Globe amaranth gomphrena globosa

Whether you stick with the classic Gomphrena globosa or choose one of the newer, flashier varieties, you will be getting a plant that is virtually maintenance free and almost completely impervious to disease and pests.

Above: Gomphrena ‘Fireworks’ by Dwight Sipler via Flickr.

The colorful globe amaranth “flowers” are actually bundles of stiff, papery bracts or modified leaves that support the real flowers, which are white or yellow trumpets so small that they are barely visible to the naked eye. The bright gold stamens of the flowers on ‘Fireworks’ appear like tiny explosions on the fuchsia bracts.

Cheat Sheet

  • Pinch back blooms on young plants to encourage a bushier habit and increased flowering
  • Shorter varieties of Gomphrena work well in containers while taller, airier cultivars look great in borders planted among other sun lovers such as zinnias, salvias, Mexican sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia), and dahlias.
  • This plant is not attractive to deer but will reliably draw butterflies into your garden.
  • For the best dried flowers, cut Gomphrena as soon as the blooms are completely open. Strip the leaves, tie the bare stems in bunches and hang them upside down in a dark, dry, well-ventilated place.

Keep It Alive

  • Grow Gomphrena in full sun as an annual in all zones except 9 to 10 where some varieties may be perennial.
  • This plant will grow well in dry conditions but it is wise to water when plants are young and in drought conditions after they are established. Always water at ground level to avoid wetting the leaves and inviting leaf spot.
  • Globe amaranth will grow in poor soil but requires good drainage.

Above: Photograph by Dwight Sipler via Flickr.

Gomphrena is usually available in garden centers in the spring but can be frequently ignored because its flower display doesn’t gear up until later in the season. If you want to grow your own plants, soak the seeds first for a day or two to speed up germination. Sow indoors in spring from six to eight weeks before the date of the expected last frost, or plant directly in the garden after the soil has warmed. Experts advise planting a large number of seeds as the germination rate of Gomphrena tends to be low. Sometimes this plant can become a permanent garden resident by obligingly re-seeding itself.

For more growing tips, see Globe Amaranth: A Field Guide to Planting, Care & Design in our curated garden design guides to Annuals 101. Read more:

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Gomphrena globosa Globe Amaranth1

Edward F. Gilman and Teresa Howe2


Globe amaranth produces small, globe-shaped flowers in shades of purple, pink, yellow, or white (Fig. 1). The purple form is most common in retail nurseries. Most horticulturists utilize globe amaranth in a mass planting spacing them 12 to 18 inches apart. Others use them as small specimens in rock gardens or plant them in containers. They are also attractive planted in a row along a walk or patio as an edging plant. Flowers can be dried for indoor use if cut just before they are fully opened. The plant grows 18 inches tall and prefers full sun and a moderately dry soil. Globe amaranth is resistant to heat and should not be over watered. It provides bright color to a garden or landscape where irrigation will be limited. Figure 1.

Globe amaranth

General Information

Scientific name: Gomphrena globosa Pronunciation: gom-FREE-nuh gloe-BOE-suh Common name(s): globe amaranth Family: Amaranthaceae Plant type: annual USDA hardiness zones: all zones (Fig. 2) Planting month for zone 7: Jun; Jul; Aug Planting month for zone 8: May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep Planting month for zone 9: Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep Origin: not native to North America Uses: border; edging; mass planting

Availablity: generally available in many areas within its hardiness range

Figure 2.

Shaded area represents potential planting range.


Height: 1 to 2 feet Spread: .5 to 1 feet Plant habit: round Plant density: dense Growth rate: slow Texture: medium


Leaf arrangement: opposite/subopposite Leaf type: simple Leaf margin: entire Leaf shape: oblong Leaf venation: not applicable Leaf type and persistence: not applicable Leaf blade length: 2 to 4 inches Leaf color: green Fall color: not applicable Fall characteristic: not applicable


Flower color: white; pink; purple; yellow Flower characteristic: showy


Fruit shape: no fruit Fruit length: no fruit Fruit cover: no fruit Fruit color: not applicable Fruit characteristic: inconspicuous and not showy

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: not applicable Current year stem/twig color: green Current year stem/twig thickness: medium


Light requirement: plant grows in full sun Soil tolerances: acidic; sand; loam; clay Drought tolerance: moderate Soil salt tolerances: unknown Plant spacing: 12 to 18 inches


Roots: not applicable Winter interest: not applicable Outstanding plant: not particularly outstanding Invasive potential: not known to be invasive Pest resistance: long-term health usually not affected by pests

Use and Management

Propagation is by seed planted directly into the garden or started early indoors.

