Evergreens are plants that maintain

. Evergreens are plants that maintain their leaves in all seasons and include trees such as

Evergreens are plants that maintain their leaves in all seasons and include trees such as Kauri, Sequoia, Coconut, Real Yellowwood, Australian Tree Fern, Live Oak, Shamel Ash, Eucalyptus, Southern Magnolia and Pine etc.

Further Explanation

Evergreen plants

In organic science, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves during the time that are constantly green. This is genuine regardless of whether the plant holds its foliage just in warm atmospheres, and appears differently in relation to deciduous plants, which totally lose their foliage throughout the winter or dry season.

Types of Evergreen trees

They are of different types some of them are given below.

Cypress Trees

They can be perceived by their pyramidal molded little, adjusted, woody cones, shoots and scale-like leaves. Their foliage can extend from yellowish-green to green or a grayish shading. They can arrive at developing statures of up to 60 feet.

Spruce Trees

They are pyramidal trees than can be known for their cone-like structure and whorled branches. The needles on these trees are appended to the branches in a winding like development. Tidy trees can extend from 5 feet tall for diminutive person trees, and to statures of 60+ feet for bigger trees.

Cryptomeria Trees

These trees are known for their attractive cone-like shape and rich, ruddy darker bark which regularly strips off in strips. These enormous trees can arrive at statures of 35 to 45 feet. They additionally have needle-like leaves that structure spirally scales on their branches.

Bamboo Grass

Bamboo is a lovely tropical evergreen that is a piece of the perpetual grass family. They’re one of the quickest developing evergreens around the world. They can be perceived by their empty stems that develop in groups.

Answer details

Subject: Biology

Level: High school

Keywords

  • Evergreen plants
  • Types of Evergreen trees
  • Spruce Trees
  • Cryptomeria Trees
  • Bamboo Grass

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List of Evergreens

moon beside evergreens image by Chris Gardiner from Fotolia.com

Evergreens are plants that retain their green foliage all year round. Conifer trees–with needles and cones–are the most common evergreens, but many scale-leaved and broad-leaved trees also stay green all winter. Evergreen shrubs are also a valuable landscape addition, providing windbreaks and privacy screening when planted in hedges, or an attractive individual accent planting.

Needled Evergreens

Needled evergreens or conifers are plants with long, thin pointed foliage, which also bear their seeds in cones. Needled evergreens include tidy “Christmas tree” pyramid shaped trees with tight needles and grayish green to blue foliage, and towering majestic pines with long soft dark green needles. The University of Missouri Extension’s recommendations for evergreen pines for landscape use include the towering white pine (pinus strobus) which grows in rural settings in much of the United States, but not in urban areas as it is sensitive to pollution; the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) with its dark, bristly-looking needles; and the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) which is often grown for Christmas trees. Spruce trees suggested for landscape use include the Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) with its distinctive blue needles. The white fir (Concolor abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Menzeisi) and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) all grow slowly to towering heights and have softer-looking needles than the pines and spruces. The yew (Taxus spp.) is another soft-needled evergreen, available in cultivars from low-growing groundcovers to large shrubs.

Scale Leaf Evergreens

Not all evergreens have pointed needles; many have flat, scaly leaf structures. Varieties of scale leaf evergreens grow throughout most of the United States, and many thrive in dry sandy environments where their scale leaf structure helps conserve moisture. Examples listed by the Colorado State University Extension include arborvitae such as the eastern arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), junipers such as the Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), and the Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana).

Broadleaf Evergreens

Some broadleaf tree and shrub species also maintain their leaves all winter. These include the hollies (Ilex spp.), boxwood (Buxus sempervirens var.), and rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp.). The University of Illinois Extension advises that these broad-leaf evergreens are prone to winter damage, primarily due to dessication; the Extension recommends watering these plants well in the late fall, and through winter as temperatures permit, and mulching heavily around them to conserve soil moisture. Planting in sites blocked from wind, or in the lee of dense needled or scale-leaf evergreens, will help ensure the success of broadleaf evergreen plantings.

