Two types of almonds can be distinguished, those with soft shell, mainly produced in California, and those with hard shell, like the Spanish varieties Marcona and Desmayo or many of the produced in Portugal.
Different types of almonds can be distinguished according to their taste and uses. The “sweet almonds”, consumed as dry fruit may have soft or hard shells; the ” bitter almonds” have a strong bitter flavour due to a glucoside called amygdalin (in sweet almonds it disappears almost completely when they mature); they are used in the food and agriculture industry to obtain oil, for instance. The green almonds have not undergone the fruit set.
Classifications are based on the hardness of the shell; thus, in Spain there are almonds with soft shell like the ” Mollar de Tarragona ” and ” Fitas” from Ibiza, which are very appreciated in the European markets thanks to their exquisite flavour, colour and presentation. The most important hard shell commercial varieties are Marcon , Planeta, Llargueta, Rumbeta, Doble Fina and Desmayo. In Spain, many local varieties are produced in each region, among which stand out Marcona and Desmayo largueta. Nevertheless, other foreign varieties with late flowering have spread, like the Italian “Tuono” and “Cristomorto’ or the French “Ferragnès” and “Ferraduel”. There are some types without a specific denomination that come from seeds with the generic name ” Comunes”. Some new varieties obtained in Spanish improvement programs have also spread, highlighting Masbovera and Guara.
In France, the almonds with soft shell are known from the old times as ” princesses” or ” fines”; the semisoft ones are called ” amandes des dames” and those with hard shell are the ‘beraudes”, ” molières” or ” caillasses” . Some varieties cultivated in France are Ai, Ardechoise, Sultana, Beautiful of Aurons, Ferragnès, Ferraduel, Ferralise and Ferrastar, among others.
The almond tree cultivated in Portugal usually produces almonds with hard shell. The varieties have different earliness in respect to the flowering. Some varieties are Boa Casta (average earliness), Pretty (late), Pretty St. Bras (early), Casa Nova (very late), Duro Amarello (quite early), Duro de Entrada (quite early), Gama (quite early), Jose Dias (average-early), Marcelina Grada (quite early), Mourisca (very early), Parada (quite early) and Verdal (average-early).
In Italy, the varieties are classified according to their place of origin: those coming from Puglia and from Sicily, the main almond tree production locations in Italy. The varieties of Puglia are Tuono, Filippo Ceo, Genco, Cristomorto, Fragiulio, Rachele, etc. The Sicilian varieties are d”Avola Pizzuta, Fasciuneddu, Romana, Avola R. 40, Cavaliera and Bonifacio nº 1.
In California, the greater production is soft shell almonds. Some varieties, from the oldest to the most recent ones are Nonpareil, IXL, Ne plus ultra, Texas, Davey, Tardy Nonpareil, Thompson, Ballico, Merced, Ruby, Carmel, Butte, Price, etc. Some of them are the result of crosses between them, that is to say, they are hybrids.
Descriptions of some almond varieties
” Mollar de Tarragona’
Quite big, wide, of more or less dark brown colour, slightly rough. 40-43% yield on shelling and 5% of double almonds. Average time of flowering, produced in Spain.
Quite a large almond, of round shape, slightly rough. 25-28% yield on shelling; no double almonds. Flowering at the beginning of March and late maturation at the beginning of October. It is original from the province of Alicante (Spain).
” Desmayo Largueta’
The tree is of hanging growing habit. There are several local types in the Spanish regions, the most well-known is Desmayo Rojo. Extended, pointed, smooth almond with a hard shell, commercialized under the name of ” Larguetas”. Very precocious flowering and very late maturation. It is cultivated in all the Ebro valley, from Zaragoza to Tarragona, and in the bordering provinces of Lérida and Teruel (Spain).
Hard shell fruit. When ripe, they maintain the peduncles of the fruits on the tree. 30-40% yield on shelling; the proportion of double almonds varies between 15 and 30%. Very late flowering and early maturation. Variety of Puglia (Italy).
Fruits of quite large size, slightly pointed and of brown skin, not very rough. Very late flowering and maturation at the end of September in the region of Nimes (France). It originated from ” Cristomorto’ x “Ai’, in France.
Hard, wide and flattened shell, with thin, dark brown skin. Very late flowering and maturation at the end of September in the region of Nimes (France). It originated from “Cristomorto x “Ai’, in France.
