Devil’s claw seed pod

How To Grow Nails Faster And Stronger Komal Kaviliga Hyderabd040-395603080 November 20, 2019

Jealous of all your friends who have gorgeous long and strong fingernails?

It must be really annoying when you’re trying to grow out your nails but they just don’t seem to grow! You wait and wait, but to no avail. They chip, and break, till you are forced to trim them. And so, your efforts of growing them out have failed miserably once more. Don’t give up! You haven’t tried everything just yet.

But first, let’s look at exactly why your nails aren’t growing.


Reasons Why Your Fingernails Aren’t Growing

There may be many reasons your fingernails have stopped growing. Do you do any of these?

1. Bite Your Nails

If you’re guilty of biting your nails on a regular basis, it’s time to stop, pronto! I mean it! This habit leads to multiple bacterial infections that slow down the growth of the skin and nails in that area. Try keeping your nails polished so that you make a conscious effort not to bite them.

2. Skip The Base Coat

When you apply nail polish, make sure to not skip the base coat. This acts as a protective layer between your actual nail polish and the top layer of the nail.

3. Chip Off Your Nail Polish

Avoid doing this at all costs! When you chip off nail polish, you’re most likely peeling off the topmost layer of your nail. This will only make your nails weak and brittle.

4. Excessively Use Gel And Acrylics

If you go to the salon to get gel or acrylic nails too often, you’re not giving your natural nails the time to grow in strength. Gels and acrylics are great once in a while, but don’t make this a regular habit since they’ll affect the natural growth process. If you nip the chance of letting your nails grow in the bud, what chance will you have?!

Best Vitamins For Nail Growth

Here’s is a list of vitamins that can boost the growth of your nails. Let’s take a look at them:

1. Vitamin H (Biotin)


Biotin helps in the growth of nails, hair, and skin. Biotin can be consumed either through foods or in the form of supplements. Either way, you would be required to consume around 30-40 micrograms per day to ensure healthy nails. Biotin can be found in foods like bananas, avocado, and salmon.

2. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)


Vitamin B9 or folic acid is essential for cell growth. This means that it can help in the growth of nails as well. Folic acid can be obtained from foods like leafy greens, eggs, beets, and citrus fruits. In order to ensure and promote healthy nail growth, one must consume 400-500 mcg of folic acid.

3. Vitamin A


Vitamin A is vital for strengthening the tissues, bones, teeth, and nails. It is also a popular antioxidant. This ensures that the damage causing toxins are expelled from inside the body. If you prefer vegan options, vitamin A can be found in foods like grapefruit, spinach, yams, and apples. It can also be found in non-vegan and meat options like eggs, liver, and milk.

4. Vitamin C


Remember when your mom told you to eat oranges to avoid catching colds? Thar was for a very good reason. Oranges, or any citrus fruits for that matter, are rich in Vitamin C, which is great for combating bacteria. It is also a strong antioxidant. It is very important to consume foods that contain Vitamin C or take supplements, as the body does not produce this Vitamin. It can be found in blueberries, citrus fruits (oranges, limes, and lemons), tomatoes, leafy greens, and strawberries.

How To Grow Your Nails Faster And Stronger

Here are a few tips that will help you sport strong and healthy nails in no time:

1. Lemon Juice


The Vitamin C in lemons facilitate the healthy growth of nails. Lemons also help in removing yellow nail stains since they act as a bleaching agent.

Method 1

How To Do It?

In a bowl, mix 1 tablespoon of lemon juice and 3 tablespoons of olive oil. Heat the solution for about 20 seconds in the microwave and soak your nails in it for 10 minutes.

How Often?

Do this every day.

Method 2

How To Do It?

An alternative method would be to rub a slice of lemon on your nails for about five minutes before washing them off with warm water.

How Often

Every day.

Tip – Don’t use lemons if you have any cuts or hangnails as it may sting.

2. Coconut Oil


Coconut oil contains nutrients that provide moisture and nourishment for the nails and the skin around the nails. This, in turn, ensures healthy and strong nail growth. Coconut oil is also great for treating fungal infections in the nails.

How To Do It?

Warm up some extra virgin coconut oil in a bowl and massage it into your nails and fingers. Massage in circular motions. This will help in the circulation of blood, which will promote nail growth.

How Often?

Every night before going to bed.

3. Orange Juice


The Vitamin C in the orange juice can help in the production of collagen that keep your nails strong and healthy.

How To Do It?

Squeeze out the juice from an orange into a bowl. Soak your nails in it for 10 minutes and wash them. Don’t forget to moisturize them properly.

How Often?

Once a day.

4. Olive Oil


In order to ensure that your nails are healthy and growing strong, it’s important to keep them nourished and moisturized. Olive oil contains Vitamin E, which improves blood circulation and facilitates nail growth.

How To Do It?

Heat up some olive oil and massage it into your nails and cuticles for about five minutes. Wear gloves and let it sit overnight. Alternatively, you can soak your nails in warm olive oil for fifteen to twenty minutes.

How Often?

Once a day.

Foods That Make Your Nails Stronger

Just topical treatments aren’t enough! Here are foods you should include in your diet if you want healthy and shiny nails.