Evergreens are a beacon of hope in Minnesota winters — something green amid the gray skies and white landscapes.

So why are they able to stay green while deciduous trees (oaks, maples, birch, etc.) lose their leaves in the fall?

It turns out evergreens do lose their needles — just not all at once.

Every year, new needles grow and old needles drop. This time of year, you’ll see new growth — those are needles that are lighter green coming out at the end of the stem.

Evergreens put needles on in groups and they tend to lose them in these same groups. It’s kind of like your hair — all of your individual hairs have a cycle of growing and falling out, but they don’t all fall out at the same time.

Evergreens usually keep their needles for two to three years. If you see red needles that are closer to the stem, those are the ones that are getting ready to drop.

And even though evergreens stay green during the winter, they’re basically hibernating, according to University of Minnesota forest researcher Kyle Gill.

“They use the needles a little bit during the winter, but for the most part they’re in a reduced activity state,” said Gill. “A lot of that has to do with the roots being locked up in the frozen ground.”

In addition, the strong, waxy coatings and shape of conifer needles makes them resistant to cold and keeps them from drying out during the winter.

But why do needles and leaves change color before they fall?

Those brilliant red, orange and yellow colors are already there, it’s just covered up by the copious amounts of chlorphyll — the green pigment that plants use to absorb light.

“Those other pigments can photosynthesize also, but not as well as chlorophyll does,” said Mary Meyer, horticulturist at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.

As fall comes and the weather changes, the chlorophyll starts to degrade and the other colors become visible, making leaf peepers very happy.

For more from Brains On, the MPR News science podcast for kids and curious adults, you can subscribe in iTunes or wherever you listen to podcasts.

How to Care for Evergreen Shrubs

evergreen image by Joann Cooper from Fotolia.com

Evergreen shrubs, as the name implies, remain green year-round, although there are a few varieties in shades of blue, brown and yellow. These shrubs add color and beauty even in winter. Evergreen shrubs are disease and drought resistant, which makes them an excellent choice for gardens across the United States from zones 2 to 9. Some types of evergreen shrubs include boxwood and spruce. With just a little care and attention on your part, your evergreen shrubs will be healthy and thrive for many years.

Prune the shrubs regularly to maintain their shape. Evergreens are available in a variety of natural shapes such as columnar, vase, round, upright, weeping, pyramidal and prostrate. Use sharp pruning scissors and conform to the particular shape. Keep in mind that dead or dying branches not only reduce the appearance of the shrub, but leach on nutrients meant for healthy branches.

Dig a 4-inch deep hole in the ground around the evergreen shrub with a hand shovel and scoop out some soil. Send this soil sample in a container or zipper bag to your local landscape center or county extension office to determine the nutrient content. Feed the soil around the shrub bone meal if the soil lacks iron. Follow label directions prior to application.

Water your evergreen shrubs regularly using a watering can or garden hose at medium setting. Although evergreens are naturally drought resistant, they benefit from frequent watering until the soil is evenly moist. Also water the evergreens frequently during periods of drought.

Mulch the soil around the tree. Choose organic mulch such as compost, bark, straw, manure or cardboard and spread a 3-inch layer around the base. Mulch retains moisture, keeps the roots cool and prevents competing weeds from growing there. It also protects the shrubs from the buildup of ice in the winter. You can also add a 1- to 2-inch layer of rock chips or pine bark over the mulch for a decorative touch.

Check the evergreen shrubs frequently for damage or disease, and cut off affected branches promptly to prevent spread. Evergreens are usually affected by blight, or black spots of fungal spores. Apply fungicide regularly, dispose the damaged branches appropriately and wash the shears thoroughly.

Tips for Growing Shade Trees and Evergreens

Shade trees and evergreens should give you years of pleasure without a lot of effort on your part, once you’ve gotten them off to a good start. Here are some tips for taking care of your trees:

  • Adjust how you water a young tree as it gets established. When it is first planted and for the following growing season, provide water directly on the planting site. You can allow a hose to trickle gently over the root ball, making a shallow saucer of soil below the leafy canopy to keep the water from running off.
    Once the tree has established enough new roots to grow vigorously, use soaker hoses to water just outside the perimeter of the tree canopy. This will encourage the roots to spread outward, providing a stronger foundation for the tree.