Small, thick, clear and very smooth almond. Hard shell, 30% yield on shelling. Very late flowering. Original from the cross ” Ferragnès” x ” Ferraduel”.
Medium size almond, thick, pale colour, stripped, very attractive. 23% yield on shelling. Late flowering. Portuguese variety.
” Casa Nova’
Great almond, flattened, quite rough. 20% yield on shelling. Later flowering than other Portuguese varieties.
Quite large, wide, dark brown almond, slightly rough but highly appreciated in Portugal for its shape. 19-22% yield on shelling. Quite early flowering.
Quite large an almond, flattened and with a very good taste. 24% yield on shelling. Early flowering. Portuguese variety.
Slightly elongate, thick almonds, with very pale and thin skin. The shell is also very thin. 60-65% yield on shelling. Very early maturation. It is the classic Californian variety.
” Ne plus ultra’
Known as ” Neplus”. The appearance of this fruit in the shell is attractive, elongate and clear, but the almond is long and flat, usually with folds and wrinkles. 55-60% yield on shelling. Early flowering and spread out over a long period of time. Californian variety.
Thick fruit. Late flowering and maturation in the middle of October, in Nimes (France). Its origin is California.
- Types of Almonds
- Other almond products
- 5 Common California Almond Varieties
- Almond Anatomy
- Common Varieties of Almonds
- Almond Tree Cultivars: What Are The Best Varieties Of Almond
- Varieties of Almond
- Nonpareil Almonds
- Carmel Almonds
Types of Almonds
Although there are different varieties of almonds, most of the nuts sold in the stores are simply labeled “almonds.” You can buy them shelled, or in the shell. They’re sold “natural” (with their brown skin on) and blanched (with the skin removed). Almonds are also sold sliced, slivered, or chopped.
Packaged almonds are widely available all year round. Almonds in the shell are easiest to find in fall and early winter. Green almonds are available in mid to late summer.
Roasted, flavored, and candied almonds are popular snacks. But whether raw or roasted, all almonds grown in North America are required by law to be pasteurized to prevent foodborne illnesses.
In addition to the common almond, here are a number of specialty almonds:
- Bitter almonds: Because raw bitter almonds contain traces of hydrogen cyanide, they can’t be sold in the United States. However, in their processed form, they are used to make almond extract and other almond-flavored products, such as almond liqueurs.
- Chinese almonds: These aren’t true almonds, but the kernels of several varieties of apricot that are grown specifically for their seeds. They are similar in flavor to bitter almonds, and also like bitter almonds, are mildly toxic if eaten raw. They should always be blanched or roasted before eating.
- Green almonds: These almonds have a green furry covering, much like a fuzzy peach. The furry covering is actually the almond “fruit,” and the almond is the seed within. In harvesting mature almonds, the fruit portion is discarded. But in the almond’s green stage, you can eat the whole fruit. The flesh of the fruit is crunchy and tastes like an unripe peach. The almond itself, since it hasn’t yet hardened into a seed, is soft and jellylike, with a faint almond flavor.
Other almond products
- Almond butter: Almonds are ground until they give off their own natural oils and become pasty. Almond butter can be used in place of peanut butter.
- Almond extract: Used in baking, this flavoring is produced by combining bitter almond oil with ethyl alcohol. It is quite strong and a little goes a long way.
- Almond flour: Almond flour is ground from the solids that remain after the nuts have been pressed for oil. The flour can be used in baking, or for breading fish or chicken.
- Almond oil: Made from roasted almonds, almond oil has the flavor of almonds, and can be used in baked goods, pastas, or drizzled over vegetables or bread.
- Almond paste: This rich paste is a combination of blanched ground almonds, sugar, and glycerin, which is added to help prevent crystals from forming. It is primarily used in baking and candy making. Marzipan is similar and often contains egg whites.
5 Common California Almond Varieties
All California almonds aren’t created equal. Each type is highly versatile and available in numerous varieties used to create quality products your taste buds will love. Each variety has its own characteristics that help determine the best uses for them.
Since Maisie Jane is a fourth generation almond grower, and we farm our own almonds, we have added knowledge on these different varieties and have perfected identifying which varieties work for each of our products.
Get the “hull” story about almond types and varieties, as well as their forms and characteristics. “Shell” we begin?