1. Eggs


The protein found in eggs are crucial to development, making the bones in our body, nails, and hair much stronger. Eggs are rich in Vitamin D, B12, and Biotin. Biotin does wonders for strengthening the nails and making them less brittle.

2. Beans


Again rich in biotin, beans are great for helping in the growth of nails. During a study, it was found that if biotin-rich foods were consumed, the nails’ thickness increased by about 25%. So try and incorporate beans into your daily diet.

3. Oats


Minerals like copper and zinc are vital for the maintenance of bones and nails. These can be found in oats. It’s really easy to incorporate oats into your daily diet. Simply switch your bowl of cereal with a bowl of oatmeal with some fresh fruit!

4. Sunflower Seeds


Sunflower seeds are a powerhouse of nutrients. Containing minerals like copper and manganese, they encourage the production of connective tissues in the bones and cartilage. They can be sprinkled onto bread, salads, or on just about anything!

5. Salmon


This one’s for the ones who love their fair share of seafood. Salmon contains nutrients that are supposed to make the bones and nails strong. Salmon also contains Vitamin D, which is crucial for the growth of bones.

There you are! That’s all there is to know about why your nails aren’t growing and how exactly you can grow them faster and stronger. Eating the right foods and taking care of your nails really do make the hugest difference. So, follow these methods and let us know how they worked out for you.

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Komal Kaviliga

Tips to Make Your Nails Grow Faster

There is no scientifically proven method for making nails grow faster. But taking good care of your body through proper nutrition and using the following tips to strengthen your nails can help them grow strong and long over time.

1. Take biotin

Biotin is an important type of B vitamin that allows the body to turn food into energy. It’s also highly recommended as a supplement to help boost the strength of hair and nails.

Several human studies suggest that taking a biotin supplement daily can help strengthen nails. Some scientists say a dose of 2.5 milligrams of biotin daily can improve nail strength in just a few weeks. Biotin can be found naturally in:

  • brewer’s yeast
  • cooked eggs
  • sardines
  • nuts and nut butters
  • whole grains
  • soy and other beans
  • cauliflower
  • bananas
  • mushrooms

Shop for biotin supplements online.

2. Use nail hardeners (sparingly)

Nail softness makes nails more prone to breaking, which increases the need for nail regrowth. To prevent nails from breaking, experts normally recommend nail hardeners. These are substances that get painted onto nails like a polish and are later removed with nail polish remover.

This is helpful in strengthening nails and preventing breakage in the short-term. However, experts say prolonged use of nail hardeners can sometimes cause nails to become weaker and more prone to breakage.

Shop for nail hardener online.

3. Avoid glue-on nails and toxic polishes

Researchers have found that regular use of glue-on artificial nails can weaken real nails and make them more prone to breaking. The better option is to paint your nails with nail polishes that have little or no toxic chemicals, such as:

  • toluene
  • formaldehyde
  • dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

Look for water-based formulations that indicate they’re toxin-free. Some popular nontoxic nail polish brands include Acquarella and Suncoat.

4. Practice good grooming

Regular nail grooming can also help boost the strength of your nails, encouraging growth and reducing breakage. Some ways to keep your nails well-maintained include:

  • keeping your nails dry and clean, which keeps bacteria from growing beneath them
  • using sharp manicure scissors or clippers to trim your nails straight across, and then using them to round the tips of your nails into a soft curve
  • moisturizing your hands and nails with a lotion, making sure to rub it into your fingernails, especially at the base where the cuticles are located
  • avoiding nail biting or cutting your nails too short

Shop for manicure scissors and nail clippers online.

“Devil’s Heads”

“A child said to me What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands,” Walt Whitman famously wrote in “Song of Myself.” Here in the park, when a child comes running up to us with hands full of something that needs explaining, as often as not it’s a handful of dark gray objects, each about an inch or two across with four curved, spike-like “horns” projecting from a knobby hub. The children find them — first one, then another, then dozens of them — as they explore the shoreline of the Hudson. Many people — including adults — when they examine one of the little gray knots of spikes for the first time puzzle over whether it is human-made or organic. The texture feels like plastic. More than one person has commented that it first seemed to be part of a broken action figure, a tiny Darth Vader helmet perhaps, or part of a model of the creature from the Alien movies. There is indeed something about them that suggests science fiction. And why not? These pods contain the life force of an alien invader.

“Devil’s Heads” some people call them, but more properly, they are the fruit of Trapa natans, a plant that has the common name water chestnut. The native range of T. natans is from western Europe and Africa to northeast Asia, including eastern Russia and China, and southeast Asia to Indonesia. In much of this range it is cultivated as a food crop, but it is not even in the same family as the “water chestnut” (Eleocharis dulcis) you can buy in cans at the market or that are used in Asian cuisines at restaurants in this part of the world. (Even where T. natans is cultivated, it is often regarded merely as a subsistence crop and not held in particularly high culinary regard.)

Probably around the 1870s, someone decided to bring some of the horned fruits to this country, perhaps thinking the plant would look nice in a neighborhood millpond.

He or she tossed a handful into the pond.

