# Does magnetism affect plant growth

Another study demonstrated that magnetic fields increased percentages of Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace elements in plant tissue. .

Multiple scholarly thesis all point to the fact that magnetic fields enhance plant development and production. That’s all well and good , but how can the average “Joe the Gardener” take advantage of this ? Suspending a magnet over your plants is not going to have any discernible effect. Burying magnets near plant bases probably shant do much either.

To enhance seed germination – place seeds on a strong flat magnet for at least 2 -3 days, preferably around a week for optimal results. Plant the seeds within a day of removing them from the magnet. I can personally attest to this – I’ve done it and it works.

Magnetized Water

In reality you can not actually magnetize water. Iron is the only thing that has strong visibly observable magnetic properties. Water in its purest form is unaffected by magnetism, it is not possible to magnetize a non magnetic material such as water.

It is however possible to magnetize, to varying degrees, the mineral elements within the water and somewhat alter their properties. Magnets for instance will act as water purifiers that will change salt ions present in the water, dissolving them, breaking them down creating a purer and more readily absorbed moisture and nutrient source for plant growth.

In Israel, palestinian farmers have used electromagnets coupled with steel pipes. The magnets create a field within the pipes that are carrying the water. When electricity is introduced – that’s the’electro’ part of electromagnetism, the water molecules are forced into a vibration which expedites the break down of the salt particles, rendering them basically harmless to the crops. This process occurs without damaging the minerals nutrients compounds in the water that the plants require.

These systems cost about \$20,000 – which is simply not economically feasible for the backyard gardener. You can however easily construct a scaled down version of the system used in Israel which will make hard water soft.

Magnets can be fastened to a hose end, or within the hose itself in such a fashion that the water flows over them. The south pole of the magnet should be facing the flow of the water. The magnets should be strong – not those little do-dads you attach to the refrigerator, but a fairly powerful magnet such as that found in older speakers. Water should be directed at the base of the plant only, for the roots. Root crops seem to fare better when the magnets polarity is reversed – the north pole facing the water stream. I have not yet tried this myself and what I am relaying is based on the word of others I believe reliable. Allegedly magnetized water produces an increase yield and higher quality produce.

Most of what is covered in this article is covered under ‘Magnetotropism’. Any wishing to study further on a scholarly basis are advised to see Possibility of Magnetotropisms existing in Plants

Talking To Plants Coffee Grinds Egg Shells as Fertilizer

Urine as Fertilizer Cinnamon Fungicide and Rooting Agent

Footnotes

1. Effect of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination, Growth and Yield of Sweet Pepper

2. Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Plant Growth

3. Magnets Help Plants Grow By Rana Malki

Magnetism And Plant Growth How Do Magnets Help Plants Grow

There is some evidence that magnets can actually enhance the growth and yield of many plants. There are several ways exposure to magnetic fields may effect the plants development.

Sunlight, water and nutrients are the 3 primary requirements of plant development. Magnets will not help much with sunlight, but they can help with the uptake of water and nutrients.

Some evidence appears to indicate that Earthï¿½s magnetic field has an influence on seed germination by stimulating plant hormones. Studies have demonstrated that magnetic treatment of seeds speeds up germination by accelerating the formation of proteins in the cells. This results is an expeditious growth habit and a more vigorous plant.

In a recent study pepper seeds and water were passed through a magnetic funnel. Germination rates and percentages, growth and yield of the treated and non-treated pepper plants were recorded. The Germination of all treated seeds began earlier than that of the control group. Germination percentages increased by roughly 40%.

## Asian Journal of Crop Science

INTRODUCTION

Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) is one of the most important vegetables and popular crops grown in many countries including Egypt. Sweet pepper occupied 108026 feddan. (45389 ha) in Egypt during 2009 with an average of 7.4 ton per feddan. (AOAD, 2009). Its fruits have high nutritional values, as they are a very rich source for vitamin A and C (Elwan and El-Hamahmy, 2009; Rajput and Poruleker, 1998). Enhancement of the productivity and quality of sweet pepper is usually dependent on many factors that influence the plant growth throughout the growth period as well as improving agricultural treatments.

Different chemical and non-chemical methods have been applied to improve crop yield and quality, one of which is magnetic field (Jinapang et al., 2010). It has been reported that magnetic field affects plant growth and development processes such as seed germination and seedling growth (Aladjadjiyan, 2002). Furthermore, magnetic field may alter the characteristics of cell membrane and cell reproduction and may cause some changes in cell metabolism and various cellular functions including gene expression, protein biosynthesis and enzyme activities (Atak et al., 2003). Several studies have reported the influence of magnetic field on seed germination and vegetative growth of vegetable crops such as mung bean (Huang and Wang, 2008), tomato (De Souza et al., 2005, 2006), snow pea and chickpea (Grewal and Maheshwari, 2011) and peas (Eskov and Rodionov, 2010).

This study was designed to investigate the influence of magnetic field on seed germination, vegetative growth, yield and yield quality of sweet pepper cultivated under Egyptian soil conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Magnetic funnel: A magnetic funnel (Brand name: Magnetic Technologies L.L.C., Model No. MFL01, Dubai, U.A.E.) was used. Two cassettes with ceramic magnets are located inside the cylindrical part of the magnetic funnel. Length of each cassette is 75 mm, there are seven magnets installed inside of each cassette with intervals. North poles of magnets of one cassette are located opposite south poles of magnets of other cassette. Maximal magnetic induction along axis cylindrical part of the magnetic funnel is 57-60 mT (millitesla) between magnets in each pair and 4-6 mT in the intervals between the pairs of magnets.

Plant material and germination experiment: Seeds of sweet pepper (cv. California Wonder) were purchased from Tanta, Egypt. The seeds were divided to four groups and each group contains 10 seeds in 10 replications. Seeds in the first group were passed through the magnetic funnel to be magnetized and then the seeds were placed in petri dishes (9 cm) containing Whatman No.1 filter paper soaked with normal distilled water (non-magnetized water). Seeds in the second group (non-magnetized seeds) were soaked in magnetized distilled water that was previously passed through the magnetic funnel. In the third group, magnetized seeds were soaked in magnetized distilled water. In the fourth group, non-magnetized seeds were soaked in non-magnetized distilled water to serve as a control. Seeds in all groups were left to germinate at room temperature (25±2°C) for 14 days to measure the percentage of germination according to Scott et al. (1984) and Bartlett (1937).

Experimental design: The experiment was carried out in duplicate at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University during 2011 and 2012.

Seedbed experiment: The seeds were sown in seedling trays in a plastic greenhouse on 16th and 17th January 2011 and 2012, respectively. Treatments in the seedbed were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications and the seeds were divided to four groups as mentioned above. The first group contained magnetized seeds irrigated with non-magnetized water. The second group contained non-magnetized seeds irrigated with magnetized water. The third group contained magnetized seeds irrigated with magnetized water, while the fourth group contained non-magnetized seeds irrigated with non-magnetized water (control).

Field experiment: Seedlings from each treatment were transplanted to the open field on 6th and 8th of March 2011 and 2012, respectively at 30 cm apart in one side of the ridges. The plot area was 11.2 m2, which contained four rows with 4 m in length and 70 cm in width. Treatments in the field were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Normal cultural practices were carried out as recommended for the conventional pepper planting according to instructions of Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture. During this period, non-magnetized water was provided to all four treatments.