    Properly mulching your trees will keep the soil most and eliminate weeds.
  • Mulch the tree properly. Put a layer of bark mulch, wood chips, or compost from the drip line (below the perimeter of the branch canopy) to 4 inches from the trunk (not too close or problems can arise). Mulching will help eliminate weeds and keep the planting site moist. It also looks good and gives the landscape a polished feel.
    Avoid excessively thick layers of mulch, which can limit soil aeration in heavy ground and cause roots to smother. Another problem occurs when thick heaps of mulch break down into rich organic matter. Shallow-rooted trees like maples can grow thick root mats in the mulch (which is not good), and some of those roots may start to girdle (which is even worse!). Shallow roots are also subject to excessive drying in summer.
  • Prevent summer spider mite attacks on your evergreens by spraying susceptible plants with a hose every day during hot, dry weather. If you’re out watering the garden, turn the hose on the evergreen foliage as well. Water helps to dislodge spider mites and discourage their multiplication, a great nontoxic preventative.

Keep reading to learn how to safeguard your trees against the ravages of winter weather.
Looking for more gardening tips? Try these links:

  • Gardening Tips: Learn great helpful hints for all of your gardening needs.
  • Annuals: Plant these beauties in your garden.
  • Perennials: Choose great plants that will return year after year.
  • Gardening: Discover how to garden.

Evergreen Plant Info: What Does Evergreen Mean Anyway

The process of planning and choosing landscape plantings can be quite the undertaking. New homeowners or those wishing to refresh their home garden borders have endless options in terms of what plants can be used to enhance the appeal of their homes. While gardeners living in frost-free growing regions are able to enjoy color and lush foliage year round, growers in colder regions often find themselves looking for new and exciting ways to add visual interest to their yards throughout the winter growing season.

One way this can be done is through the incorporation of evergreen plants, shrubs, and trees. But exactly what is an evergreen plant? Let’s learn more.

Evergreen Plant Info

What does evergreen mean exactly and what is an evergreen plant? Generally speaking, evergreen

plants and trees are those which do not lose their leaves at the onset of cold weather. Unlike deciduous trees, evergreen trees do not drop their leaves and remain colorful (green or otherwise) throughout the entirety of the winter growing season. Common types of evergreen trees include native cedar and fir trees. Though many people think of conifers, there are also many broadleaf evergreens.

Year-round color within the garden is not limited to trees. Many low growing perennial plants and shrubs are also evergreen in nature. Depending upon the hardiness of the plant, many growers are able to plan flower gardens that maintain foliage throughout the cold portions of the year. Evergreen ferns are just one example of plants that thrive in harsh winter conditions.

Evergreen plants are especially helpful to gardeners who wish to create year-round buffers within their landscapes. Evergreen trees are ideal candidates for privacy screens, as well as to block strong winter winds.

Evergreen Plant Care

In general, growing evergreens is relatively simple. Many evergreen plants for the garden require little care, aside from the selection of a well-draining planting site and routine fertilization.

As with any plant within the garden, it is important to first research the plants’ needs and growing requirements. This is especially vital when choosing to grow evergreen plants, as dry winter temperatures, strong winds, snow fall, and intense sunlight may cause potential damage to vulnerable and susceptible plants.

Evergreens are a wonderful way to bring year-round interest and structure to your gardens and borders, and with the introduction of new dwarf varieties, there is renewed interest in adding them into the landscape as specimen plants. Several species of evergreens are also extremely popular as hedging plants, as their narrow, columnar form and year-round foliage, are ideal for tight spaces.

Unfortunately, because of their growing popularity and perhaps over-hyped easy-care qualities, I’m seeing lots of evergreens that are suffering from neglect and disease. Sadly, once these trees become significantly damaged, they aren’t likely to recover and must be replaced. I’m always sad to see arborvitae hedges where half the trees are dead or dying or an Alberta Spruce that is clearly suffering from a spider mite infestation. These are beautiful plants that are expensive to replace, so it’s important to understand how to care for evergreen trees and shrubs so that they look their best for years.