In the shallow water, a stem grew from the single seed each fruit contained. From a point on the stem, a circular group of leaves, called a rosette, grew outward. The leafstalks holding the rosette to the stem were made up of a spongy tissue that enabled the rosette to float to the surface of the water. In the leaf axils, flowers bloomed; a new crop of horned fruit began to grow there. As new rosettes grew along the stem and floated up, the older ones, with the developing fruit, got submerged (since the water was shallow, the submerged leaves could still contribute to the work of photosynthesis). When the fruit matured, it fell from the plant and sank to the bottom. The “horns” helped anchor the fruit against currents that might sweep it into deeper water. For four months or so the fruit remained dormant. Then a new stem emerged from each. Rising on a buoyant parasol of green leaves, the stem stretched for the sun.

In 1884, T. natans was observed to be growing “luxuriantly” in Sanders Lake at Schenectady, New York. Soon the plants were growing in other lakes and ponds; they found their way into rivers and canals, spreading their clusters of rosettes — the stems can grow up to 16 feet — across the Northeast. In many places, T. natans now covers acres of shallow water at a time and can be found as far north as Quebec and west to the Great Lakes Basin. Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been spent to eradicate, or at least to control, the plant. In Florida and South Carolina, you can get yourself arrested for trying to transport the plant or its seeds into or across the state, let alone planting the things.

Why the fuss? The problem with T. natans, like so many non-indigenous, “invasive” species, is that it’s simply too good at what it does. What it does is grow. And grow. And grow faster than most of the native plant species that occupy the same ecological niche. The rafts of leaves it spreads through the water block the sunlight the other plants need, spelling their doom (in that locale at least).

Like a robber baron of old, T. Natans monopolizes its niche.

There are economic costs, as well (in addition to the cost of trying to control it), some of these costs difficult to calculate. Activities like fishing, boating, and swimming are hindered by the rafts of rosettes — and waterfront businesses start to close their doors.

You won’t see T. natans growing along the Palisades. It needs fresh water, for one thing, not the brackish soup we have to offer. But upriver, a hundred miles or more, it thrives. Each year the current pushes its horned fruit by the thousands toward the sea. And each year, it seems to us, we notice more “Devil’s Heads” washed up on our shores than we did the year before.


Some kind of dry plant thing, found by the Hudson River. There were piles of them on the beach. We’re calling them flowers of Mordor for now.

The story of how they got here is interesting. As per Wikipedia:

T. natans was introduced to Massachusetts around 1874 as a planting in the Harvard University Botanic Garden. Staff gardener Louis Guerineau took it upon himself to throw seeds into Fresh Pond and other Cambridge waterways. This came to the attention of Medford-based botanist George E. Davenport, who decided to bring seeds and live plants to his friend Minor Pratt, in Concord. Pratt and he seeded a pond near the Sudbury River, and he suspected Pratt conducted additional distributions. As early as 1879, concern was voiced by botanist Charles Sprague Sargent, director of Boston’s Arnold Arboretum, that this non-native species threatened to become a nuisance, based on dense growths reported in Cambridge. Davenport confessed in an entry in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 6, page 352: “I have several times had plants of Trapa natans that were collected in the vicinity of Boston, during the present year, brought to me for identification, and I have entertained no doubt as to the manner of its introduction into waters outside Cambridge Botanic Garden. But that so fine a plant as this, with its handsome leafy rosettes and edible nuts, which would, if common, be as attractive to boys as hickory nuts now are, can ever become a ‘nuisance’ I can scarcely believe.”

Apparently Guerineau loved the plants, and could not entertain the idea that such a wonderful plant could ever be a problem, so he and some friends seeded all the waterways they could.

It is in fact a beautiful plant, pity it’s so aggressive, I would love to have some in my area.

Devil’s Claw

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jul 4, 2019.

  • Overview
  • Professional
  • Interactions
  • Reviews
  • More

Clinical Overview


Devil’s claw is a folk remedy used for an extensive range of diseases, including arthritis and rheumatism. Clinical trials are generally supportive of its use as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic in low back pain and osteoarthritis.

Devil’s claw has been studied for low back pain, muscle pain, and osteoarthritis using daily doses of crude tuber up to 9 g, 1 to 3 g of extract, or harpagoside 50 to 100 mg.


Do not use with antiarrhythmic, chronotropic, or inotropic medicines. Because of the bitterness of the preparation and consequent increase in gastric secretion, devil’s claw is contraindicated in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers.


Documented oxytocic adverse effects. Avoid use.

Use with antiarrhythmic, chronotropic, or inotropic medicines is contraindicated. See Interaction section for more detail and for other possible drug interactions.

Rare, generally consisting of headache, tinnitus, or anorexia. A case of devil’s claw-induced hypertension has been documented.

Clinically important toxicity has not been observed in limited, short-term use.

Scientific Family

  • Pediliaceae (sesame)


Devil’s claw grows naturally in the Kalahari Desert and Namibian steppes of southwest Africa. The plant is a weedy perennial bearing small, claw-like protrusions on the fruit and a strong central taproot growing up to 2 m deep. The secondary roots are used in decoctions and teas. The plant’s leaves are large and grey-green in color, and it produces pink, red, or purple, trumpet-shaped flowers.1, 2 Devil’s claw is also known as Uncaria procumbens and Harpagophytum burchellii Decne.