Pest and Diseases

Globe amaranth is free of most pest and disease problems.


This document is FPS-234, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date October 1999. Reviewed February 2014. Visit the EDIS website at

Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; and Teresa Howe, coordinator, Research Programs/Services, Gulf Coast REC, Bradenton; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county’s UF/IFAS Extension office.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.

Learn About Gomphrenas

How to Sow and Plant

Gomphrena may be grown from seed sown early indoors and transplanted outside after frost, or sown directly in the garden in summer, or planted as a potted plant.

Sowing Seed Indoors:

  • Sow gomphrena 6-8 weeks before the last frost.
  • Sow ¼ inch deep in seed-starting formula.
  • Seedlings emerge in 10-14 days
  • Firm lightly and keep evenly moist
  • As soon as seedlings emerge, provide plenty of light on a sunny windowsill or grow seedlings 3-4 inches beneath fluorescent plant lights turned on 16 hours per day, off for 8 hours at night. Raise the lights as the plants grow taller. Incandescent bulbs will not work for this process because they will get too hot. Most plants require a dark period to grow, do not leave lights on for 24 hours.
  • Seedlings do not need much fertilizer, feed when they are 3-4 weeks old using a starter solution (half strength of a complete indoor houseplant food) according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • If you are growing in small cells, you may need to transplant the seedlings to 3 or 4 inch pots when seedlings have at least 2 pairs of true leaves before transplanting to the garden so they have enough room to develop strong roots
  • Before planting in the garden, seedling plants need to be “hardened off”. Accustom young plants to outdoor conditions by moving them to a sheltered place outside for a week. Be sure to protect them from wind and hot sun at first. If frost threatens at night, cover or bring containers indoors, then take them out again in the morning. This hardening off process toughens the plant’s cell structure and reduces transplant shock and scalding.

Sowing Directly in the Garden:

  • Direct sow in full sun in well-drained soil after danger of frost.
  • Prepare the soil by removing weeds and working organic matter into the top 6-8 inches of soil; then level and smooth.
  • Most plants respond well to soils amended with organic matter. Compost is a wonderful form of organic matter with a good balance of nutrients and an ideal pH level, it can be added to your planting area at any time. If compost is not available, top dress the soil after planting with 1-2 inches of organic mulch, which will begin to breakdown into compost. After the growing season, a soil test will indicate what soil amendments are needed for the following season.
  • Sow seeds evenly and thinly and cover with ¼ inch of fine soil.
  • Firm lightly and keep evenly moist.
  • Seedlings will emerge in 10-14 days depending on soil and weather conditions.
  • Thin to stand about 10 inches apart starting when seedlings are 1-2 inches high.

Planting in the Garden:

  • Select a location in full sun with good rich moist organic, well-drained soil.
  • Prepare the bed by turning the soil under to a depth of 6-12, inches removing any debris, and lightly raking as level as possible.
  • The addition of organic matter (leaf mold, compost, well-rotted manure) benefits all gardens and is essential in recently constructed neighborhoods.
  • Plant on a cloudy day or in late afternoon to reduce transplant shock.
  • Dig a hole for each plant, approximately 18 inches apart, large enough to amply accommodate the root ball.
  • Unpot the plant and gently loosen the root ball with your hands to encourage good root growth.
  • Place the top of the root ball even with the level of the surrounding soil. Fill with soil to the top of the root ball. Press soil down firmly with your hand.
  • Use the plant tag as a location marker.
  • Thoroughly water and apply a light mulch layer on top of the soil (1-2 inches) to conserve water and reduce weeds.