*Infographic Source: Almond Board of California
Mission type almonds have hard shells and their nuts are small, wide and often plump. The nut is darker than nonpareil and wrinkled which allows salt and flavoring adherence. Not generally blanched.
Blanchable varieties used primarily in manufacturing. Wide-range of shell hardness, nut shape, and skin color. Versatile.
Common Varieties of Almonds
Used anywhere. An attractive appearance and strong almond profile is important. A thin outer shell and smooth nut permit easy, blemish-free processing. Medium flat nut with light color and smooth surface. Maisie Jane’s products focus on nonpareil.
Though technically a California type, it is popular enough to be classified separately. A soft shell variety used in blanching and roasting. Often substituted for nonpareils.
A Mission Type. Semi-hard shell with a light color and smooth surface. The nut is small, short, plump with a wrinkled surface.
A California Type. Hard shell with light color, smooth surface. The nut is medium size with a wide shape and a fairly wrinkled surface.
A California type with a paper thin shell with dark brown color and rough surface. Nut is large, long, narrow with light color and smooth surface.
Unlike some processors, we hand select the best variety of almonds for every single product we make, assuring the best quality and best-tasting almond products across the board.
Knowing the different types and varieties of almonds can help add flavor to your favorite recipe or serve up a healthy snack. Remember, an almond is not just an almond.
Discover the different ways Maisie Jane’s uses almonds here.
Almond Varieties and Classifications
As if one variety of almonds wasn’t versatile enough to set your creativity free, there are more than two dozen almond varieties produced in California orchards. Each variety has distinct characteristics, which are important to understand so that you can select the appropriate almond for your needs.
California Almond Classifications
California Almond varieties are categorized into five broad classifications for marketing purposes based on distinguishing characteristics such as size and shape. The majority of almond production in California falls into the following three major classifications: Nonpareil, California, and Mission. Some varieties may fall under more than one classification since they have characteristics of one type (such as Mission), but are also blanchable (a requirement of the California classification).
With the widest range of uses among the marketing categories, Nonpareil are readily blanched (skin removal) and cut for processed forms. A thin outer shell and smooth kernel allow for easy, blemish-free processing. As a result, Nonpareil are used anywhere an attractive appearance or a strong almond identification is important.
This classification includes a number of varieties that are blanchable and used primarily in manufactured products. California-type almonds have a wide range of shell hardness, kernel shapes, skin color, and surface characteristics. As a result, they are quite adaptable and well suited for nearly any process or application.
Mission almonds have hard shells, and their kernels are small, wide, and often plump. The kernel skin is generally darker than Nonpareil and wrinkled, which enhances salt and flavor adherence. Blanching is not as common for this type.
Major California Almond Varieties
Food professionals can order California Almonds either based on the broad classification type or specific varieties. When placing orders, it’s best to be very specific on either the specific variety or classification preferred to ensure delivery of the exact almonds you intended. For example, ordering “Mission” without specifying “Mission Variety” could result in delivery of various almonds that fall under the “Mission Classification,” such as the Butte, Padre, or Fritz varieties.
Almonds are fantastic, not just to eat, but also as a pretty deciduous shade tree, bursting into pink to white flowers at the tail end of winter. Many varieties of almonds are grafted, or exhibit dwarfing properties which limits their size to a manageable 5m x 3m, which means they will easily fit into many suburban backyards.
Pick a nice, sunny spot in your patch, leaving enough room for the tree to spread out when it reaches maturity. The secret to success with almonds is water and drainage, so, if you live in an area with a heavy clay soil, incorporate some gypsum and compost into the planting hole, or consider planting the almond in a raised or mounded soil.
Water is vital, so try to keep the soil moist, but not sodden, at all times. This is especially important while the almond is fruiting, as drying out during this period means the nuts may shrink and shrivel.
Almonds bear fruit similarly to apricots on sprigs and spurs. They do not require much pruning from year to year. Prune after leaf fall and in the first year select framework branches and prune lightly – removing some of the centre branches and twigs and pruning to an outward facing bud. This opens up the tree into the classic vase shape, improving air and light penetration (helps minimise pests and diseases). Commercial growers of almonds prune off one main lateral branch each year on mature trees to encourage greater vigour.