Devil’s claw has been widely used among indigenous people of South Africa as a folk remedy for diseases ranging from liver and kidney disorders to allergies, headaches, and most commonly, rheumatism. Devil’s claw was reportedly introduced to Europe by a German soldier in the mid-1900s, and thereafter its popularity increased among British, Canadian, and European herbalists. Devil’s claw is marketed in Canada and Europe as a home remedy for the relief of arthritic diseases.1, 2, 3


The major chemical component thought to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of devil’s claw is harpagoside, a monoterpene glucoside. Other iridoid glycosides include procumbide, harpagide, 8-para-coumaroyl-harpagide, and verbascoside. Harpagoside is found primarily in the roots; secondary tubers contain twice as much glucoside as the primary roots. Flowers, stems, and ripe fruits are essentially devoid of the compound, while traces have been isolated from the leaves. Harpagoside can be progressively hydrolyzed to harpagid and harpagogenin. Commercial sources of devil’s claw extract contain 1.4% to 2% of harpagoside.

Other constituents include carbohydrates, flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin), aromatic acids, phytosterols, and triterpenes. High-performance liquid chromatography methods for identification have been reported.2, 4, 5

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory/Analgesic effects

In vitro studies are largely supportive of anti-inflammatory action. Mechanisms elucidated include inhibition of COX-2 enzymes and other proinflammatory enzymes, antioxidant activity, reductions in expression of prostaglandin PGE2, and inhibition of cysteinyl-leukotrienes.3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9

Animal data

Most animal studies support the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of devil’s claw extracts. Studies have included oral, intraperitoneal, and intraduodenal routes of administration, with oral use having the most negative findings. Inhibition of carrageenin-induced paw edema by devil’s claw was comparable with that of phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and acetyl salicylic acid. A dose-dependent effect has also been described.3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

Clinical data

Reviews of clinical trials have focused primarily on arthritic conditions (hip and knee) and low back pain. A meta-analysis of available data has not been conducted, possibly because of diverse methodologies.3, 4, 15, 16, 39

Few quality double-blind, placebo-controlled, or comparator randomized trials have been conducted in osteoarthritis; however, there is general support for evidence of effect in pain reduction. Other clinical studies (open-label) are also supportive. Well-designed, adequately powered studies are required before definitive statements regarding optimal dose, efficacy, and duration of therapy can be made.15, 16 The use of devil’s claw in treating low back pain has been reviewed by a Cochrane group who found evidence to support a short-term reduction in pain greater than that of placebo, based on 2 low quality clinical trials.15, 39 Positive results from other less well-designed trials have been published.3, 4

Cardiac effects

Older animal studies demonstrated cardiac effects of extracts of H. procumbens, including dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure, decreased heart rate, and anti-arrhythmic activity, with mixed results or inotropic and chronotropic effects for different iridoids.17, 18, 19 Clinical studies are lacking.

Central nervous system

A study in rats showed anticonvulsant effects of an extract of H. procumbens, possibly via CNS depression and gamma aminobutyric acid neurotransmission.20 Anticholinesterase activity has also been described.21


Devil’s claw has been studied for low back pain, muscle pain, and osteoarthritis using daily doses of crude tuber up to 9 g daily, 1 to 3 g of extract, and harpagoside 50 to 100 mg.3, 22, 23 Commercial preparations are inconsistent in the composition of iridoid glycosides, with some products likely to be more effective than others. Harpagoside is considered the key ingredient for anti-inflammatory effect.23

Devil’s claw is not recommended for use in children due to lack of safety or clinical trial data.3 It is also not recommended for long-term use (more than 3 to 4 months) because of a lack of data.3, 24

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Oxytocic adverse effects have been documented.2, 3 H. procumbens extract produced rhythmic contractions in isolated rat uterine tissue.25 Case reports indicate the potential to stimulate uterine contractions.26


A poorly documented case report of an interaction with warfarin manifesting as purpura exists.3, 27, 28 However, devil’s claw does not affect blood eicosanoid production.29 Use with antiarrhythmic, chronotropic, or inotropic medicines is contraindicated because of decreased heart rate observed in rats and mild positive inotropic effects in rabbits in older studies.3, 18, 19, 30 Devil’s claw may also potentiate antidiabetic therapy.2, 3, 4

Based on pharmacologic activity, may alter hemostasis and may be contraindicated in individuals with active bleeding (eg, peptic ulcer, intracranial bleeding). Use with caution in individuals with a history of bleeding, hemostatic disorders, or drug-related hemostatic problems; or in individuals taking anticoagulant medications, including warfarin, aspirin, aspirin-containing products, NSAIDs, or antiplatelet agents (eg, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, dipyridamole).28, 40

Screening studies report that H. procumbens is unable to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes and is unlikely to have any clinically relevant effect on the cytochrome system.4, 31 It is possible that devil’s claw may affect multidrug P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter.32

Adverse Reactions

Rare, GI-related adverse effects have been reported in clinical trials, including mild GI upset, anorexia, and loss of taste. Rarely, unspecified serious GI events have been reported. Headache and tinnitus have been reported.33, 34, 38 Cardiovascular adverse events are theoretically possible based on older studies in rodents.34 A case of symptomatic hypertension has been documented in a 62-year-old healthy woman who consumed 500 mg/day of a product containing Devil’s claw. Blood pressure returned to normal and complaints of headache and dizziness subsided in the 2 weeks following discontinuation of the product.37