Gomphrenas are cheery Clover look alike flowers that for centuries have graced classic cutting gardens. The gomphrena flowers are globe-shaped blossoms with beautiful shades of lavender, purple, pink, red and magenta. Gomphrena makes a durable cut flower, and when dried, can last for years. They are easy to grow, low maintenance and tolerant to high temperatures.



Unpack the kit. Use the coco peat coin to make growing medium (soil). Follow the steps:

  • Place the coco peat coin in a container and add 200 mls of water
  • Let the coin soak up all the water and watch it expand into growing medium
  • Put the growing medium in the GIY pot and level surface

Sow the seeds in the center of the pot, placing them on top of the medium. Do not cover the seeds. Use a spray bottle to mist over the top of the seeds. In order to speed up germination, you can soak the seeds for a day or two in water prior to sowing.


Seed leaves should emerge within 15-20 days. Make sure that the soil stays moist throughout.


Check the soil once or twice each day for moisture loss. Water the pot to a depth of 1/2 inch when the surface of the soil becomes dry. Apply the water slowly to avoid washing the seeds from the pot’s center or burying them under the soil.

Water twice a day in summer months to avoid drying out.


Once the seedlings grow to around 3 inches, transplant them to a pot or open space. Before transplanting in a pot, pull the weakest seedlings out. Be careful not to disturb the roots of the remaining seedlings.

A good container choice is about twice the foliage size with drainage holes in the bottom. To make a good potting soil mix for container gardening, mix half the volume of container with organic manure/organic compost and rest of the half with good quality garden soil.

Sometimes Gomphrena plant can become a permanent garden resident by obligingly re-seeding itself.


Potting soil mix made as per above recipe will provide good nutrition for Gomphrena plants. You can also use the organic micronutrients, available with your GIY kit, as per instructions.


Gomphrena plant will flower in 40 – 60 days of planting. It will grow 2 – 4 feet tall. They can handle some partial shade but may not flower as profusely as in full sunlight.

Remove dead/faded flowers from the plant regularly to promote regular bloom and maintain plant’s look.


Gomphrenas saplings should be checked at regular intervals to ensure it is not infected by any weed/pest or insect and if you find any such thing on the leaves or in soil then you may spray organic Pestisides on it.


Each Gomphrena plant can produce dozens of showy flower heads displaying a serene view. Gomphrenas make durable cut flowers and, when dried, can literally last for years.

This sun-loving plant attracts a variety of butterflies to your home garden— a perfect mix to brighten up your landscape effortlessly.

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Globe Amaranth Info: Learn How To Grow Globe Amaranth Plants

Globe amaranth plants are native to Central America but do well in all the USDA plant hardiness zones. The plant is a tender annual, but it tends to reseed itself for years of consistent blooms in the same area. Learning how to grow globe amaranth is easy and its round blooms will attract butterflies and important garden pollinators.

Globe Amaranth Info

Globe amaranth plants (Gomphrena globosa) grow from 6 to 12 inches high. They have fine white hairs covering young growth, which matures to thick green stems. The leaves are oval and arranged alternately along the stem. The blooms of globe amaranth start in June and may last until October. The flower heads are clusters of florets that resemble large clover flowers. They range in color from pink, yellow, white and lavender.

An interesting bit of globe amaranth info is that the flowers dry well. They make excellent additions to everlasting bouquets to brighten the interior of your home. Growing globe amaranth from seed is common in most zones, but the plants are also readily available in most nurseries and garden centers.

How to Grow Globe Amaranth

Growing globe amaranth is not difficult at all. Start seeds indoors six weeks before the last frost. They will germinate faster if you soak them in water prior to planting. If you wish to sow them outdoors, wait until the soil has warmed and there is no chance of frost.

Choose a site in full sun with good drainage. Globe amaranth plants will grow in almost any soil type except alkaline. Globe amaranth performs best in garden soil, but you can also put them in containers.

Space plants 12 to 18 inches apart and keep them moderately moist. Globe amaranth can tolerate periods of dryness, but they perform best with even moisture.

Care of Globe Amaranth Flowers

This plant is not susceptible to many disease or pest problems. However, it may get powdery mildew if watered overhead. Watering at the base of the plant or in the morning gives leaves a chance to dry off and prevents this problem.

