- Types of Gardens
- Specialty Gardens: Learn About Unique Gardening Styles
- About Different Garden Styles
- Using Plants for Unique Gardening Styles
- The Wheel Hoe: A Gardening Must Have
- Different Types of Gardens
- Château Gabriel, Normandy
Types of Gardens
UF/IFAS Related Sites
Other UF/IFAS Sites
- Gardening Solutions
- Entomology and Nematology Department
- Environmental Horticulture Department
- FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network
- Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program
- Florida Master Gardener Program
- IPM Florida
- Pesticide Information Office
- Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program
- Lawns and Landscapes
- Starting a Garden
State & Federal Agencies
- Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS)
- Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)
- Florida Energy Systems Consortium (FESC)
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map–U.S. National Arboretum
Organizations & Associations
- American Community Gardening Association
- American Horticultural Society
- Florida Native Plant Society
- Florida Nursery, Growers and Landscape Association (FNGLA)
- North American Native Plant Society
Other Sites & Publications
UF/IFAS Mobile Web Apps
- Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Mobile Web Applications
Specialty Gardens: Learn About Unique Gardening Styles
Gardening is not only a hobby; it’s an art form. Gardens are as unique as their designers. There are gardens for specific uses such as memory or vegetable gardens; gardens designed to evoke a feeling, as in meditation gardens; and those that honor a particular national style, like Japanese gardens. Specialty gardens allow gardeners to express their dreams, reflect on concepts, and pay tribute to gardeners from the past.
About Different Garden Styles
Travel to almost any destination and you will see many types of gardens. Some are colossal professional landscapes with historical importance, while others are simple home gardens for food or backyard enjoyment. Whether it is a landscape already mentioned, a native garden, tropical or any other of the many unique gardening styles, ease of maintenance, appropriate plants for site and zone, hardscape details and other items are all considerations of the design.
Using Plants for Unique Gardening Styles
You may absolutely love roses, bulbs, tropical plants or wild flowers. There are many types of gardens that are planned around the gardener’s favorite plants. Even when centering on a plant group, different garden styles will emerge as comfort, viewing pleasure and other subjects are addressed. Not every rose garden looks the same, and each designer can put his/her own individual stamp on a plant centric landscape.
Some plant group designs might include:
- Water Plants
- Woodland Plants
- Vegetables and Fruits
- Shade Plants
- Succulents and Cacti
International Specialty Gardens
Each country has a particular gardening style. In China, the great rice paddies are an example that was born out of necessity both for the food and as a way to terrace the hilly terrain and contain the water needed to grow the rice. Move into parts of Europe and Mediterranean gardens took advantage of mild winters and temperate climate.
The different garden styles reflected by each nation are a nod to its culture and history as well as a glimpse into its cuisine and medicinal past.
- French garden – Traditionally, a French garden design is very organized and ornate. A mixture of flowers, shrubs, herbs and edibles are included.
- English garden – An English garden focuses on flowers, including bulbs and textured or manicured shrubs. It may be very formal or more natural like a cottage garden style.
- German garden – These often included livestock, so walls and fences are integral aspects of a German garden. Weeping trees, usually a small structure and grottos may be featured as well.
- Mediterranean garden – Olive trees, figs, grapes and more are part of this temperate landscape. There will be a mix of plants that are hardy and self-sufficient in the Mediterranean garden design.
- Japanese garden – Japanese maples provide shade and texture, while mosses and ferns are understory plants. Typical Japanese gardens may have a water feature bordered by azaleas and rhododendrons.
- Chinese garden – A concept with hundreds of years of development, each plant and the complementary accessories in a Chinese garden is carefully thought out and has specific meaning much like Japanese designs.
- Persian garden – Generally includes a water feature or water source, such as an aquifer. Healing herbs, fruit trees and vines also add a sense of peace and serenity to Persian gardens.
Gardens for Specific Uses
Among the many unique gardening styles, those that were designed for a certain purpose are the most useful. An orchard produces fruit, an herb garden provides seasoning and medicine, and a butterfly garden entices those beautiful insects for enjoyable viewing.