Anecdotal reports suggest devil’s claw may increase stomach pH due to its bitter taste, so it should be avoided in people with gastric or duodenal ulcers.3, 35 Devil’s claw should also be used with caution in patients with gallstones.2, 3 Unsubstantiated reports of possible hypoglycemic effects should be considered for diabetic patients.3 Nephrotoxicity is rare, but devil’s claw may impede P-gp excretion of toxins, which could contribute to kidney injury.36


Harpagoside has been found to be of low toxicity, with a median lethal dose of more than 13.5 g/kg in mice. Although no long-term toxicity studies have been reported, rats given oral doses of harpagoside 7.5 g/kg/day showed no clinical, hematologic, or gross pathologic changes.3, 35

Index Terms

  • Harpagophytum burchellii Decne
  • Uncaria procumbens

1. Harpagophytum procumbens. USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database (, July 2017). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed July 2017.2. Radix Harpagophyti. In: WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2007. Brendler T, Gruenwald J, Ulbricht C, Basch E; Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC): an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(1):89-126.171351644. Grant L, McBean DE, Fyfe L, Warnock AM. A review of the biological and potential therapeutic actions of Harpagophytum procumbens. Phytother Res. 2007;21(3):199-209.171284365. Clarkson C, Staerk D, Hansen SH, Smith PJ, Jaroszewski JW. Identification of major and minor constituents of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s claw) using HPLC-SPE-NMR and HPLC-ESIMS/APCIMS. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(9):1280-1288.169895206. Ouitas NA, Heard CM. A novel ex vivo skin model for the assessment of the potential transcutaneous anti-inflammatory effect of topically applied Harpagophytum procumbens extract. Int J Pharm. 2009;376(1-2):63-68.193835337. Fiebich BL, Muñoz E, Rose T, Weiss G, McGregor GP. Molecular targets of the antiinflammatory Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s claw): inhibition of TNFα and COX-2 gene expression by preventing activation of AP-1. Phytother Res. 2011.2207253910.1002/ptr.36368. Anauate MC, Torres LM, de Mello SB. Effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil’s claw) on COX-1, COX-2 activity and nitric oxide production on whole-blood assay. Phytother Res. 2010;24(9):1365-1369.208122809. Abdelouahab N, Heard C. Effect of the major glycosides of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw) on epidermal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in vitro. J Nat Prod. 2008;71(5):746-749.1841239410. Wachsmuth L, Lindhorst E, Wrubel S, et al. Micro-morphometrical assessment of the effect of Harpagophytum procumbens extract on articular cartilage in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging. Phytother Res. 2011;25(8):1133-1140.2128404711. Uchida S, Hirai K, Hatanaka J, Hanato J, Umegaki K, Yamada S. Antinociceptive effects of St. John’s wort, Harpagophytum procumbens extract and Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(2):240-245.1823928012. Mahomed IM, Ojewole JA. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract. Phytother Res. 2004;18(12):982-989.1574234313. Inaba K, Murata K, Naruto S, Matsuda H. Inhibitory effects of devil’s claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages. J Nat Med. 2010;64(2):219-222.2017780014. Catelan SC, Belentani RM, Marques LC, et al. The role of adrenal corticosteroids in the anti-inflammatory effect of the whole extract of Harpagophytum procumbens in rats. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(6):446-451.1671691615. Gagnier JJ, van Tulder M, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004504.1662560516. Brien S, Lewith GT, McGregor G. Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a review of efficacy and safety. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(10):981-993.1721257017. Occhiuto F, Circosta C, Ragusa S, Ficarra P, Costa De Pasquale R. A drug used in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens DC. IV. Effects on some isolated muscle preparations. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13(2):201-208.402151718. Circosta C, Occhiuto F, Ragusa S, et al. A drug used in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens DC. II. Cardiovascular activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 1984;11(3):259-274.648247719. Soulimani R, Younos C, Mortier F, Derrieu C. The role of stomachal digestion on the pharmacological activity of plant extracts, using as an example extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994;72(12):1532-1536.773634520. Mahomed IM, Ojewole JA. Anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens DC secondary root aqueous extract in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2006;69(1):57-62.1646468521. Georgiev MI, Alipieva K, Orhan IE. Cholinesterases inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Harpagophytum procumbens from in vitro systems. Phytother Res. 2012;26(2)313-316.2172106122. Chrubasik S. Addendum to the ESCOP monograph on Harpagophytum procumbens. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(7-8):691-696.1563618723. Ouitas NA, Heard C. Estimation of the relative antiinflammatory efficacies of six commercial preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw). Phytother Res. 2010;24(3):333-338.1961003824. Thanner J, Kohlmann T, Künzel O, Chrubasik S. Retrospective evaluation of biopsychosocial determinants and treatment response in patients receiving devil’s claw extract (doloteffin). Phytother Res. 2009;23(5):742-744.1910773225. Mahomed IM, Ojewole JA. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns. J Smooth Muscle Res. 2009;45(5):231-239.1990712126. Newall CA, Anderson LA, and Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London, England: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1996: 98-100.27. Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet. 2000;355(9198):134-138.1067518228. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.1090206529. Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J Cardiol. 2005;98(1):1-14.1567615930. Shaw D, Leon C, Kolev S, et al. Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995). Drug Saf. 1997;17(5):342-356.939177731. Modarai M, Suter A, Kortenkamp A, Heinrich M. The interaction potential of herbal medicinal products: a luminescence-based screening platform assessing effects on cytochrome P450 and its use with devil’s claw (Harpagophyti radix) preparations. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63(3):429-438.2174939232. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Corti A, Chieli E. Effects of Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) on the multidrug transporter ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(12):1095-1100.1957744833. Warnock M, McBean D, Suter A, Tan J, Whittaker P. Effectiveness and safety of Devil’s Claw tablets in patients with general rheumatic disorders. Phytother Res. 2007;21(12):1228-1233.1788622334. Vlac hojannis J, Roufogalis BD, Chrubasik S. Systematic review on the safety of Harpagophytum preparations for osteoarthritic and low back pain. Phytother Res. 2008;22(2):149-152.1823644835. Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002.36. Allard T, Wenner T, Greten HJ, Efferth T. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(22):2812-2819.2359720437. Cuspidi C, Sala C, Tadic M, Grassi G, Mancia G. Systemic hypertension induced by Harpagophytum procumbens (devil’s claw): a case report. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015;17(11):908-910.2609495138. Devil’s claw root: ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding? Prescrire Int. 2013;22(144):296.2460073139. Oltean H, Robbins C, van Tulder MW, Berman BM, Bombardier C, Gagnier JJ. Herbal medicine for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD004504.2553602240. Ernst E. Cardiovascular adverse effects of herbal medicines: a systematic review of the recent literature. Can J Cardiol. 2003;19(7):818-827.12813616