Globe amaranth plants are old-fashioned additions to dried flower arrangements. The flowers are dried by hanging. Harvest the flowers when they first open with a good length of stiff stem. Tie the stems together and hang the bundle in a cool, dry location. Once dried, they may be used with the stems or remove the flowers and add to potpourri.

The flowers also work nicely in fresh flower arrangements. General care of globe amaranth flowers is the same for any cut floral. Make clean, slightly angled cuts at the ends of the stems and remove any leaves that might sit in the water. Change the water every couple of days and cut off a tiny bit of stem to open up the capillaries again. Amaranth flowers can last up to a week with good care.

Expect the plants to die back when cold temperatures appear, but don’t get distressed! In most USDA zones, the seeds that set after the flower is spent, will germinate in soils after winter.

CC flickr photo by gardengrrrl

By Julie Christensen

Most bedding annuals have a compact, tidy form and are used to fill in the spaces left by shrubs and perennials – the real workhorses of any mixed bed. Not so with amaranthus cruentus, also know as red amaranth. Native to Central and South America, this annual plant wastes no time in making a big statement. It is one of the grain amaranth varieties — grown for its grain as well as its beauty.

Amaranthus cruentus grows 3 to 6 feet tall and wide in just one season. It produces extravagant, feathery plumes in shades of red to purple. It’s equally at home among tropical plants or colder climate perennials. Use it as you would annual grasses – as an accent piece or mixed with other plants.

Planting Red Amaranth

Most people buy nursery transplants and plant them outdoors after the last expected frost, but you can also start this plant from seed. Sow the seeds directly in the ground in mild climates, after temperatures are reliably above 60 degrees Fahrenheit, or start it inside four to six weeks before the last expected frost.

When you’re ready to plant amaranthus cruentus, choose a sunny location for it. This fast-growing plant needs at least six to eight hours of sunlight daily to perform well. Amend poor soils well with compost, manure or peat moss. Amaranthus cruentus needs moderately fertile, but consistently moist soil, and grows best with a soil pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Amend acidic soils with lime, or alkaline soils with sulfur, to adjust the soil pH. In dry conditions, water it two or three times weekly, or as needed to keep the soil moist 1 inch beneath the surface.

Fertilize amaranthus after planting and every six weeks with 2 tablespoons of granular 10-10-10 fertilizer per plant. Spread the fertilizer on the soil 6 inches from the plant and till it in lightly.

Pests and Disease Problems

Amaranthus cruentus is subject to more pest and disease problems than most annual plants. Rust, leaf spot and root rots all can be problems. Aphids are also attracted to this plant. Hot, humid weather tend to exacerbate disease and pest issues.

To minimize problems, plant amaranthus cruentus in well-draining soil. Space it so air circulates freely around the plants. Remove and discard diseased leaves and pick up debris off the ground. Because the plants grow for only one season, it’s rarely necessary to treat them with fungicides, although in some cases, you may have to destroy seriously infected plants.

Aphids cause damage by sucking the sap from the leaves and the stems of the plants, causing them to wilt. You might also notice honeydew, a sticky substance secreted by the aphids on the plants and ground. Aster yellows is a fatal plant disease that is spread by aphids and sometimes affects amaranthus cruentus. Deal with the aphids and you’ll reduce the risk of this disease. To combat aphids, spray the leaves of the plants with a steady stream of water or cover both the tops and bottoms of the leaves with insecticidal oil or soap. These chemicals are safer than most pesticides, but they can burn plants if applied on a hot, sunny day.

Other Uses for Amaranth

Amaranth has been grown for centuries as a grain and vegetable. The seeds can be cooked whole, popped like popcorn, or ground into a type of flour. This highly nutritious grain has a protein content of 12 to 17 percent. Amaranth is also high in lysine, an amino acid usually absent from cereal crops.

The leaves of amaranth are often used as a leafy vegetable. Treat them like spinach. Saute them in olive oil and a bit of bacon or steam them and serve them with butter, salt and pepper. Certain amaranth varieties are grown specifically for their leaves, such as Amaranthus tricolor.