 Table 1: Chemical analysis of the experimental soil

The soil in the plots was a clay loam soil with organic matter 1.5%, pH 7.25 and EC/25°C 4.03 mmhos cm-1. Table 1 provides information on the soils chemical analysis determined according to Ryan et al. (1996).

Seedlings growth parameters: During the seedbed period, 10 seedlings per treatment were sampled at 50 days post-sowing to measure seedling height, number of leaves per seedling, seedling fresh and dry weight and seedling leaf area.

Vegetative growth traits: Five plants from each plot were randomly sampled at 90 days after transplanting to determine plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, fresh and dry weight per plant and leaf area per plant.

Flowering growth traits: Five plants from each plot were randomly selected and labeled to determine the days after transplanting to 25% flowering, number of flowers per plant and percentage of fruit set.

Yield parameters: Ten representative marketable fruits from each treatment at the middle of harvesting season were collected and used for determination of yield parameters including fruit fresh and dry weight, fruit number per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and pericarp thickness. In addition, fruits produced from each plot were harvested and used to determine early and total marketable fruit yield. Early marketable yield was determined from the first three harvestings.

Chemical composition of leaves: Contents of chlorophyll a and b, caroteniods, N, P and K in the leaves of sweet pepper were determined according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC, 1995).

Chemical composition of fruits: Concentrations of vitamin C, nitrate (NO3), Total Soluble Solids (TSS), titratable acidity, N, P, and K in the fruits of sweet pepper were determined according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC, 1995).

Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by MSTATC computer software program adopted by Bridker (1991) using ANOVA with the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at the 0.05 probability level.

RESULTS

Seed germination: Figure 1 shows the percent germination rate of pepper seeds treated with magnetic field. Germination of all treated seeds began one day earlier than that of non-treated seeds. After the 14th day of soaking, 83.3, 84.7 and 90.3% germination were achieved in magnetized seeds, magnetized water and magnetized seeds+water, respectively; while, it was 62.3% in non-treated seeds (LSD = 5.14 at 5%). Highest germination rate was achieved for magnetized seeds that were soaked in magnetized water rather than magnetized seeds soaked in non-magnetized water or non-magnetized seeds soaked in magnetized water. However, no significant difference was observed between the germination rate of magnetized seeds and magnetized water when used separately. Germination percentage increased by 33.7, 35.8 and 44.9% over control in magnetized seeds, magnetized water and magnetized seeds+water, respectively.

Seedlings growth: As shown in Table 2, growth of all seedlings produced from treated seeds was significantly promoted than those produced from non-treated seeds in both 2011 and 2012 seasons. As for instance, seedling height increased significantly by 21.2, 29.3 and 47% in magnetized seeds, magnetized water and magnetized seeds+water, respectively in 2011, while the increase was by 21.1, 28.1 and 45%, respectively in 2012.

 Fig. 1: Effect of magnetic field on percent germination rate of sweet pepper seeds, Values are expressed as the mean (n = 10), LSD for germination% = 5.14 , MS: Magnetized Seed; MW: Magnetized Water; MSW: Magnetized Seed+Water

 Table 2: Effect of magnetic field on growth of sweet pepper seedlings Values are means of 3 replications

Likewise, seedling leaf area increased by 15.2, 29.5 and 50.6% in treated seedlings in 2011 and by 21.2, 35.8 and 56.6% in 2012. This effect was more positive when seeds and water were both magnetized. Generally, no significant differences were found in the growth parameters of the seedlings produced from magnetized seeds only and those produced from magnetized water only.

Vegetative growth traits: Table 3 summarizes the values of vegetative growth traits of pepper plants affected by magnetic field in seasons of 2011 and 2012. Values of vegetative growth were significantly higher in treated plants than those in non-treated plants in both seasons. Reported values were significantly superior in the plants generated from magnetized seeds that were irrigated with magnetized water. For example, 11, 12, 14.1, 21.8, 12.2 and 23.5% increase were recorded in the plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, fresh and dry weight per plant and leaf area per plant, respectively for pepper plants generated from magnetized seeds+water treatment in 2011 compared to the non-magnetized treatment. While in the 2012, same traits increased by about 12.4, 10.2, 11.6, 12.6, 9.2 and 22.5%, respectively.

Flowering growth traits: Table 4 shows the flowering traits of pepper plants influenced by magnetic field. Although magnetic field had no significant effect on number of flowers per plant and fruit set percentage, it significantly shorted the period to 25% flowering in both seasons.

 Table 3: Effect of magnetic field on the vegetative growth traits of sweet pepper Values are means of 3 replications

 Table 4: Effect of magnetic field on flowering traits of sweet pepper Values are means of 3 replications, NS: Not significant

 Fig. 2: Effect of magnetic field on early and total fruit yield of sweet pepper, Values are expressed as the mean (n = 3), LSD for early yield = 0.09 and 0.14 for 2011 and 2012 season, respectively, LSD for total yield = 0.25 and 0.36 for 2011 and 2012 season, respectively, MS: Magnetized Seed; MW: Magnetized Water; MSW: Magnetized Seed+Water

 Table 5: Effect of magnetic field on the yield of sweet pepper Values are means of 3 replications, NS: Not significant

Flowering was accelerated by 1.7, 2 and 2.8 days in pepper plants emerged from magnetized seeds, magnetized water and magnetized seeds+water, respectively in 2011 compared to the non-magnetized treatment. While in the 2012, magnetized treatments took 1, 1.3 and 2.4 days shorter to 25% flowering over control, respectively.

Yield parameters: Fruit fresh and dry weight, number of fruits per plant, early and total marketable fruit yield significantly increased by magnetic field (Table 5, Fig. 2), while the differences among fruit length, fruit diameter and pericarp thickness were insignificant. Total marketable fruit yield increased significantly by about 6.2, 7.4 and 12.1% in pepper plants generated from magnetized seeds, magnetized water and magnetized seeds+water, respectively in (2011) compared to the non-magnetized treatment. In 2012, increase was by 9.2, 10.1 and 14.7%, respectively. This raise is due to the gain in the fruit fresh weight and the number of fruits per plant.

 Table 6: Effect of magnetic field on the chemical composition of sweet pepper leaves Values are means of 3 replications, DW: Dry weight, N: Nitrogen, P: Phosphorus, K: Potassium, NS: Not significant

 Table 7: Effect of magnetic field on chemical composition of sweet pepper fruits Values are means of 3 replications, FW: Fresh weight, DW: Dry weight, N: Nitrogen, P: Phosphorus, K: Potassium, Ns: Not significant

Chemical composition of leaves and fruits: Leaf contents of chlorophyll a and b, caroteniods and P in 2011 season were significantly affected by the magnetic field, while in 2012; only K concentrations were insignificant (Table 6).

In fruits, the magnetic field significantly increased concentrations of vitamin C and P but NO3, TSS, acidity, N and K were not affected in 2011 (Table 7). In 2012, concentrations of vitamin C, TSS and P significantly increased in treated plants, while there were no significant differences in contents of NO3, acidity, N and K.