If you are umming and ahhing over almonds, take a look at this handy list and our notes on this nut:
Almond – All-in-One: Soft-shelled/papershell, medium to large, sweet flavourful nuts. Reliable and heavy cropper. Semi-dwarf tree. An excellent choice for the home gardener. Self pollinating. Crops around late January. Eat fresh or for blanching, roasting, confectionery and cooking. Self-pollinating.
Almond – Chellaston: Soft shelled, small / medium, flavoursome, mid – dark brown skin and smooth, shiny shell. Medium vigour. Mid-season Fresh or for blanching, roasting, confectionery and cooking. Cross pollinators:Johnston’s Prolific, Ne Plus Ultra, Brandes Jordan.
Almond – Johnston’s Prolific: Biennial cropper. Large broad almonds, rough surface, good flavour. Nuts are easily hulled. Late season. Fresh or for blanching, roasting, confectionery and cooking. Cross pollinators: Chellaston, I.X.L.
Almond – Large Papershell: Soft shell, large, sweet, flavourful nut. Fresh, blanched, roasted, confectionery and cooking.
Almond – Ne Plus Ultra: Large, narrow, square based, rough surface, flavourful nut. Papershell. Heavy cropper. Late Season. Fresh or for blanching, roasting, confectionery and cooking. Cross pollinators: Chellaston, Californian or Nonpareil.
Almond – Self Pollinating: Sweet, flavourful nuts, soft shelled. Heavy cropper. Sets fruit early. Fresh or for blanching, roasting, confectionery and cooking. Self-pollinating.
At Uzbekistan’s northern borders with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan lies Chatkal valley, crossed by the ancient Silk Road linking Asia with Europe. This area is where the domestication of many almond cultivars originated, including those varieties consumed around the world today. It is still possible to find both wild and cultivated almond trees in the country.
The Bostanlyk district, in the western Tien Shan region, ranks first for almond production in the entire country and boasts an impressive heritage of wild almond forests, which have still not yet been classified. High mountain ranges act as barriers to protect the Bostanlyk district from the cold winds blowing from the northwest but the area is completely open to the western winds bringing moisture from the Caspian Sea. This climatic complexity creates exclusively favorable conditions for the growth of the most thermophilic species of almond.
The Shreder Research Institute, which specializes in studying almond trees, is located in this region and has so far identified more than 50 sweet and bitter almond varieties. It selects the best varieties, beginning with wild ones. But there is still an enormous amount of work to do.
Unfortunately the ancient forests of wild almond trees have been severely affected by large-scale felling for use as winter fuel and the sale of timber. The periods of greatest crisis were during the last world war and also during the recent political crisis leading to independence. Progressive deforestation has caused a sharp reduction in the biodiversity of almond trees and other species. Recently, in collaboration with the Presidium producers, the authorities have elaborated a program for the conservation of the genetic heritage of wild almond trees.
The almond tree is important not only for the landscape of Uzbekistan, but also for local culture and economy.The almond makes up a intrinsic part of life in the Bostanlyk settlements.
Traditionally almonds were ground in a wooden mortar and mixed with honey (sugar is now more often used) to produce shirilik, a sweet product still made today (frequently with added walnuts) for festive occasions. Almonds may be toasted, transformed into tolkun—ground fresh almonds used at the table or as an ingredient in cakes, desserts and cookies (a more recent tradition) or crushed to produce bitter almond oil. Those living in Brichmulla use old recipes for cooking and produce the almond sweet called “khashtak”, produced from kuraga (dried and stoned native apricot varieties), raisins, honey and almonds and/or walnuts. Khashtak is used for family consumption or sold at the Tashkent market (Uzbekistan’s capital). Today producers are writing up a traditional recipe collection containing all the uses of the different almond varieties.
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Ўзбекистон (Марказий Осиё) шимолидаги
Чотқол водийси бугунги кунда дунёда
истеъмол қилинадиган бодом турлари дастлаб хонакилаштирилган асосий жойлардан бири деб ҳисобланади. Бўстонлиқ региони бодом етиштириш бўйича мамлакатда биринчи ўринда туради. Элликдан зиёд ширин ва аччиқ бодом турлари аниқланган, бироқ ёввойи бодом турларининг
катта қисми ҳали ўрганилмаган. Президиум ёввойи бодомзорларни сақлаб қолиш устида иш олиб боради, зеро улар ўзига хос маҳаллий ананаларни давом эттиришда стратегик рол ўйнайди ва ерини жиддий эрозия хавфидан ҳимоя қилади.