To learn more, visit the following links:

Amaranth from Purdue University

Rethinking a Weed: the Truth about Amaranth from United Nations University

How to Cook Amaranth Grain by Kristen Kons

Amaranth, a superfood for the home garden on Youtube.

Julie Christensen learned about gardening on her grandfather’s farm and mother’s vegetable garden in southern Idaho. Today, she lives and gardens on the high plains of Colorado. When she’s not digging in the dirt, Julie writes about food, education, parenting and gardening.

About Amaranth: All Amaranths are annuals or short lived perennials with oval, pointed leaves of various colours, which are followed by minute flowers borne on (sometimes drooping), tassel-like spikes that last until the end of summer. These then give way to copious seeds. Originally spelled “amarant,” the derivation is from the Greek amarantos, meaning “unwilting.” Cultural and literary references to this plant are too many to name, but include an excerpt on everlasting beauty by Aesop from the 6th century BC:

A Rose and an Amaranth blossomed side by side in a garden,
and the Amaranth said to her neighbour,
“How I envy you your beauty and your sweet scent!
No wonder you are such a universal favourite.”
But the Rose replied with a shade of sadness in her voice,
“Ah, my dear friend, I bloom but for a time:
my petals soon wither and fall, and then I die.
But your flowers never fade, even if they are cut;
for they are everlasting.”

Amaranth has been harvested as a food crop for as long as 20,000 years. It is widely listed as an Asian vegetable because of its popularity in Chinese cuisine, and its various Chinese names include yin tsoi, hinn choy, een choy, or xian cai. In Chinese cuisine, the leaves of A. tricolor, known as red-leaf amaranth, are used in soups and stir-fried dishes. Various green leafed species have been gathered from the wild for millennia from Asia to Greece and used as cooking greens. The genus contains around 70 species. The wider family, Amaranthaceae, includes beets, quinoa, spinach, and Swiss chard.

The variety to grow for grain on the West Coast is A. hypochondriacus (In botanical Latin, hypochondriacus refers to a melancholy or somber appearance.) It also produces tasty leaves, as useful in Asian dishes as those of A. tricolor, but is primarily grown for the edible seeds it produces.

The leaves of many varieties can be cut repeatedly, and will grow back as long as the weather is warm. When still young, the raw leaves are succulent, but mature leaves are better (and more easily digested) when steamed very briefly — a shorter cooking time than spinach. If cooked, eat them all at once, and don’t reheat them, as nitrates in the leaves tend to convert to nitrite, which is not good eating. The flavour of the leaves is nutty, and slightly hot, with the earthy undertones of spinach.

The seeds are harvested as a grain crop in Africa and Asia, and can be collected from plants grown on the Coast — particularly after a hot summer, for the plant really likes the heat. A. hypochondriacus does very well in the southern Gulf Islands as well as arid parts of the southern interior of BC. The seeds can be boiled as a cereal or ground into flour for use in tortillas and other flat breads. Amaranth flour is not self-rising, but it adds a nice, nutty flavour when blended with other flours and baked. Amaranth seeds can also be toasted, popped in hot oil like popcorn, or used to produce nutritious sprouts and microgreens.

The leaves of Amaranth contain significantly high levels of vitamins A, B6, K, riboflavin, and folate, as well as the minerals manganese, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, iron, and calcium. The seeds are exceptionally high in protein — higher than wheat, and without the gluten.

Treat Amaranth as you would corn, planting it only when the soil has become reliably warm, not before May 15th on the Coast. The flowers will remain until after frost, at which point (if the weather has been dry), the shiny black seeds can be shaken from drying plants, left to dry a bit longer, and then stored for months.

The Festival of Olives and Amaranth takes place in neighbourhoods around Mexico City each year, from January to early February. Amaranth hotcakes and various olive oils are free for sampling in Xochimilco each year. Traditional Mexican folk dances are performed every day during the festival.