DISCUSSION

Treating pepper seeds and/or irrigated water by magnetic field led to a considerable enhancement in their germination and subsequently in the growth and yield of the plants, they produced.

Percent germination rate and seedlings growth of pepper plants were increased in response to magnetic field (Fig. 1, Table 2). It was previously proposed that magnetic field accelerates seed germination, seedling growth and activates proteins formation and root development (Aladjadjiyan, 2002; Atak et al., 2003). These effects may be due to that magnetic field interacts with ionic current in the plant embryo cell membrane that induces changes both osmotic pressure and ionic concentrations on both sides of the membrane (Yaycili and Alikamanoglu, 2005). Reina and Pascual (2001) reported that changes in the ionic fluxes across cell membrane cause alterations in the mechanism of water uptake, due to the fact that osmo-regulation in embryo cells is controlled by the ionic transport across the membrane.

Magnetic field also increased vegetative and flowering growth of pepper plants (Table 3 and 4). The enhancement in vegetative parameters including plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh and dry weight in the plants derived from the treated seeds may be due to the increase in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a and b and caroteniods (Table 6) that provided greater amount of assimilates available for vegetative growth. This resulted in a remarkable increase in the vegetative and flowering growth of pepper plants that produced from seeds treated by magnetic field. It has been stated that magnetic field caused alterations in the transport properties of cellular plasmatic membranes, which play an extremely important role in regulating the assimilation by a cell of the nutrients needed for its functioning (Azharonok et al., 2009).

Fruit fresh and dry weight, number of fruits per plant, early and total marketable fruit yield significantly increased by magnetic field (Table 5, Fig. 2). The considerable improvement in fruit yield parameters (Table 5) as well as concentration of vitamin C (Table 7) may be resulted from an increase in the number of harvested fruits per plant and average fruit weight induced by the magnetic treatments. Similar effects have been reported on mung bean (Huang and Wang, 2008), tomato (De Souza et al., 2005, 2006), snow pea and chickpea (Grewal and Maheshwari, 2011) and peas (Eskov and Rodionov, 2010).

The positive effects of magnetic fields may be a result of bioenergetic structural excitement causing cell pumping and enzymatic stimulation as they might affect the regulation of crucial ion mechanisms such as the ATP hydrogen pump, and possibly the configuration of pivotal proteins (De Souza et al., 2005). However, the effects of magnetic field on plant growth still require proper explanation especially for the late growth period such as flowering and fruiting stages.

CONCLUSION

The present results indicate that pre-sowing magnetic treatments enhance the percent germination rate, growth and development of pepper plants and improve their fruit yield parameters. Furthermore, magnetic field treatment can be considered as an alternative to chemical and biological methods that are commonly used in the production of vegetable crops.

References

Abstract:
This paper describes the effect of alternating magnetic fields on plant germination and growth. Experiments were conducted utilizing various frequencies and two states of polarity. Electromagnetic coils were used to generate the fields and ‘Komatsuna’ plants were chosen as subjects. The frequency was varied from 1 to 1000 Hz, at a fixed intensity of 4 or 5 Gauss. The magnetic polarity was controlled by reversing the current direction. Measured parameters were germination rate, growth rate and yield of the plant.

The results indicated that magnetic fields do influence plant growth and germination, and that frequency of the field is a more important factor in germination rates than polarity. Maximum germination rates, which were 20 % higher than control rates, were obtained at around 10 Hz. An alternating magnetic field of 10 Hz was shown to have a statistically significant effect on plant growth, as measured by leaf area. The difference in growth rate between treated and control plants decreased after the field was removed.

## Magnetic Effects on Living Organisms

x by WRF Staff

The effects of magnets and magnetic fields has been known for a very long time. Galen, a Greek physician around 200 BC, in his book, De Simplicium Medicamentorum Facultatibus, mentions the use of magnets. In 1000 A.D., a famous Persian physician described his findings using magnetism to relieve various disorders. In the early 1500s, the great medical doctor, Paracelsus, wrote several treatises on the use of magnets and magnetism. While Paracelsus gave many hints for the nature and use of magnetism, it was the writings of a monk by the name of Athanasius Kircher, Father Kircher, who taught a whole philosophy of universal magnetism.

What these philosophers tried to elaborate upon was that there is an intangible invisible, magnetic power that draws things together. Individual elements might not really be considered magnetic but they all possess a magnetic aspect that attracts one thing to another.

Father Kircher stated that “there is but one magnet in the universe, and from it proceeds the magnetization of everything existing.” He labeled this the Spiritual Son or God. All things exist within the universal magnetic fluid. Father Kircher went on to explain a theory of medicine based on sympathy and antipathy, much the same as Paracelsus spoke of some one hundred years earlier, wherein good aspects good be attracted to the patient and less positive influences could be drawn out of the patient, to attach to some element, particle, metal that was near the patient.

In the writings of Dr. Ambrose Pare, regarded as one of the top five physicians of all time, he described how physicians took lodestone, a natural magnet, ground it into fine powder, and mixed it with ‘pappe’ to be taken internally. The magnetic powder mixed with honey was applied to external openings, wounds, ruptures, and ‘other forms’ of human ailments. Interestingly enough, in the 1980s medical persons in Israel mixed medicines and antibiotics with magnetic powder. The patient would take the mixture orally, then a magnetic would be applied to the outside of the body for direction to that area in need of medication. The magnet then holds the medication in that specific area for a better effect of the medication.

William Maxwell in the late 1600s also wrote quite a bit regarding magnetic attractions within the animal, vegetable and human realms. Most all of these previously mentioned individuals speak of emotional and chemical affinities, or attractions, in the same terms as we would with the use of a physical magnet. Maxwell went on to state in his book, Medicina Magnetica, that there are important propositions to be aware of regarding magnetic attractions: “There is a universal attraction, or what some people call a world-soul, it is life, as fire and ethereal as light itself. All matter is destitute of action, except when this life-force, magnetic force, permeates it.” Maxwell also stated that the life force, magnetism, is found in nature free from all fetters, and “he who understands how to unite it with a harmonizing body, possess a treasure which exceeds all riches.”

“He who knows this magnetic spirit, a common bond of all quarters of the earth, and lives through and in all …knowing its application can prevent all injuries.”

“If thou will avail themself of this spirit, and fix it upon a paticular body, it will perform great healing.”

“He who knows how to operate on men by this universal spirit, can heal, and this at any distance that he pleases.”

Now the great healers and healing locations around the world have been subjected and emanate this magnetic force. The tomb of a saint; a holy relic; a talisman; a bit of paper or a garment that has been handled by the healer; a nostrum; a penance or a ceremonial which has been blessed with the magnetic force of love or faith all have the ability to illicit great and wonderful cures.

Some of the great healers of the past such as Cure d’Ars, J.R. Newton, Valentine Greatrakes, Gassner and many others possessed a strong magnetic current that people either felt or heard; yes, heard! During some of the healings people would hear a popping sound in the air and also feel strong magnetic effects.

Now let us turn our attention to the use of physical magnets and their application to various diseases, illnesses and physical problems.