Ҳозирча президиум Хумсон ва Бурчмуллалик беш нафар ишлаб чиқарувчидан иборат. Бўстонлиқ регионидаги мазкур икки қишлоқда 2009 йили биринчи Бўстонлиқ слоу-фуд конвивуми ташкил этилган. Биринчи галдаги қилинадиган ишлар Шредер тадқиқот институти ёрдамида бодом етиштириладиган майдон ва унинг турларини аниқлашдан иборат. Ҳозирги кунда ишлаб чиқарувчилар турли хил бодом турларини маҳаллий таомлар тайёрлашда ананавий қўллаш устида изланишлар олиб бормоқдалар. Бодомдан тайёрланган ширинликлар, хусусан хаштакни ривожлантириш ва оммавийлаштириш маҳаллий ишлаб чиқарувчилар учун янги муҳим даромад манбаи бўлиши мумкин. Бу маҳсулотлар маҳаллий бозорда ва Тошкентда сотилади.
Осиё – Ўзбекистон
Хумсон ва Бурчмулла қишлоқлари, Бўстонлиқ региони, Ўзбекистон шимоли
Хумсон ва Бурчмулла қишлоқларидан
8 нафар ишлаб чиқарувчи:
Алим Ахунов –Хумсон қишлоғи
Парида Акрамова – Хумсон қишлоғи
Каромат Акрамова – Хумсон қишлоғи
Риски Рахимова – Бурчмулла қишлоғи
Бахтияр Рахимов – Бурчмулла қишлоғи
Джуравой Одинаев – Бурчмулла қишлоғи
Равшан Одинаев – Бурчмулла қишлоғи
Анвар Ашуров – Бурчмулла қишлоғи
тел. +417 86414884/998909491330
Шредер тадқиқот институти
(Вакил: Абдувоҳид Абдурасулов)
Хумсон қишлоғи, Бўстонлқ региони,
The Presidium so far involves five producers from Khumsan and Brichmulla, two villages in the Bostanlyk region where in 2009 the first Slow Food Bostanlyk Convivium was founded.
The first steps will be to define the production area and varieties, with the help of the Shroder Research Institute. Nowadays the producers are working on a study of the traditional usage of different varieties of almond in local cuisine. Developing and promoting traditional almond-based sweet foods, particularly khashtak, could represent an important new source of income for local producers. These products will be sold locally and at Tashkent market.
Khumsan and Brichmulla villages, Bostanlyk region, northern Uzbekistan
Shreder Research Institute (Representative: Abduvakhid Abdurasulov)
Khumsan village, Bostanlyk region, Uzbekistan
8 producers from Khumsan and Brichmulla Villages
Alim Ahunov – Khumsan village
Parida Akramova – Khumsan village
Karomat Akramova – Khumsan village
Riski Rakhimova – Brichmulla village
Bahtiyar Rakhimov – Brichmulla village
Djuravoj Odinayev – Brichmulla village
Ravshan Odinayev – Brichmulla village
Anvar Ashyrov – Brichmulla village Presidium coordinator
tel. +417 86414884/998909491330
Almond Tree Cultivars: What Are The Best Varieties Of Almond
If you are planting almond trees, you will have to select among many different almond trees and almond tree cultivars. Your choice will have to take into account a variety of factors. Read on for information about types of almond trees.
Varieties of Almond
For those growing almond tree varieties commercially, the considerations for selecting trees include the size and quality of the nut harvest. As a home gardener, you may be more interested in obtaining easy-care almond tree cultivars that will thrive in your climate.
Although a few self-fertile varieties of almonds are available, they are not problem free. You are better off selecting compatible combinations of almond tree cultivars than individual trees.
If you do research about different almond tree varieties, you’ll find dozens of types of almond trees available. They differ in aspects that are important to a gardener: time of bloom, mature size, pollen compatibility and disease and pest resistance.
Bloom time is important if you live in a cooler area. If you live on the low end of the almond tree’s hardiness range, you may want to select varieties of almond that bloom later rather than earlier. This prevents loss of flowers to late frost.