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Devil’s claw


Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens ) is an African plant whose fruit looks like a giant claw. The plant grows in an arid climate and is found in Namibia, Madagascar, the Kalahari Desert, and other areas on the African continent. The tuberous roots are used in traditional medicine. The root is collected when the rainy season ends. The root is chopped and dried in the sun for three days. Devil’s claw is also known as grapple plant and wood spider.

General use

Devil’s claw has been used for numerous conditions in several areas of the world. In South Africa, the root and tuber have been used for centuries as an all-purpose folk remedy. Devil’s claw has been used to reduce fever and pain , to treat allergies and headache , and to stimulate digestion. Traditional healers also used devil’s claw to treat inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, rheumatism, and lower back pain. Devil’s claw has also been used as a remedy for liver and kidney disorders.

Devil’s claw root was also used in folk medicine as a pain reliever and for complications with pregnancies. In addition, an ointment made from devil’s claw was used for skin injuries and disorders.

European colonists brought the African plant back to their continent where it was used to treat arthritis. In the United States, use of devil’s claw dates back to the time of slavery. The slaves brought herbs and herbal knowledge with them to the new continent.

Devil’s claw has been used as an herbal remedy in Europe for a long time. Current uses for devil’s claw are much the same as they were centuries ago. In Europe, the herb is still a remedy for arthritis and other types of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis , and gout (a painful joint inflammation disease).

Devil’s claw is also used for soft tissue conditions with inflammation, like tendinitis and bursitis . The bitter herb is also used as a remedy for loss of appetite and mildly upset stomach.

The herb is currently used for other conditions such as problems with pregnancy, menstruation , and menopause . Devil’s claw is also regarded as a remedy for headaches, heartburn , liver and gallbladder problems, allergies, skin disorders, and nicotine poisoning.

European research during the late 1990s indicated that devil’s claw relieved arthritis and joint pain conditions. The herb also helped with soft muscle pain such as tendinitis. However, there is no evidence that proves devil’s claw is an effective remedy for other conditions such as difficulties during pregnancy and skin disorders.


Several forms of devil’s claw are used. In Europe, doctors treat some conditions like arthritis with an injection of devil’s claw extract. The herb is taken internally as a tea or in capsule form. When taken for pain relief, devil’s claw must be taken regularly for up to one month before results are seen. An ointment form of devil’s claw can be applied to the skin to treat wounds or scars.

Herbal tea and tincture

Devil’s claw tea is prepared by pouring 1.25 cups (300 ml) boiling water over 1 tsp (4.5 g) of the herb. The mixture, which is also called an infusion, is steeped for eight hours and then strained. The daily dosage is 3 cups of warm tea.

For most conditions, the average daily dosage is 1 tsp (4.5 g) of devil’s claw herb. However, the amount is reduced to 1/3 tsp (1.5 g) when devil’s claw is taken for appetite loss.

In a tincture, the herb is preserved with alcohol. The tincture steeps for two weeks and is shaken daily. It is then strained and bottled. When devil’s claw tincture is used as a remedy, the dosage is 1 tsp (4.5 g) taken three times per day for a specified period.

Tea and tincture should be consumed 30 minutes before eating. This allows for better absorption of the herb.

Devil’s claw capsules

The anti-inflammatory properties of devil’s claw are attributed to two constituents, harpagoside and beta sitoserol. If a person takes devil’s claw capsules or tablets as a remedy, attention should be paid to the harpagoside content. The daily amount of harpagoside in capsules should total 50 mg.