Two of the greatest researchers into magnetic effects were, Albert Roy Davis and Walter C. Rawls, Jr. (The following information is taken from their books, The Magnetic Effect and Magnetism and Its Effects on the Living System.)

“Over 300 active cancer biopsy transplants to laboratory strain white rats, mice and rabbits, each having a similar blood type to that of man, 89.6 percent, were programmed as to growth, development and/or arrest of cancer. This was accomplished through the proper application of the arresting energy of a magnet’s poles. Of the several hundred research transplants of cancer to rats, rabbits, mice, and other animals, it has been proven that the N pole, the magnetic negative energy of the two poles and their separate energies, has slowed, controlled and arrested further development of the active cancer site. Better than 90 percent of the cases so treated have shown a control and arrest of the cancerous condition, depending on the state of advancement of the cancer and the age and physical condition of the animal in question.”

“To further support this finding, when the S pole of a magnet, this being the positive energy of a magnet, is applied to cancers they become more advanced and then develop, grow and spread at an accelerated rate.” For more information regarding the gauss strength of the magnets, please read their book, Magnetism and its Effects….

Regarding sex life and aging the researchers found the following: “…the sex life and the mice and rats we used as controls was considered to be normal. The sex life of the N pole rodents was limited and less active than the controls. It was noted that experiments with the mice, rats and rabbits all resulted in the same percentage of exactness in resulting behavior. The S pole rodents, encompassing all of the above mentioned types, reacted to a far greater sex life with frequent activity. The exposure of the rodents to the S pole energies acted to inspire strength and vigor and when applied to the sex organs encouraged greater development of sperm produced and larger percentages of resultant fertility. This was responsible in part for changing the rodents and animals in their inborn habits, personalities, behavior and reproduction. (Note: Please consult the book for specific details. WRF is merely quoting these sources but not recommending them for human use.) The life span of rodents and animals can be extended up to 50 percent. Mice and rats proved this possibility. In larger animals it has been more difficult to note this due to their normal life span reaching 18 to 25 years, as in the case of cats and dogs.”

“The use of a horseshoe magnet is not accurate for this research. A better separation of the North and South pole energies is necessary. A flat slatelike magnet was designed that allowed 3000 gauss averages over extended lengths of time with little loss of energy. Gauss is the unit of magnetism, as volt is the unit of measuring voltage. The N-1 type of biomagnet was constructed and used in this research. The magnet is approximately six inches long by two inches wide by one-half inch thick. It is nonmetal. The composition is ferric materials mixed with a gray-black coloring materials that gives the appearance of slate. The life of this type of magnet is three to five years, and it can be recharged again and again if needed.”

“Many animals, like man, suffer from infections, swellings and stoppages in the passage to the appendix. Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix, a small sac-like appendage of the large intestine. Applying the North pole energy to the infected or inflamed area for 45 minutes to one hour twice or three times a day shows a marked reduction. This is especially accurate if application is started soon after tenderness or pain is noted.”

“Animals as they grow old suffer from arthritis, as do many people. Although there are many types of arthritis, magnets still brought improvement to the condition. Some types of arthritis are caused by the development and growth of small hair-like fibers of calcium that develop and form across the joints of the fingers, arms, legs, and many parts of the body. Slow dissolution of the calcium development was noted when the North pole was used to the feet and limbs of the animal. The North pole of the N-1 biomagnet was used for 30 to 40 minutes twice a day. Results were shown by X rays taken before and after a series of exposure to the North pole magnetic energy. Many cases responded well. In the neura types of arthritis, inflamed joints and associated disorders, the North pole energy alleviates pain and reduces inflamed joints with many cases recovering in a week or several weeks.”

Virtually all parts of the body and many conditions are addressed in these books.

## Biomagnetism: Magnetic Fields Produced by the Human Body

### David Cohen, MIT

Friday, November 7, 2008, 3:30pm

Spanos Auditorium

This seminar is part of the Jones Seminars on Science, Technology, and Society series

Biomagnetism is the phenomenon where magnetic fields are produced by the living things, especially by the human body; (different from magnetic fields applied to the body, called magnetobiology). The body’s magnetic fields are very weak, and are measured with the sensitive detector called a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), usually in a magnetically shielded room, which excludes most external disturbances. There are about 160 laboratories around the world where fields from various parts of the body are measured; most measure the magnetic field from the brain, called the magnetoencephalogram, or MEG. The MEG shows complementary information to the electroencephalogram (EEG), and is producing valuable new information about the normal human brain. It also shows promise in clinical diagnosis of brain abnormalities. Thus, Biomagnetism is a promising new window into the human body generally, and into the brain, in particular. Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth is now acquiring a MEG system, and exciting developments are expected.

## About the Speaker

David Cohen pioneered the study of Biomagnetism (magnetic fields produced by the body), where he made many of the first measurements. In 1969 Cohen built an elaborate shielded room at MIT, but still needed a more sensitive detector. James Zimmerman had just developed an extremely sensitive detector called the SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Cohen and Zimmerman set up this detector in the new room to look at the body’s heart signal – the magnetocardiogram (MCG). For the first time the signals were clear, and their resulting report, called the magna carta of biomagnetism, ushered in a new era in biomagnetism. Cohen then measured the first clear signal from the brain or magnetoencephalogram (MEG). Cohen continuously worked in biomagnetism throughout his career, authored many publications, mostly concerning the MEG, and has been called “the father of the MEG”. He remains active, is on the faculty at the Harvard Medical School, and is a mentor in the MEG group at the Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, which is located at Massachusetts General Hospital.

## Practise now to improve your marks

### The Earth’s magnetic field (ESAEO)

In the picture below, you can see a representation of the Earth’s magnetic field which is very similar to the magnetic field of a giant bar magnet like the one on the right of the picture. The Earth has two magnetic poles, a north and a south pole just like a bar magnet.

In addition to the magnetic poles the Earth also has two geographic poles. The two geographic poles are the points on the Earth’s surface where the line of the Earth’s axis of rotation meets the surface. To visualise this you could take any round fruit (lemon, orange etc.) and stick a pencil through the middle so it comes out the other side. Turn the pencil, the pencil is the axis of rotation and the geographic poles are where the pencil enters and exits the fruit. We call the geographic north pole true north.

The Earth’s magnetic field has been measured very precisely and scientists have found that the magnetic poles do not correspond exactly to the geographic poles.

So the Earth has two north poles and two south poles: geographic poles and magnetic poles.

The direction of the Earth’s magnetic field flips direction about once every $$\text{200 000}$$ years! You can picture this as a bar magnet whose north and south pole periodically switch sides. The reason for this is still not fully understood.

The Earth’s magnetic field is thought to be caused by flowing liquid metals in the outer core of the planet which causes electric currents and a magnetic field. From the picture you can see that the direction of magnetic north and true north are not identical. The geographic north pole is about $$\text{11,5}$$$$\text{°}$$ away from the direction of the magnetic north pole (which is where a compass will point). However, the magnetic poles shift slightly all the time.

Another interesting thing to note is that if we think of the Earth as a big bar magnet, and we know that magnetic field lines always point from north to south, then the compass tells us that what we call the magnetic north pole is actually the south pole of the bar magnet!