Right Plant, Right Place

Properly siting an evergreen tree or shrub is the first step in preventing disease or damage. Because most can suffer from wind damage or sun scald, especially in climates with long and snowy winters, it’s important to avoid placing your evergreens where they are fully exposed to sun and drying winds. Ask your local garden center about varieties that are more wind resistant, or consider protecting them with a wind-breaking fence. Since improperly wrapping trees and shrubs can actually damage your plants, you should consult with a licensed Arborist or horticulturist before you go about buying tree wrap or burlap.

Overly wet or clay soils can be challenging for many plants, including evergreen trees and shrubs. There are some varieties, like Atlantic White Cedar, that do well in wet soils, but as a general rule if your soil stays wet or mushy for more than a day, you may need to build a berm or stick with containerized evergreens.

Water, Water, Water

While most evergreens require very little pruning if left to grow in their natural form, they do need frequent watering, especially in the first year they are planted. If not properly watered, evergreens will be more likely to suffer from winter burn or sun scald. Be sure your evergreens are getting at least an inch of water per week! Avoid giving them frequent, but short waterings, and instead water them deeply with a soaker hose or buy a Tree Gator for hot summers or dry fall weather.

It is really important that evergreens have plenty of water leading into winter in regions where the ground freezes. Many home owners are vigilant about watering in the summer, but forget to water when the weather cools into the fall. This is the time it is most important for these trees to be well hydrated, so be sure you keep those hoses and sprinklers going until the first freeze.

Fertilize Lightly

Evergreens are very slow growers and can generally absorb most of the nutrients they need from the soil. In very sandy areas or areas where the soil pH is more basic, your evergreens may have difficulty absorbing the nutrients they need. If your trees seem to be unnaturally pale green, they may need a little nitrogen. Never add fertilizer to the planting hole of your evergreens! If you fertilize at all, use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer or one designed specifically for evergreens, like Jobe’s Evergreen Tree & Shrub Fertilizer Spikes.

Siting your evergreens properly, watering them regularly, and ensuring that they have the proper nutrients will help your plants stay healthier and less susceptible to common evergreen problems. Unfortunately, even with the best care your trees may still be challenged by some common pests and diseases. Because a fungal disease can look like salt-spray, windburn, or leaf miner damage, you should consult with an arborist before you begin any kind of treatment. An arborist can also assess if the damage is reparable and weather the problem has spread to other trees in your yard. If you can’t find a certified arborist, you can always contact your local cooperative extension for advice.

Proper care for your evergreen trees and shrubs shouldn’t have to be rocket-science. Mostly, it is about treating these plants like any of your other favorite plants–make sure they are planted in a good spot and don’t neglect them too much. No (living) plant is maintenance free, and if you want your evergreens to stay healthy and beautiful, aren’t they worth a little extra TLC?

Below are our evergreen planting instructions and other information helpful for the proper planting and care of evergreen seedlings and transplants. We sell bare root evergreen seedings and bare root evergreen transplants seasonally in Spring and Fall, evergreen plug seedlings and evergreen plug transplants about 9 months of the year.

See also:
Evergreen Seedling Planting Videos
Evergreen Seedling Weed Control
Evergreen Seedling Deer Control
Evergreen Seedling Potting Instructions
Evergreen Seedling Temporary Storage Instructions
Evergreen Windbreaks and Privacy Screens
Evergreen Tree Winterburn
How Trees Sequester Carbon

Spring Evergreen Planting Instructions

Evergreens need soil at appropriate pH levels to properly absorb nutrientsSave yourself some time and headaches! With just a bit of practice, you should be able to plant a seedling every 90 seconds. Watch our instructional planting videos on how to properly plant a tree, and do it quickly.