Traditional gardens were often near the kitchen and featured items used in the home for cooking, seasoning, sachets and cut flowers. Some examples of other purposeful gardens are:
- Pollinator gardens
- Cut flower gardens
- Hummingbird gardens
- Fruits, Vegetables and Herbs
- Demonstration or Experimental gardens
- Sensory gardens
- Moonlight gardens
- Therapy gardens
- Memorial gardens
- Rain gardens
Types of garden Every once in a while we all need to relax, unwind and enjoy a bit of time in solace with nature and revel in its beauty. We do not need to go hiking or camping to experience all that. Having a garden in your home gives you the convenience of experiencing all that without the hassle of packing up your stuff and still you have the comforts of your own home. There are different garden designs that could give you this experience.
A garden may be classified according the predominant feature that it has. It can be according to the use of a garden such an herbal garden wherein the predominant feature is the collection of herbal plants. Another classification of garden types is based on the origin of the design. Some garden designs are tailored from the traditions and themes practiced in a certain countries. There are gardens patterned after the themes of the Chinese, Japanese, French and English peoples and even the gardens in the Victorian era. These gardens are inspired by the unique characteristic, tradition, landscape and the plants and flowers that a country has. For example, the Japanese garden is distinct because of the presence of Lotus and cherry blossoms while the English-inspired gardens are those that have hedges around it. People who originate from another part of the world would want to bring a piece of their home by creating a garden whose design is reminiscent of the place they left behind and this is enough reason to make one decide on what type of garden design to follow.
Though you have many types of garden designs to choose from when designing your garden, there are still some considerations in doing so.
First, consider your geographic location. Make sure that what you are planning to implement in your garden design is in compatibility of your location. You might be wondering how this can affect the garden. Well, it is because some plants do not grow well in certain environmental conditions and even if they do they do not bear fruits or flowers. So if you are planning to make an English country garden, ask you yourself i\if the plants and grass typical of this kind of garden would grow beautifully in your area. If it does not, you will not even come close to creating it in an authentic kind of way.
The next item to be considered above anything else when it comes to the types of garden you can have is your spending capacity. Budget is the very key in the success of a garden. With a generous budget you can choose to have a very glamorous and well-manicured garden. Some gardens may require ornaments and plants that will give the garden a more authentic look. Yet, it can be expected that it will really cost you. If you are unwilling to shed a large sum of money, then you can opt to have a much simpler garden. There are garden types that you can follow which makes use of plants and ornaments that you already have or can be bought at a lower cost. Budgeting does not only mean the initial payment of the construction of the garden, it also includes the maintenance of the garden such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides and more. These are expenses that many do not foresee which results in the garden being abandoned and losing its supposed beauty. So before starting a garden make sure that you have the enough budget to sustain it.
This is just a guide to the possible types of garden available to choose from. Yet, there is no limit to the type of garden that one can have. You can even design your own wherever your imagination may take you.
The Wheel Hoe: A Gardening Must Have
Different Types of Gardens
Gardening involves the practice of growing, cultivating, and displaying plants in an outdoor setting. Gardeners, or people who take pleasure in gardening, typically choose between a variety of plants for their overall appearance, consumption, and medicinal usages. Gardeners may plant fruit orchards, shrubs, trees, herbaceous plants, yard plants, and container plants often grown indoors or outdoors. They may choose to only cultivate one type of plant, or involve a large number of mixed plantings. Gardeners use many types of methods to grow their plants, which may involve different seasons, materials, tools, and settings to make each project a success.
Urban and Container Gardening
Urban gardening consists of growing plants exclusively in containers due to limited growing space. Urban gardeners typically use terracotta pots, plastic containers, and window boxes. This popular growing method has become widely used in areas with unsuitable soil and climate, such as in major cities where the pavement covers the intended growing space. Urban gardeners choose many types of plants for their containers, including herbs, vegetables, small trees, and cacti. Container gardening causes less problems than traditional growing methods. For instance, container plants are less likely to develop soil-borne diseases. In addition, container gardening eliminates weed problems and provides more control over moisture, sunlight, and temperature exposure. Container gardens are typically found on porches, front steps, and on the rooftops of some urban homes and commercial establishments.