## What Will Happen to a Magnet in Water

Will a neodymium magnet lose its power when dropped in water? The simple answer is no. In fact, magnets are sometimes used for underwater recovery. Boaters and fisherman may use a magnet retrieval tool to recover some lost items such as keys or magnetic fishing gear that have been dropped in the water. However, one concern is that the magnets will begin to corrode, especially if they are made of materials like neodymium. On the other hand, water has shown diamagnetic properties.

## Diamagnetism: Frog Experiment

Diamagnetism occurs when certain nonmagnetic substances come in contact with a strong magnetic field. The diamagnetism means they will repel an applied magnetic field.

In 1997 a physicist by the name of Andre Giem, with the help of Michael Berry, conducted the first experiment that magnetically levitated a frog. This may sound like a magic trick but the frog did in fact levitate when interacting with a magnet. Here is the science behind it: Frogs are made up of a large percentage of water. The shifts of electrons within atoms in water create their very own magnetic fields and when a strong magnet is applied the diamagnetism of the water in the frog caused it to repel the magnet’s field.

Because water and other diamagnetic substances are found in the human body, one can hypothesize that the human body can also be levitated. Other examples of diamagnetic materials include: strawberries, gold, bones and wood.

## Magnet Experiments: The Effect of Water on Magnetism

You can also test the relationship between magnets and water yourself in less than a minute with a simple experiment.

## Supplies

• Clear plastic cup
• Water (room temperature)
• 2 Neodymium magnets

## Steps

1. Fill a clear plastic cup up about ½ with water.
2. Drop a magnet in and watch for any reactions.
3. Test whether or not the water affects its magnetic pull by placing another magnet near the cup. The magnets will attract one another.

The relationship between magnets and water is definitely an intriguing one. This experiment works best with room temperature water, but you can also try a more extensive experiment to test how the results may change as the water temperature increases or decreases!

Photo by Brian Gatwicke

For this experiment we tested how a magnets force was impacted by three different types of liquid. We used Water, Vegetable Oil and Corn Syrup.

## Supplies Needed

• 3 Glasses
• Magnet
• 12 Paper Clips
• 1/2 Cup Water
• 1/2 Cup Vegetable Oil
• 1/2 Cup Light Corn Syrup

## Experiment Instructions

Step 1 – Place three cups in a row

Step 2 – Fill the first glass with the water

Step 3 – Fill the middle glass with the vegetable oil

Step 4 – Fill the third glass with the corn syrup

Step 5 – Next, place 4 paper clips in each glass

Step 6 – You may need to gently push the paper clips to the bottom of the glass with the corn syrup

Step 7 – Test your magnet by showing how paper clips outside of the liquid are attracted to it.

Step 8 – Next, take your magnet and place it next to each glass. Notice that all the paper clips are attracted to the magnet, but that the liquid in the glass causes the paper clips to move differently.

## How Does the Experiment Work?

The question answered in this experiment is how does the consistency of a liquid impact magnetic attraction.

When using water and vegetable oil, the paper clips moved through the liquid to the magnet very quickly. This is because the liquids provided very little resistance.

However, the paper clips in the corn syrup moved very slowly toward the magnet. This is because the corn syrup has a very think consistency.

The magnet still still attracts the paperclips in each of the scenarios. But the experiment shows that the thickness (also called consistency or viscosity) of a liquid impacts how fast (or slow) the paperclips move toward the magnet.

I hope you enjoyed the experiment. Here’s some printable instructions.

Print This!

## How Liquid Impacts Magnets Science Experiment

Items Needed

• 3 Glasses
• Magnet
• 12 Paper Clips
• 1/2 Cup Water
• 1/2 Cup Vegetable Oil
• 1/2 Cup Light Corn Syrup

Instructions

1. Place three cups in a row
2. Fill the first glass with the water
3. Fill the middle glass with the vegetable oil
4. Fill the third glass with the corn syrup
5. Next, place 4 paper clips in each glass
6. You may need to gently push the paper clips to the bottom of the glass with the corn syrup
7. Test your magnet by showing how paper clips outside of the liquid are attracted to it.
8. Next, take your magnet and place it next to each glass. Notice that all the paper clips are attracted to the magnet, but that the liquid in the glass causes the paper clips to move differently

This is easier said than done for some crops. Potatoes and some other crops, such as alfalfa, are tetraploids, carrying four copies of each chromosome. (Humans and most animals are diploid, with two chromosomes, one from each parent). A breeder might want to delete one gene that decreases crop yield, but there may be three more copies of the gene on the plant’s other chromosomes.

This unique inheritance pattern means that potatoes are typically sterile, and must be propagated by harvesting them and replanting tubers. Speed breeding and genetic editing can only fast-track propagation to a certain extent, said Benjamin Stich, a plant geneticist at the Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Germany.

Dr. Stich and his team are developing a technique called genomic prediction to fast-track the identification of tubers with desirable traits. First, the researchers take what they know about how various genes influence growth and yield. Then, they input that data into computer models and extract predictions about which plants will have the best combination of genes and yield in the field.

“We can now predict many traits simultaneously, with high reliability,” Dr. Stich said. His team has used the technique to successfully predict tubers’ susceptibility to potato blight, as well as their starch content, yield and time to maturity.

With cheaper, more powerful technology, opportunities are opening up to improve crops around the world. Dr. Hickey’s team plans to train plant breeders in India, Zimbabwe and Mali over the next couple years through a collaboration with the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

## How To Get To Harvest Faster

by Nebula Haze

“I need to harvest as soon as possible. What’s the fastest growth method? What can I do to speed up the time to harvest?”

Learn More: Why are my cannabis buds taking so long to mature?

## How to Speed Up Harvest Time

Many of our readers write in to ask about speeding up the time to harvest.

So, how long does it actually take to grow marijuana?

Short Answer: From Day 1 of your marijuana plant’s life to a smokable harvest, you are looking at a window ranging between 3 and 7+ months!

Many factors will affect the total time, but the average grow takes 3-4 months. Learn more about the marijuana growth timeline.

Long Answer: These factors have the greatest impact on total time to harvest:

• Plant strain – strain has the largest impact on growing time.

• Desired yields – do you want to grow a few grams, a few ounces, or a few pounds?

• Growing method – differing grow methods/setups can add or subtract a few weeks or even months!

Where can I buy seeds?

## 7 Tactics To Get To Harvest As Quickly As Possible

Faster is not always better, but there are ways that you can speed up the time from seedling to harvest without sacrificing quality, potency or yields.

So today I’d like to share a short guide on how you can reduce the time to harvest, and how you can reduce the amount of time you actually spend tending your plants, and still get outstanding results.

If you’re serious about getting yields as quickly as possible, then these tactics will get you there the right way! Let’s get to it!

## 1.) Fewer Hours of Light Each Day in Flowering Stage

With photoperiod (regular) strains, you can manipulate the light schedule in the flowering stage to get buds to mature faster. Although most plants will start flowering when they get less than 13 or 14 hours of light a day (that’s when plants usually start flowering outdoors), it can take them a long time to “finish” and be ready to harvest with days that long.

Because of that, it’s recommended to give plants 12 hours of light each day, and 12 hours of dark to get the plant to start flowering, because plants usually finish maturing in about 8-12 weeks after the switch to 12/12.