For arthritis treatment, devil’s claw can be combined with anti-inflammatory or cleansing herbs. In addition, devil’s claw can be combined with bogbean or meadowsweet. An herbalist, naturopathic doctor, or traditional healer can provide more information on herb combinations appropriate for a specific condition.


Devil’s claw is safe to use when proper dosage recommendations are followed, according to sources including the PDR (Physician’s Desk Reference) for Herbal Medicines, the 1998 book based on the 1997 findings of Germany’s Commission E.

Although devil’s claw has not undergone the FDA research required for approval as a remedy, other studies in Europe confirm that devil’s claw is safe for most people. However, people with ulcers should be cautious because the herb stimulates the production of stomach acid.

Furthermore, it is not known if devil’s claw is safe for people with major liver or kidney conditions. In addition, devil’s claw could cause an allergic reaction.

There is some debate in the alternative medicine community about whether pregnant women can use devil’s claw as a remedy. Some researchers say that the herb is safe to use; others say that not enough research has been done to prove that the herb is safe for pregnant women. There appears to be no scientific proof that using devil’s claw could result in miscarriages.

Side effects

Devil’s claw could cause an allergic reaction or mild gastrointestinal difficulties.

No interactions between other medications and devil’s claw have been reported according to the PDR for Herbal Medicines. However, the herb may possibly block the effect of medication taken to correct abnormal heart rhythms.



Duke, James A. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 1997.

Gottlieb, Bill. New Choices in Natural Healing. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 1995.

Keville, Kathi. Herbs for Health and Healing. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 1996.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Ritchason, Jack. The Little Herb Encyclopedia. Pleasant Grove, UT: Woodland Health Books, 1995.

Squier, Thomas Broken Bear, with Lauren David Peden. Herbal Folk Medicine. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.

Tyler, Varro, and Steven Foster. Tyler’s Honest Herbal. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.


American Botanical Council. PO Box 201660, Austin TX, 78720. (512) 331-8868.

Arthritis Foundation. 1330 W. Peachtree St., Atlanta, GA 30309.

Herb Research Foundation. 1007 Pearl St., Suite 200, Boulder, CO 80302. (303) 449-2265.