Late-blooming almonds include:
Generally, almond trees thrive in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. But this is not true of all almond tree cultivars, so carefully check the zones of whichever almond tree cultivars you select.
Assuming you plan to get two almond tree varieties to pollinate each other, you need to be sure that their pollen is compatible. Not all are. When you buy two or more trees, you want to be sure that their blooming period overlaps. Otherwise, they cannot pollinate each other if they don’t bloom at the same time even if the pollen is compatible.
Sizes of Different Almond Trees
Size of almond trees can be a critical consideration in a small garden. The mature size of trees can range from 12 feet (3.6 m.) to 20 feet (6 m.) high and wide, depending on the type of almond grown.
Carmel is one of the smaller varieties and doesn’t spread as wide as it is tall. Monterey is short but spreading.
Have you ever thought about what are the different types of almonds out there? Do you know the different types of almonds? And if yes, then how many different kinds of almonds do you know of?
For starters, here’s an important fact. It should hardly come across as a rocket science that we are living in an increasingly informed age. The general level of awareness today whether it concerns the kind of food we eat, the clothing we are accustomed to and the various forms of exercising (or keeping fit) is way better than before.
This increased sense of awareness isn’t one-dimensional and generally encompasses whatever we do in both personal and professional matters. It could be said we’ve become balanced and rational in decision-making. We weigh our options better than ever before. And we are also spoilt by sheer choice.liveatlearn.com
Whether it is eating healthy, extracting more from our holidays and making the most out of our investments- whether in a house, car or the kind of tech we consume- things have undergone a massive change. There are greater discussions today on minute aspects of life and increased scope for debate and hence, our ability to judge and evaluate our decisions has improved than before.
In fact, one of the reasons we are more ‘aware’ and ‘receptive’ of things today than we were in the past is the easy access to information (and therefore, knowledge) and hence, better know-how of things. So in that regard, when it comes to matters of health, you may have seen that we’ve become slightly picky and choosy than how we were before.
The increased onus on eating healthy and eating well means that we analyze the smallest of things entering the belly. In that regard, there’s once again reinforced emphasis on the myriad benefits of eating nuts. Among the most famous, inarguably, are almonds- an evergreen consumable- right?
These culinary nuts are not only delicious but are also equally nutritious, hence, they form a regular part of different eating cultures and styles across the world.
So today, let’s try and understand the different types of almonds, the healthiest nuts according to a majority of the world.
What are Nonpareil almonds? For starters, these are among the most widely known varieties of almonds that are used everywhere. Among the easiest ways in which to spot the Nonpareil almonds is that they have a thin outer shell. The relative quality of the nut is smooth. These are commonly known as medium flat nuts that have a light color and smooth surface.
Among the different kinds of almonds are the Carmel almonds. But, wait. Don’t get confused; it isn’t caramel.
The Carmel almonds are a popular variety of Californian almonds. This kind of almond is used widely in blanching and roasting. They were first introduced decades back in 1966.
The Butte almonds are among the popular nuts worldwide. Among the easiest ways to recognize these different types of almonds is that they come in a semi-hard shell with a light color and smooth surface.
Apart from that, this is a nut that is relatively small in size, short, slightly plump and comes with a wrinkled surface.
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Now what are the Peerless Almonds and what do they even mean? The peerless almonds are among the widely known varieties of almonds. For starters, they are a noted California type. Possessing a hard shell and a light color, among the most easily recognizable factor is that the peerless almonds have a smooth surface.
The nut is medium in size and it possesses a fairly wrinkled surface.
One of the biggest advantages, particularly to the harvesters and sellers of peerless almonds, is their relatively long shelf life, that of 24 months.
A slightly strange or unusual name for an almond, this is a famous California nut that is regarded for its peculiar shell.
A commonly understood fact about the Sonora Almonds is that they come with a relatively thin shelf (when compared with the other varieties). One could even identify them easily owing to the dark brown color and rough surface.
That said, the nut, however, is large, long, and narrow.
But regardless of the different types of almonds what is important to note is that the key factor that makes these nuts such a favorite and across the world is down to the various nutritive advantages they possess.
They not only lower the blood sugar levels but also reduce the cholesterol and blood pressure levels. The essential dietary factor is linked to the high quantity of fiber, healthy fats, potassium, magnesium, and even Vitamin E.