However, some Sativa and Haze strains are from the equator, and they may not flower properly under a 12/12 light schedule. In that case, a grower can give a plant 10 or 11 hours instead of 12 hours of light a day, like a 11/13 or 10/14 schedule. This will cause the plant to finish flowering faster. In fact, this can be done to any strain to get it to finish flowering faster.

Give plants only 10 or 11 hours of light a day to get buds to mature faster

The one downside is that a shorter flowering stage with less hours of light each day mean that buds get less time to fatten and you will end up with smaller yields. Therefore it’s not recommended to try to get a plant to finish flowering in less than 8 weeks, as you’ll end up with very small yields. This technique is best used if you have a plant that’s been flowering for 2-3 months and doesn’t look like it plans on stopping any time soon.

How can this technique reduce yields? ​The less light you give your plant overall during its life, and especially in the flowering stage, the less your yields will be in general. A strain that takes longer to finish flowering usually produces bigger yields than a short-flowering strain because it gets so many extra light-hours where it’s making energy and fattening buds.

On a similar note, an auto-flowering plant gets pretty great yields considering it goes from seed to harvest in just 3 months. A big part of that is because they get 18 hours/light a day during their entire flowering period (compared to only 12 a day for regular plants)/ This gives the plant more light each day to produce buds, resulting in bigger yields.

## 2.) Choose A Quick-Finishing Strain of Marijuana

As you probably know, the life cycle for all marijuana plants is separated into two parts: the vegetative stage and the flowering stage.

The vegetative stage can be shortened by getting the plant to grow faster when she’s young. Yet the length of the flowering stage (the time between when flowers first start forming and when the plant is ready to harvest) is pretty much strain-specific.

That means that once you’ve started flowering a specific strain, there isn’t a whole lot good options to speed things up during the flowering stage.

Note: There are special light schedules, that involve lowering the amount of light each day in the flowering stage, which can sometimes get harvest to come a little quicker. For example a 10-14 schedule (10 hours light, 14 hours dark each day) during the flowering stage may get plants ready to harvest a week or two sooner for some strains, but lowering the amount of light each day combined with harvesting sooner really hurts your yields.

Many Indica hybrids (such as AK-48 and Northern Lights) naturally have very short flowering periods of only 7-9 weeks, which is a shorter flowering time than most other strains.

Hazes and Sativas often take much longer. For example a haze strain (like Haze 1 from Nirvana) can take 3-4 months in the flowering stage before being ready to harvest.

Every different strain has pros and cons, but if time is a factor for you, pay close attention to the length of the flowering stage when deciding which strain to grow. The majority of seed banks list the length of the flowering period as part of their stats for each strain.

Learn how to research strains

Some strains are ‘auto-flowering’ and go through their whole life cycle regardless of light cycle or anything you can control. These strains tend to be ready to harvest in only 2-3 months from seed (though you should definitely expect smaller plants with relatively small yields when choosing an auto-flowering strain).

Auto-flowering strains of marijuana contain higher levels of CBD, a cannabinoid which has been associated with many medical benefits. So they may be the perfect choice for a medical marijuana user who needs to harvest quickly.

Learn more about the difference between regular and autoflowering strains

Also, check out my recent autoflower grow if you want to see autos in action…

In this auto-flowering grow, I harvested more than 6 ounces in less than 3 months!

## 3.) Give Plants 24 Hours of Light per Day During the Vegetative Stage

As long as you give your plants more than 14 hours of light a day, they will stay in the vegetative stage. But if you give the plant more light than that, they have more time in the day to grow!

Some growers believe it’s better to give marijuana plants 18 hours of light a day max, with a 6 hour dark period during the vegetative stage.

This is because plants grown under 18/6 tend to be more resilient to problems. If you have a sick plant, just reducing the light period and/or light intensity a little bit can help it recover faster.

Regardless of which is best for plant health, it’s a proven fact that marijuana plants given a full 24 hours of light a day will grow at least a little faster during the vegetative stage (however, you may consider back down to 18/6 if your plant is sick to help it recover from problems faster).

Therefore, if a short time to harvest is of the utmost importantance to you, you may want to consider going with the 24 hour light period during the vegetative stage for fastest growth. Again, this won’t make the plant’s flowering stage go any faster, but it enables you to start the flowering stage a little bit sooner. Speaking of which…

## 4.) Initiate The Flowering Stage Sooner

You may not realize that regular (non auto-flowering) marijuana plants can be flowered directly from seed.

When I say “flowered,” what I mean is that you can change the light schedule so that it forces your young seedlings to start making buds right away.

You can get a marijuana plant to start flowering by ensuring that it gets 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness each night, often referred to as the 12-12 light schedule.

This makes the plant “think” winter is coming, and it’ll start making buds as soon as it’s able. This means that your “flowering stage countdown” begins within about a month from the seed being planted.

So for example, Northern Lights has a flowering stage length of about 8 weeks. If you flowered a Northern Lights strain plant from seed, your buds would be ready to harvest in about 11-12 weeks.

Some growers will also flower marijuana clones as soon as they have formed roots, for basically the same effect, though clones tend to start flowering a little faster than a plant put on 12-12 directly from seed.

That being said, flowering from seed is a very inefficient manner of growing. Plants flowered from seed don’t get enough time to grow stems where buds form.

If you want to initiate flowering early, it’s better to do so after after waiting just a bit, so you grow plants that are relatively small but can produce more than a couple of grams worth of bud. This is known as the “Sea of Green” (SoG) technique. A bunch of smaller plants is easy for new growers to manage, plus it gives you the option of trying different strains instead of getting of lot of one strain.

Learn more about flowering plants sooner (known as “Sea of Green” technique)

## 5.) Grow Indoors

Growing outdoors can be more convenient and vastly cheaper for those who happen to live in a place with great growing conditions since the sun and nature are doing a lot of work for you. But outdoor growing isn’t the fastest way to grow and harvest your crop. Though there is an exception….

Learn How to Use “Light Deprivation” to Get Faster Harvests Outdoors

Outdoors, you must plant in the spring, and wait until late fall to harvest. That means that oudoor grows can take 6+ months. Given the right conditions (high-yielding strain, direct sunlight all day, good soil, avoid pests, etc) you can grow huge plants in that time, that produce pounds of buds.

Yet growing indoors gives you the ultimate control over how big your plants get, how long to keep them in the vegetative stage, and exactly when they start flowering amongst other things. You also have a lot more control over how much bud you’ll end up yielding.

With a well-chosen strain and a good setup, one can harvest several ounces of buds in less than 4 months indoors, which is nearly impossible to do outdoors in the same timeframe.

On a similar note, you might want to consider hydroponics over soil.

You can get faster vegetative growth with almost all hydroponic methods compared to what can be achieved with soil. That means that you could speed up time til harvest by using Deep Water Culture (DWC), Coco coir/perlite, or pretty much any non-soil growing medium. During the flowering stage, this isn’t as important, but this can shave weeks off your vegetative stage time (get straight to growing buds sooner!)

In my experience, top-fed Deep Water Culture hydroponics (also called ‘bubbleponics’) has given me the quickest growth of any hydroponics system I’ve tried.