Edible gardening consists of growing food-producing plants on residential landscape. Depending on the amount of growing space, edible gardeners may combine a variety of food-producing plants, including berry bushes, vegetables, herbs, edible flowers, and even fruit and nut trees. Some edible gardeners may design their outdoor gardens into aesthetically pleasing designs, which may incorporate any garden style. Edible gardening can provide freshness and flavor of homegrown fruits and vegetables. It allows gardeners to control the amount of pesticides and herbicides used on their consumable foods. It increases the food security of a household, saves money on grocery bills, and gets entire families outside to interact with the natural world around them.
Seasonal – Floral Gardening
Gardeners can only grow certain plants during the course of the year. For instance, gardeners may choose to grow annuals, such as marigolds, tomatoes, and zinnias, about six weeks before the date of the last average frost in a given area. Other gardeners may focus on perennials, grasses, and shrubs during the cool and rainy months of spring. Gardeners may choose drought-tolerant plants, such as annuals, perennials, ornamental shrubs, and grasses during the hot and dry months of summer. During the months of autumn, gardeners may choose to plant deer-resistant bulbs, such as daffodils, alliums, and lycoris. Others may also choose to plant asters during the garden’s final season. Winter gardeners may focus on pruning deciduous trees, ornamental grasses, and indoor shrubs and trees. These may include maiden grass, fountain grass, river oats, pussy willows, flowering quince, and poinsettias.
Seasonal – Edible Gardening
Gardeners are limited on their choice of plants that they can grow throughout the year. Many seasonal plants only thrive during peak months. The experienced gardener knows when to grow what plants during the winter, spring, summer, and autumn months. By understanding this concept, gardeners can plan to have food yearlong, unless unexpected climate destroys the plants. Popular spring crops include dandelion greens, asparagus, and fiddlehead ferns. Gardeners can grow apples, apricots, avocados, basil, bell peppers, beets, blackberries, cantaloupes, carrots, chard, cherries, eggplant, fennel, figs, garlic, and mangoes during the summer months. Gardeners may decide to choose beets, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, chicories, kale, horseradish, and grapes. During the winter, they may opt for cardoons, Brussels sprouts, escarole, kiwis, leeks, onions, oranges, parsnips, lemons, pears, persimmons, potatoes, and rutabagas.
Follow these links to learn more about the various gardening types:
- American Horticultural Society: Seasonal Gardening Tips
- Seasonal Gardening: To-Dos (PDF)
- Gardening and Soil pH (PDF).
- Vegetable Gardening in Containers (PDF)
- Container and Raised-Bed Gardening (PDF)
After all fashion in the garden is as changeable as the clothing fashion; each year you can see various influences and changes. But regardless of trends and tastes there are two basic styles in garden designs namely “formal style garden” or “French Garden” and “informal style garden” or “English garden”.
However, the truth is that very few gardens fully respect the rules of each style, most gardens representing a more or less successful combination of the both styles.
Formal (French) Garden: Formal garden, sometimes called French garden is a miniature, faithful and painstakingly arranged garden after the reference garden, namely the Versailles Gardens. Organizational plans of such gardens are rigorous aesthetic effect being the main element. It can be noticed the intensive use of hedges with different shapes and also the use of perfectly symmetrical alleys filled with statues and fountains.
A traditional formal garden contains geometric elements arranged symmetrically, so layers are round or rectangular and herbs and plants are changed at least 2 times a year. Alleys and paths are converging and there are many areas with herbs or grass.
Magnificent French Gardens (video)
This type of garden requires a lot of patience, professionalism and imagination. The maintenance of these gardens requires constant work, lawn and Buxus must always embellish, as well as flowers arranged or changed periodically, not to mention the maintaining of walkways and fountains.
There is the preconceived idea that such garden is suitable only for large homes and huge properties. It is totally wrong, it’s all about scale and materials. After all, even small rustic houses may have a formal garden with well defined and maintained layers of plants to which you can access on small, cobbled and symmetrical alleys.
Informal (English) Garden: The tendency of informal gardens is to transform and evolve into a wild garden. Having as a focal point only a bench or an arrangement of rocks, this garden offers many design ideas. English garden is full of perennials, and flowers that flow freely in arches over walkways. However, roses are among the favorite flowers in these gardens.
