point of shooting on Phaseolus vulgaris, kidney bean. Legume crop with trifoliate leaves, white flowers, and green flat pods, used as green vegetable and seeds as pulse Kidney beans. A basket full of harvested dry kidney bean pods Organic vegetables. Haricot / white kidney fresh bean-pods, cucumbers and tomatoes on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food / vegetables. Copy space Haricot / white kidney fresh bean-pods, courgette and cucumbers on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food / vegetables. Copy space for text Haricot / white kidney fresh bean-pods, cucumbers and tomatoes on rustic wooden background. Natural organic food / vegetables. Copy space for text Partly husked kidney beans among dry pods on sackcloth closeup. Dry kidney bean pods and several husked ripe white kidney beans on the sackcloth, close-up in Partly husked kidney beans among dry pods on the sackcloth. Dry kidney bean pods and several husked ripe white kidney beans on the sackcloth, top view Partly husked kidney beans among dry pods on white background. Dry kidney bean pods and several husked ripe white kidney beans on a white background Dry pods and husked purple kidney beans on wooden surface. Dry kidney bean pods and husked ripe purple speckled kidney beans on the old cracked wooden surface Partly husked kidney beans among dry pods on white background. Dry kidney bean pods and several husked ripe white kidney beans on a white background, top view Dry pods, husked kidney beans on wooden surface with sackcloth. 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Yellow bean pods haricot in a clay bowl on a wooden table, legumes harvest Purple bean pods haricot in a clay bowl on a wooden table. Legumes harvest Purple bean pods haricot in a clay bowl on a wooden table. Legumes harvest Yellow and purple bean pods haricot on a wooden table. Legumes harvest Yellow and purple bean pods haricot on a wooden table. Legumes harvest Bowl with haricot bean pods. On grey napkin Yellow bean pods haricot on a wooden table. Legumes harvest
Anther opening the anthers have narrow slits or furrows that run lengthwise along the anthers Anther spurs the anthers do not have spurs on them Calyx symmetry there is only one way to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is bilaterally symmetrical) Carpels fused
- the carpel is solitary or (if 2 or more) the carpels are not fused to one another
Cleistogamous flowers there are no cleistogamous flowers on the plan Corolla morphology NA Corolla palate no Corona lobe length 0 mm Epicalyx the flower does not have an epicalyx Epicalyx number of parts 0 Filament surface the filament is smooth, with no hairs or scales Flower description the flower has a superior ovary and a hypanthium Flower petal color
- blue to purple
- pink to red
Flower reproductive parts the flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts Flower symmetry there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical) Flowers sunken into stem no Form of style the style is narrow at the tip and unbranched Fused stamen clusters there are two clusters of fused stamens Horns in hoods (Asclepias) NA Hypanthium the flower has a hypanthium Inflorescence one-sided the flowers are arrayed in a spiral around the inflorescence axis or branches, or occur singly, or in several ranks Inner tepals (Rumex) NA Nectar spur the flower has no nectar spurs Number of carpels 1 Number of pistils 1 Number of sepals, petals or tepals
- there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
- there are four petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
Ovary position the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment Petal and sepal arrangement the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures Petal and sepal colors
- blue to purple
- pink to red
Petal appearance the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown) Petal folding in bud the petals in bud are arranged in a cycle with edges overlapping like roof shingles (imbricate) Petal folds or pleats
- the petals of the flower do not have folds or plaits
- the petals of the flower have folds or plaits on them
Petal hairs (Viola) NA Petal number 5 Petal tips (Cuscuta) NA Raceme attachment (Veronica) NA Reproductive system all the flowers have both carpels and stamens (synoecious) Scales inside corolla no Sepal and petal color the sepals are different from the petals Sepal appendages the sepals do not have appendages on them Sepal appendages (Oenothera) NA Sepal number 5 Sepal relative length the sepal lobes are shorter than the fused portion Sepal uniformity all the sepals are about the same size Sepals fused only to sepals the sepals are fused to each other (not other flower parts), at least near their bases Stamen morphology the stamens within each cycle are the same Stamen number 10 Stamens fused the stamens are attached to one another at or near their bases Staminodes there are no staminodes on the flower Stigma position
- the stigmas are positioned at the tip of the style
- the stigmas are positioned on the inner surface of the style
Style petal-like the styles are not petal-like Umbel flower reproductive parts NA Upper lip of bilabiate corolla NA