## 6.) Pay Attention To Your Plants and Quickly React to Problems

I know this sounds like it doesn’t need to be listed, but it’s a more important job than people think. Every time your plants get sick, it slows down their growth while they try to recover. Every problem your plant runs into can add days or even weeks on to your total grow time.

Simply put: fixing a problem quickly equates to shorter time to harvest.

Plus, by reacting quickly to problems, you will save yourself the stress of trying to deal with a huge problem that’s gotten out of control since you’ve been watching out and adjusting along the way. We all know that problems tend to get much worse when left unchecked!

The more you tend to and baby your plants, the better they will grow, and the faster you will be able to harvest.

For example, the following plant problems will add time onto your grow

• nutrient problems or a pest infestation can dramatically slow down growth, especially for young plants
• heat stress or light burn can not only slow down growth in the vegetative stage, they can prevent buds from maturing properly in the flowering stage
• accidentally re-vegging your budding plants will stop buds from maturing

Learn more about the most common plant problems right here

## 7.) Make Sure You’re Feeding Plants The Right Type of Nutrients During Each Stage of Growth.

In the vegetative stage, it is important that you give your plants the right nutrients needed to get optimal growth.

Now if you’re starting with a good soil (Fox Farms Ocean Forest soil is a proven choice), you may not need to supplement any nutrients for the first 3-4 weeks, as the nutrients you need are already in the soil.

If you’re growing hydroponically (directly in water, or in a soil-less medium like coco coir), it is essential that you provide all the nutrients your plant needs right from the beginning.

You’ve probably seen ‘N-P-K’ numbers on the bottles of pretty much every nutrient line there is. These number are important to know since cannabis plants use more N (nitrogen) in the vegetative phase, and relatively more P & K (phosphorus & potassium) in the flowering phase. Conversely, giving your plant too much N in the flowering phase will actually slow down bud production. This means that you will harvest smaller yields of less-dense buds in addition to waiting longer for said buds!

This is why you need to either mix your nutrients by hand, or choose a nutrient system that is specifically formulated for the flowering stage of a plant like marijuana. By providing the right nutrients at the right time, you’ll reduce your overall time to harvest.

Learn more about some of the best marijuana nutrient systems here

Learn more: Why are my cannabis buds not ready to harvest yet?

## How Much Time Per Week Does It Take To Grow Cannabis?

Now that you’re equipped with the information to get you to harvest as soon as possible, let’s quickly address another common question we receive about time.

Growers often write in to ask us how much time it will take per week to grow a marijuana plant. We understand that many of you have busy schedules, and want to know if growing your own weed is a realistic goal for you.

The amount of time spent growing varies greatly depending on the method you use to grow, the size you let your plants get and the skill of the grower. But that doesn’t mean there isn’t a growing method that’s conducive to spending less time plant-tending.

The truth is, you can grow weed in only 20-30 minutes a week when you use the right techniques and get used to the process of growing. The following article reveals the best way we know to grow lots of potent bud while using a minimum amount of time to do so. We make this happen using a hydroponic style of growing known as Top-fed DWC (aka “bubbleponics”).

Keep in mind that this is a fairly advanced technique, and should only be attempted by intermediate-advanced growers or particularly brave newcomers.

Medical marijuana has had a huge impact on my life, and I’m dedicated to showing you how easy it can be to grow your own medical-grade buds.

I have made it my mission in life to make growing information available to anyone, both new and advanced growers, while also working to get marijuana legalized for all adults.

You Might Like….

Where to Get Cannabis Seeds

7 Things I Wish Someone Had Told Me When I First Started Growing Weed

Diagnose My Sick Plants!

How to Grow Pink or Purple Cannabis Buds

## Growing Cannabis As Fast As Possible: What You Need To Know

There are plenty of reasons you might want to harvest early. Perhaps you’re moving house and have to pack up your grow room, or you grow outdoors in a northern country where the autumns are short, cold, and brutal. Perhaps you’re low on weed and hate to fork over your hard-earned cash in exchange for your meds. Maybe you live in a not-so-cannabis-friendly place and you think LEO is onto you.

No matter the reason, there are proven ways to rush things along, whether you’re growing inside or out. Still, you might have to compromise yield and potency in exchange for speed. Let’s take a look at what you can do to grow cannabis as fast as possible.

## TIPS FOR FASTER INDOOR GROWS

Growing indoors is almost always faster than growing outdoors, mostly because you can control the lighting. You can tweak a few other things in the name of speed too.

### GROW AUTOFLOWERING CANNABIS

As a general rule, autoflowering cannabis will mature at a faster rate than photoperiod strains because they contain a percentage of ruderalis genetics. Ruderalis evolved naturally in cold places like Siberia where the summers are very short. They had to develop the ability to produce flowers and seeds quickly to ensure the survival of the species.

Most autoflowering hybrids will start to flower two weeks after germination, and can be harvested about 7 weeks later. Quick One, for example, completes its full life cycle in 8 weeks and still yields up to 150g/plant.

Note that breeders are now reducing the amount of ruderalis they use to create autoflowering hybrids in order to increase yield and potency. As a result, some may take a little longer to be harvest-ready, or require a 20/4 or 18/6 light cycle for flowering.

Quick One

Strong Indica x Ruderalis

275 – 325 g/m2

50 – 60 cm

5 – 6 weeks

THC: 13% (aprox.) / CBD: Low

10% Sativa, 60% Indica, 20% Ruderalis

100 – 150 g/per plant (dried)

60 – 100 cm

8 – 9 weeks after germination

Physical

##### Quick One

Strong Indica x Ruderalis

275 – 325 g/m2

50 – 60 cm

5 – 6 weeks

THC: 13% (aprox.) / CBD: Low

10% Sativa, 60% Indica, 30% Ruderalis

100 – 150 g/per plant (dried)

60 – 100 cm

8 – 9 weeks after germination

Physical

### TAKE PHOTOPERIOD STRAINS STRAIGHT TO FLOWER

You can force photoperiod strains to mature almost as fast as autoflowering cannabis by putting them in 12 hours of darkness every day from the time they germinate. It works, but your plants will not get nearly as big or yield as much as if you had allowed them to veg for the normal 4–6 weeks.

If you want to use this method, you can start with either clones or seeds, but you’ll need to grow a lot of them in sea of green (SOG) fashion if you want enough herb to hold you over to your next harvest. Most plants will be dwarf-sized and only yield 28g or less each.

### VEG WITH LIGHTS ON 24 HOURS A DAY

This is a hotly debated topic, but you can leave your lights on 24/7 and your cannabis plants will be just fine. Unlike some other plants, they don’t need a dark period each day to be healthy. In fact, they’ll stay shorter, grow faster, and get bushier under a continuous light period.

By keeping the lights on all the time, you may be able to cut your veg time by a third and still have a good-sized plant by the time you start a forced bloom. If you try this technique, keep a close watch for deficiencies. If your plants look like they’re getting sick, reduce the wattage or hours of light to help them recover.