Informal garden is not very demanding, and you can always postpone watering or maintenance program because its main feature is the wild look. Such gardens are very well suited to rustic and traditional homes.
The simplest informal garden consists only of sunny space with wild flowers and herbs. For some people this garden may seem an unkempt garden.
Magnificent English Gardens (video)
Small areas with trees are also considered a type of informal garden. In fact, if you plant shade-loving flowers under trees, place a wooden bench and make a small gravel driveway, you can have a perfect informal garden.
The most common scheme of English Garden is where flowers of different species are planted on both sides of a winding alley.
The French business tycoon Christian Tourres hired Benech to create a new landscape for La Valterie, an imposing 16th-century chateau, as part of a total overhaul of the estate. (Benech was friends with the previous owner, who made the introduction.) Tourres stripped the chateau of its gaudy 19th-century decorative additions, thereby restoring its architectural integrity, and wanted the landscape to match. Benech’s first instinct was to unite the main house to the pressoir, the cider house, which had been restored as guest quarters. He linked the two with a walkway lined with clipped yew. He planted a row of pear trees to slightly obscure the cottage, and cut down scores of trees to let light into the chateau. On the south side of the house, he planted “white summer blooms and variegated foliage.” The owner wanted a small enclosed garden next to the house, so Benech created “a semi-medieval” one, with yellow and gray plantings such as golden marjoram and gray santolina, in a chessboard pattern.
Image Inset: the pool at La Valterie in the ’90s, right after Benech planted the garden. Above: about five years later, blooming with yellow and green water-loving plants.Credit…©Agence Louis Benech; Langdon Clay
Since the property had loads of springs, he planted poplars, which thrive in wetlands. Most delightful, though, was the promenade he created along the banks of the Vertefeuille, a rambling stream that cuts through the estate’s apple trees. He framed the walk with “water lovers,” natural ferns and rhododendrons, added a series of “tiny gardens,” as he calls them, and a cluster of field maples “to keep the rural feeling of the site.” For a while, no one used the house, but the on-site gardener maintained the chessboard garden as best he could. The property has since been sold. Benech would like to view it again, “to see how the trees are growing there.”
Château Gabriel, Normandy
One afternoon in the mid-1980s, while Benech was working at the Hillier nursery in Normandy, Pierre Bergé stopped by to purchase some plants for Château Gabriel, the 19th-century country home that he shared with “a friend” in Deauville. Benech was so impressed by his horticultural knowledge that he invited Bergé and his friend for tea at his place at the time, a mobile home. “I had no idea who he was,” laughs Benech of the professional and personal partner of Yves Saint Laurent. “I had heard of Saint Laurent but not Pierre Bergé.”
Image The walled garden Benech remade for Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé at Château Gabriel had formerly been a tennis court. He removed most of the lavender to plant scented flowers, like the trellises of roses, that would bloom later in the season when the couple was there.Credit…Eric Sander
A couple of days later, Benech received a note from Bergé on Château Gabriel stationery spontaneously asking if he wanted to move to Marrakesh and look after the gardens of another of their properties, the ravishing Marjorelle Garden. Benech was flattered but declined and remained at Piencourt. A few years later, Benech and Bergé reconnected through a mutual friend. On a rainy August Sunday, Bergé drove over to Piencourt in his Rolls-Royce and asked Benech if he would like to redo a walled garden at the neo-Gothic Château Gabriel. This time, Benech agreed. The space — once a tennis court — was full of lavender, but by the time Bergé and Saint Laurent would arrive for their summer holiday, the plants would be past bloom. So Benech ripped them out and planted a medieval-inspired garden with flowering artichokes, cordoned fruit trees, herbs and fragrant flowers such as tuberoses. It’s a typically considerate Benech flourish: He wanted Saint Laurent, who had poor eyesight, to be able to enjoy the garden’s scent.
Later, he designed the gardens along the walkway to the property’s dacha — a folly inspired by Saint Laurent’s first trip to Russia. “Pierre was a dream client,” Benech remembers. “He knew plants and he was so intelligent and respectful.” In another sad story, Bergé sold the house to a Russian businessman, and Benech has not seen the gardens since.