Spring planting is best done just after frost leaves the ground, the weather is still cool, and lots of Spring rain is expected. The best time to plant evergreen seedlings is just after the ground has thawed but before warm weather arrives. Planting during hot, dry weather may cause “transplant shock” , so either avoid planting in hot, dry weather or make sure the trees get lots of water. Drip irrigation is optimal but not always feasible. To plant your trees, work a flat spade back and forth at least a foot into the ground to create a trench, scooping out any dirt that falls into the bottom. Hold the tree by the trunk with one hand and gently push the bottoms of the roots into the very bottom of the trench with your other hand, and then pull the tree back up to ground level to prevent the roots from curling upwards and to get the tree at the right planting height. Once in the trench, pour a quart or more of water into the trench, allow the water to drain down a bit, and then push the trench shut with your boot.

Create a berm around your tree to keep water flowing down instead of away

Optional: to improve watering and to help control weeds, create a circular berm around the tree and fill it with half an inch of bark or mulch. The berm will concentrate drip irrigation or a bucket of water around the roots, and the mulch will help prevent weeds.

For plug seedlings and plug transplants, most of the work described above is unnecessary. You can easily plant plug seedlings using a cordless drill and any old dull rusty 1 inch drill bit you have lying around. Using a drill bit in the soil will dull it quickly, so it’s better to use an old one rather than a nice new sharp one. We have an auger which is perfectly sized for planting evergreen plug transplants stupidly fast using the identical method. Have a look at our tree seedling planting videos for detailed instructions.

Late Spring Frosts

Evergreen trees are not susceptible to a typical Spring frost like flowers and some ornamental plants, and should be planted just after the ground thaws but before the Spring showers come to an end. In the early spring, tree seedlings are still hardened off from the winter and have no tender new growth…therefore frost does no damage. Making the mistake of waiting to plant until after the risk of frost has passed means the best time of year to plant an evergreen seedling has long passed. The only time most tree seedlings can be damaged by frost is if it occurs at a freakishly late time in the Spring, after the trees have broken bud and tender new growth is pushing upwards.

Evergreen Seedling Growth Rates

When planting, point the green end up!

After a year getting acclimated to it’s new location, healthy evergreen tree seedlings will typically add 8″ to 16″ of new growth per year. The first year’s growth may be less, since bare root trees must first re-establish their root systems before putting on new growth. It is worth noting that when you are buying a tree, you should pay more attention to the root system, not the pretty top growth. Healthy root systems support healthy growth rates, and growers often show photos of their trees’ root systems to show the health and vitality of their nursery stock.

Soil Types And Planting/Hardiness Zones

As a rule of thumb, if a particular species already grows in your area, you should have great success by planting the same species. Take a drive through your neighborhood and see what species of tree seem to be growing well, and ask your neighbors if you can’t identify a particular tree. You can also check out our Evergreen Tree Buyer’s Guide for a guide on what types of evergreens do well in specific zones, soil types and sun/shade environments.

Additional Wisdom

This is an email sent to a customer in winter 2019, containing many nuggets of very useful evergreen tree planting advice

Summer Planting: Ummm, no

We don’t recommend planting any species of tree seedling in the summer, which is why we close for the summer. A box of live seedlings sitting in a UPS truck for two days in July, are you kidding me? Most seedlings and transplants planted at this time of year will die quickly due to thermal shock and lack of adequate water from poorly established roots. However, plug seedlings are shipped with their cigar-shaped ball of soil still intact around the roots. These roots are already established in their own little dirt ecosystem and are ready to grow outwards into new dirt. This helps them avoid some of the problems of late Spring and late Fall planting, but they still need plenty of water throughout the heat of the first growing season.

Fall Evergreen Planting Instructions

When planting evergreen trees in the Fall, the trees experience less stress during the digging and shipping process because they’ve gone dormant in preparation for Winter, and don’t need nearly as much water and sunlight during this dormancy as during the Spring and Summer months. Early Fall planting also gives the trees plenty of time to become acclimated to their new environment and for the dirt to properly settle around the roots. And finally, Fall planting gives the trees a head start because they’re already in the ground in the Spring when the ground begins to thaw. Spring is obviously a fine and popular time to plant, but Fall certainly has its advantages.