### GIVE YOUR PLANTS LESS THAN 12 HOURS OF LIGHT PER DAY DURING BLOOM

If you’d like to jump-start the flowering process, put your plants in complete darkness for 48 hours before you start the 12/12 light cycle. Then, use a 11/13 light cycle throughout bloom. The extra reduction will trick your plants into thinking winter is rapidly approaching.

Starving a plant that wants to bloom for 9–10 weeks to force an early harvest can have a negative impact on yield. If you’re going to try this method, choose a cannabis seed with a naturally short finish time like Honey Cream. This is a high-yielding indica that only needs 6–7 weeks to complete its flowering cycle.

Honey Cream

BlueBlack x Maple Leaf Indica x White Rhino

500 – 550 gr/m2

60 – 100 cm

6 – 7 weeks

THC: 16% (aprox.) / CBD: Medium

35% Sativa, 65% Indica, 0% Ruderalis

625 – 675 g/per plant (dried)

180 – 250 cm

Early October

Psychedelic high

##### Honey Cream

BlueBlack x Maple Leaf Indica x White Rhino

500 – 550 gr/m2

60 – 100 cm

6 – 7 weeks

THC: 16% (aprox.) / CBD: Medium

35% Sativa, 65% Indica, 0% Ruderalis

625 – 675 g/per plant (dried)

180 – 250 cm

Early October

Psychedelic high

### CONSIDER SWITCHING TO HYDRO

Compared to soil or a soilless mix, hydro can reduce your veg time by a few weeks. This method delivers nutrients directly to the plant’s roots so that they practically grow right before your eyes. It won’t make the flowering period go much faster, but hydro usually produces heavier, denser buds and bigger yields. You might decide that, in this case, the time was well spent.

### PROPER NUTRITION HELPS… A LOT

Sick plants need time to recover, so every time you overfeed, underfeed, or feed the wrong thing, you’re stretching the time until harvest. If you’re using nutrients designed for cannabis, they should come with instructions that tell you how much of what to use, and when to use it. Follow the directions, but keep the mix on the light side until you know if your plants are nutrient-sensitive.

Cannabis needs more nitrogen (N) when vegging and more phosphorus and potassium (P & K) while flowering. If you give then too much nitrogen during bloom, it’ll slow down bud growth and result in lower yields of fluffier buds. That’s the exact opposite of what you want!

### TIPS FOR FASTER OUTDOOR GROWS

Harvesting early outside is a little tricky. The obvious answer is to use autoflowering strains—and this does work. Depending on your weather, you may be able to harvest at least three times each growing season. Outdoor growers can also make photoperiod strains mature a little faster. Here are two things to try.

### COVER OUTDOOR PLANTS TO FORCE BLOOM

Cover your outdoor plants with a tarp or other light-proof cover in the early evening and remove it the next morning. This works just like a grow tent to give your plants 12 hours of darkness each day to force them to bloom. As a bonus, you’ll end up with bigger, denser, more resinous buds when you’re done because the sunlight they do get, during the height of summer, will be much more intense than what they would receive during the fall months when outdoor cannabis plants normally bloom.

### POLLINATE LATE, HARVEST EARLY

This last tip might shock you. Pollinate your flowers and they’ll ripen faster.

This doesn’t mean you’ll ruin your grow with a bunch of seeds. Pollinate by hand about a week before you want to harvest. As soon as the buds are fertilised, the plant will switch its energy away from flower formation to seed production and the maturity rate will escalate. The next week, when you harvest, the seeds won’t even be noticeable because they haven’t had time to form a hard shell.

### CANNABIS SEED SELECTION IS KEY TO FASTER GROWING

If you want to grow cannabis as fast as possible, choosing a seed that’s been bred to mature quickly is key. It’s only common sense that it will be easier to hurry along a strain that will finish on its own in 7 weeks than one that prefers 12. Luckily, fast strains have been bred to meet every need and preference.

For those who prefer autoflowering hybrids, Northern Light Auto is a great choice. The original was already fast, but this improved version can go from germination to harvest in 10 weeks or less without any extra measures. Royal Cheese is a photoperiod strain, but this European favourite only needs about 6 weeks of 12/12 lighting to reach full maturity. Medical marijuana patients who are on a tight schedule should take a look at Medical Mass. This variety only needs 7 weeks of bloom to yield up to 550g/m² of CBD-enriched flowers.

### CONCLUSION—HOW TO SPEED UP YOUR CANNABIS GROW

If you need to force your plants to mature faster than they naturally would, you can by trying one or more of the methods described above. Doing so, however, means that you will probably sacrifice both yield and potency in the process. For the best results, choose a cannabis seed that’s been bred specifically for speed. With the right genetics, you can minimise any type of compromise that you may have to make.

## Magnetism And Plant Growth – How Do Magnets Help Plants Grow

Any gardener or farmer desires consistently bigger and better plants with higher yields. The seeking of these traits has scientists testing, theorizing and hybridizing plants in an effort to achieve the optimum growth. One of these theories regards magnetism and plant growth. Magnetic fields, such as that generated by our planet, are thought to enhance plant growth. Do magnets help plants grow? There are actually several ways exposure to magnets may direct plant growth. Let’s learn more.

## Do Magnets Help Plants Grow?

Healthy plants are impossible without adequate intake of water and nutrients, and some studies show that magnetic exposure can enhance intake of these essential items. Why do plants react to magnets? Some of the explanation centers on a magnet’s ability to change molecules. This is an important characteristic when applied to heavily saline water. The earth’s magnetic field also has a powerful influence on all life on the planet – kind of like with the old-time gardening method of planting by the moon.

Grade school level experiments are common where the students study the effect of magnets on seeds

or plants. The general consensus is that no discernible benefits are noticed. If this is the case, why would the experiments even exist? The magnetic pull of the earth is known to have an effect on living organisms and the biological processes.

The evidence indicates that the earth’s magnetic pull influences seed germination by acting as an auxin or plant hormone. The magnetic field also assists in ripening of such plants as tomatoes. Much of plant response is due to the cryptochromes, or blue light receptors, that plants bear. Animals also have cryptochromes, which are activated by light and then are sensitive to magnetic pull.

## How Magnets Affect Plant Growth

Studies in Palestine have indicated that plant growth is enhanced with magnets. This doesn’t mean you directly apply a magnet to the plant, but instead, the technology involves magnetizing water.

The water in the region is heavily salted, which interrupts plant uptake. By exposing the water to magnets, the salt ions change and dissolve, creating purer water that is more easily taken up by the plant.

Studies on how magnets affect plant growth also show that magnetic treatment of seeds enhances germination by speeding up the formation of protein in the cells. Growth is more rapid and robust.

## Why Do Plants React to Magnets?

The reasons behind plant response to magnets are a bit harder to understand. It seems that magnetic force pulls apart ions and changes the chemical composition of such things as salt. It also appears that magnetism and plant growth are tied together by biological impulse.

Plants have the natural response to “feel” gravity and magnetic pull just as humans and animals. The effect of magnetism actually can change the mitochondria in cells and enhance plant metabolism.

If this all sounds like mumbo jumbo, join the club. The why is not as important as the fact that magnetism does seem to drive improved plant performance. And as a gardener, this is the most important fact of all. I’ll leave the scientific explanations to a professional and enjoy the benefits.