How to Grow:

Difficulty: Easy. Decorative varieties are well suited to large containers, as are plants grown for greens. Grown for seed, Amaranth is better suited to a warm vegetable bed or border.
Timing: Direct sow in spring, once the weather warms up after mid-May.
Sowing: Sow all varieties just below the soil surface. Seeds should germinate in 10-17 days. Space or thin to 20-30cm (8-12”) apart, or up to 50cm (20”) apart for larger varieties.
Soil: Select a partially sunny to fully exposed location in well-drained soil. The soil quality is not critical. Poor soils may produce more vibrant flowers, but soil rich in nitrogen and phosphorus may produce much larger plants. Aim for a pH between 6.0 and 7.0.
Growing: Spring weather will probably keep the soil sufficiently moist until the plants are established, but water deeply in very hot weather. While it is extremely drought tolerant, steady growth will produce better flowers and seeds.
Harvest: Cut young leaves for eating raw or mature leaves for cooking. Avoid harvesting the leaves if the plants are being grown for seed. Seeds can be collected by rubbing the flower stalks between your hands over a bowl or bucket. Many species of small garden birds enjoy the seeds, and they may be the best indication that the seeds are ripe and ready for harvest. Be sure to dry the seeds in an airy place after harvest to prevent mould.
Storage: Amaranth grain is quite oily, so store it in a sealed glass or plastic container in a cupboard. Air, moisture, and sunlight can cause the oils to turn rancid.
Seed info: In optimum conditions at least 75% of seeds will germinate. Soil temperature for germination: 18-24°C (65-75°F). Usual seed life: 1 year.
Growing for seed: Isolate leaf amaranths by 160m (500’), as the plants are wind-pollinated. Grain amaranths require complete isolation if genetic purity is the intent.
Pests & Disease: A few insects may damage young seedlings, but amaranth is largely disease and pest free, particularly when grown on a small scale. Use Companion Planting with Umbelifers to eliminate insect pests.

AMARANTHUS Amaranth, Annual Flower


(Name derived from a-not, mairaino-to whither, refers to the everlasting character of the flowers)

Coarse plants, but very showy, the various sorts of Amaranthus may be successfully cultivated in poor soils where they thrive excellently. Some have bright red foliage, whereas others have long spikes of blood-red flowers.

SPECIES. Love-lies-bleeding. Amaranthus caudatus (A. abyssinica). Grows 3 to 5 feet tall and has long, drooping red spikes of bloom, resembling heavy chenille. Sometimes the leaves are also red.

Princesfeather, A. hypochondriacus. Grows 4 to 5 feet tall and has erect flower spikes, either green or red. The foliage is either green, golden or red.

Josephs-coat, A. gangeticus var. (A. tricolor). Grows 1 to 4 feet tall and has leaves blotched with bright red and yellow.

Chameleon A. (Fountainplant) A. salicifolius. Grows 1 to 3 feet tall and has narrow, drooping leaves often wavy margined, sometimes bronze or orange.

Moulten Fire is a Burbank variety having most brilliant red foliage. It does not grow tall but produces quite a rosette of leaves.

Where to Plant. The various sorts of Amaranthus are closely allied to the Pigweeds and Celosias, but the latter are daintier and have flowers of lovelier colors. At best these annuals are rather coarse and have only a limited value in the garden. They will grow in the hottest and driest locations. In rich soil the colors are not as brilliant and the plants grow foliage principally.

THE AMARANTINE ORDER. Swedish knights and Swedish ladies assembled one night in the palace of the queen for a great ball and to initiate the foundation of the Order of the Knights of the Amaranth.

Diamonds sparkled from every hem of the garment of Queen Christiania as she entered that night, attended by sixteen nobles and sixteen ladies. The ball had progressed until a late hour, for there was dancing and repartee. Suddenly Christiania stripped herself of her diamonds and distributed them to the company. At the sane time she presented the knights who would form the Order of the Knights of the Amaranth. To each she gave a sprig of Amaranth or Love-lies bleeding, a ribbon and a medal. The flower was the emblem of incorruptibility. The medal bore an enameled Amaranth and the motto “Dolce nella memoria”-Sweet or pleasant in the memory.

GENERAL. Seed may be sown in the hotbed or window of the home in March; or, if one prefers, the sowing may be deferred until the soil is warm outdoors. Thin the plants, as they require much space.

The various sorts do not come perfectly true from seed; seed from the best plants often produce specimens with inferior flower spikes and less highly colored leaves.

Information on 50+ annual flowers

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