Ummm, wading birds hunting around your spruce is a bad sign

Having said that, “heaving out” of Fall planted trees is a concern. Bare open ground can freeze and thaw repeatedly in the Winter during sunny days and freezing nights. This repetitive freeze/thaw cycle over many days can literally squeeze the roots of a Fall-planted seedling right out of the ground because the roots are not yet anchored in the soil. Transplants are virtually immune to heaving out due to their much longer root systems, even if they’re not properly anchored yet. To prevent heaving out of a seedling, throw some mulch or bark around each tree to insulate any bare dirt from wild temperature swings on sunny days and freezing nights. Snow is the perfect ground insulator, and it’s also free!

Desiccation is also a concern: young evergreens can dry out from low humidity and high winds during the winter. Again, seedlings are more susceptible to desiccation than the bigger transplants. To prevent desiccation, keep the ground damp until frost sets in, and spread mulch or woodchips as an added moisture retainer. Deep snowfall also prevents desiccation, since it covers the young trees in a stabilizing winter blanket.

Additional recommendations from the North Carolina Forestry Library >>

Fertilizing Evergreen Seedlings

Evergreen trees often don’t need much fertilizer, just plenty of sunshine and water. In fact, it is so easy to kill a tree by over-fertilizing that we recommend not fertilizing unless your evergreens seem to be losing their dark green color due to a shortage of nutrients. A small teaspoon of balanced fertilizer (labeled 12-12-12 or lower) sprinkled on top of the ground around and under each tree is great, but DO NOT put fertilizer directly into the planting hole…this will surely kill the trees in the same way that the way that taking an entire bottle of aspirin can kill you. Let water bring the nutrients to the roots at a slow, natural pace.

We are big fans of gentle over-the-counter products such as Miracle Gro All Purpose Liquid Plant Food , and my new favorite: Liquid Kelp Extract / Seaweed Extract . Both of these products can be applied while watering, provide excellent results, and are nearly foolproof methods for the prevention of over-fertilization. I know, because this fool who speaks to you now has killed a lot of trees with granular petroleum-based fertilizers over the years!

Evergreen Seedling Care: Deer, Rodents and Other Pests

Deer and rodents such as mice, moles and voles will eat almost anything when their normal food sources become scarce. Deer will snack on tender new growth, and will eat most of the tree if conditions are worse than normal. Deer are naturally terrified of coyotes, and you can buy spray bottles of synthetic coyote urine or Plantskydd online. Moles, voles and mice can do just as much damage, but from underground and right at the surface, eating away the tender roots and girdling the tree by eating all the bark at ground level. In the early spring, your trees will already be turning brown and can be pulled out with just two fingers because there’s no roots left. Regular inspections and poison, traps or “mouse patrol” are the only realistic solution.

Mouse/mole/vole bait pellets can be inserted into a 12-18″ long length of approx 2 inch diameter PVC pipe, then lay them on the ground around the trees which you are trying to protect. The natural shape of the pipe and the enticing food inside does a very good job. The pipe also protects the poisoned food and makes it last longer, and prevents it from getting rinsed and washed away. A flag or stake marking each trap makes them easier to find in deep snow for inspection and refilling.

Evergreen Seedling Care: Weeds

See our evergreen tree weed control page for information on herbicides and other means of controlling weeds around your evergreen trees.

Evergreen Seedling Care: Planting in Pots

See our how to pot evergreen trees page for helpful tips and information on how to do it right, and the multiple gotcha’s to look out for.

Evergreen Seedling Seasonal Care

Your trees will finish their growth for the year around mid-July to August. Pines can be pruned after the 4th of July, while Spruce and Fir should not be pruned until Fall. If you notice your trees are not as deep a green as they used to be, sprinkle a tablespoon of 12-12-12 balanced fertilizer on top of the ground around each tree, but let the rain or your sprinkler slowly transfer the nutrients to the roots…fast fertilizing or over-fertilizing is a great way to kill your trees!

Wind Breaks and Privacy Screens

Please see our evergreen windbreaks and privacy screens page for detailed information.

Happy planting! – Rick

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