Liz Swain

Devils Claw Stock Photos and Images

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  • Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa)
  • Dried Devil’s Claw seed pod on bare soil Proboscidea ‘New Mexico’
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  • Tufted horned rampion, Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosum), blooming, Italy
  • Devils Claw Fungus in the undergrowth – Aquitaine France
  • Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), medicinal plant, cancer therapy, osteoarthritis therapy, root, dried, medicine, African
  • Fruits of Devil’s Claw or Unicorn Plant or Doubleclaw (Proboscidea parviflora)
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  • Clathrus Archeri – Devil’s Fingers Fungus
  • Ranger of the !Xaus Lodge shows a devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), Kalahari or Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, North Cape
  • The Devil’s Fingers Fungus (Clathrus Archeri),
  • Schopfteufelskralle, Schopf-Teufelskralle, Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosa, Tufted Horned Rampion, Devil’s Claw
  • Physoplexis comosa (Devil’s claw), a rare alpine flower
  • Devil’s Claw, Harpagophytum louisianica, against Black Background
  • devil’s claw cactus (scelerocactus parviflorus) blooming in the Canyonlands National Park, Utah
  • Devil’s Claw, Physoplexis comosa in flower on dolomite cliff, Dolomites.
  • devil’s claw cactus (scelerocactus parviflorus) blooming in the Canyonlands National Park, Utah
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  • Devil’s claw, by double exposure gentle green mood.
  • Dried Devil’s Claw seed pod on bare soil Proboscidea ‘New Mexico’
  • devil’s claw
  • Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), medicinal plant, cancer therapy, osteoarthritis therapy, root, dried, medicine, African
  • Tufted horned rampion, Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosum), blooming, Italy
  • Physoplexus comosa known as Devil’s Claw or Tufted Horned Rampion
  • Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosum), blooming on a rock, Italy
  • Devils Claw (Physoplexus comosa) growing in a shallow pan in the Alpine House of Holehird Gardens, Lake District, Cumbria, UK, GB.
  • grapple plant, devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), seedling
  • Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), elevated view
  • grapple plant, devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), bulb
  • Devils Claw Fungus in the undergrowth – Aquitaine France
  • grapple plant, devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), dried parts of the plant
  • Devils Claw flower
  • Tufted horned rampion, Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosum), inflorescence, Italy
  • Devils Claw flower
  • Devil’s Claw, Physoplexis comosa in flower on dolomite cliff, Dolomites.
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  • Devil’s claw between young fern sprouts. By double exposure gentle green mood.
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  • Halbkugelige Rapunzel; Phyteuma hemisphaericum,
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  • Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa) alpine plant flowering
  • Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), medicinal plant, cancer therapy, osteoarthritis therapy, root, dried, medicine, African
  • Devils Claw (Physoplexus comosa) growing in a shallow pan in the Alpine House of Holehird Gardens, Lake District, Cumbria, UK, GB.
  • Devilìs claw growing in the Italian Dolomites
  • Ornamental gourd variety, Striped Devil’s Claw, Crown pumpkin
  • Tea made from Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) roots.
  • Devils Claw
  • Tea (infusion) made from Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) roots
  • Devils claw fruit from Namibia Africa
  • Tufted horned rampion, Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa, Phyteuma comosum), inflorescence, Italy
  • Devils Claw flower
  • Devil’s Claw, Physoplexis comosa in flower on dolomite cliff, Dolomites.
  • Devil’s fingers, Devil’s claw fungus, Giant stink horn, Octopus stinkhorn (Anthurus archeri, Clathrus archeri), fruiting body on forest ground, view from above, Germany
  • Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa)
  • devil’s claw cactus (scelerocactus parviflorus) blooming in the Canyonlands National Park, Utah.
  • Devil’s claw (Ibicella lutea)
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  • Bottle of Naturland Harpagophytum. Devil’s claw
  • Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) fruit, Tswalu Kalahari private game reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa, January 2012
  • Chandler, AZ – December 1, 2019: Whirlwind Golf Club at Wild Horse Pass with a Southwest desert landscape has two courses, Devil’s Claw and Cattail, a
  • Aehrige Teufelskralle; Phyteuma spicatum,
  • Devil’s claw / grapple plant (Harpagophytum procumbens) in the Kalahari desert, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, South Africa
  • Devilìs claw growing in the Italian Dolomites
  • Ornamental gourd variety, Striped Devil’s Claw, or Crown pumpkin
  • The Tufted Horned Rampion in flower.
  • Blaue Teufelskralle am Wegesrand
  • Tea (infusion) made from Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) roots
  • Spiny devil’s claw or grapple plant fruit dispersed by animals
  • Devil’s claw (Physoplexis comosa) in flower on a cliff. Photographed in the Dolomite mountains, Italy.
  • Devils claw flower
  • Dried hooked fruit of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw)
  • Devil’s fingers, Devil’s claw fungus, Giant stink horn, Octopus stinkhorn (Anthurus archeri, Clathrus archeri), fruiting body on forest ground, view from above, Germany
  • Devil’s Claw (Physoplexis comosa)
  • devil’s fingers, devil’s claw fungus, giant stink horn, octopus stinkhorn (Anthurus archeri, Clathrus archeri), in a meadow, Germany
  • Devil’s claw (Ibicella lutea)
  • Devil’s Tongue Barrel, Ferocactus latispinus, also known as Crow’s Claw Cactus or Fish Hook Cactus
  • Bottle of Naturland Harpagophytum. Devil’s claw
  • Tea made from Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) roots.
  • Harpagophytum procumbens, DEVILS CLAW,
  • Steirische Teufelskralle; Phyteuma persicifolium,
  • Tea (infusion) made from Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) roots
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  • Ornamental gourd variety, Striped Devil’s Claw, crown, crown pumpkin
  • A jar of devil’s claw
  • Devil’s claw capsules
  • Mountain pasture, hemispheric devil’s claw, Phyteuma hemisphaericum, blossom, butterfly, blood droplet, Zyganea filipendulae,
  • devil’s fingers, devil’s claw fungus, giant stink horn, octopus stinkhorn (Anthurus archeri, Clathrus archeri), Germany
  • Devils claw fruit has sharp spines
  • Clathrus Archeri – Devil’s Fingers Fungus
  • Kugelige Teufelskralle Phyteuma Phyteuma orbiculare Pride of Sussex Teufelskrallen
  • spiked rampion, Phyteuma spicatum
  • Devil’s claws (Campanuloideae) between fresh young fern in a green meadow. Double exposure.
  • Devil’s claw Proboscidea lousianica
  • Devil’s Tongue Barrel Cactus or Crow’s Claw Cactus, Ferocactus latispinus, Sierra Madre, Oaxaca State, Mexico
  • Food or Serving Bowl (Presentation Bowl), 1880- 90. Great Basin, Panamint- Shoshone, late 19th century. Sumac, devil’s claw, yucca root, with orange shafted flicker (woodpecker) quills; coiled ( 2 rod and a bundle of deer grass or basket grass); diameter: 21.5 x 48 cm (8 7/16 x 18 7/8 in
  • Bottle of Naturland Harpagophytum. Devil’s claw
  • Tree trunk in the lake. Fallen tree looking like an arm with a claw rising from an icy looking pond in the woods.

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Devil’s Claw Plant Info: Tips On Growing Proboscidea Devil’s Claw

Devil’s claw is native to the southern United States. It is so called because of the fruit, a long curved horn with pointed ends. What is devil’s claw? The plant is part of a small genus called Martynia, of tropical to subtropical species, all of which bear a curved or beaked fruit that splits into two hemispheres shaped like a claws. Devil’s claw plant info includes its other colorful names: unicorn plants, grappleclaw, rams’ horn and double claw. They are easy to start from seed inside, but the plants grow best outdoors once they establish.

What is Devil’s Claw?

The plant’s family is Proboscidea, likely because the pods may also resemble a large nose. Devil’s claw is a sprawling plant with slightly hairy leaves, much like a pumpkin. There are two main varieties.

One is an annual with triangular leaves and white to pink blooms with mottled corollas. The yellow flowering type of devil’s claw is a perennial plant but has much the same characteristics. It also boasts hairy stems with slightly sticky texture. The seed pod has a feral quality and tends to stick to pant legs and animal fur, transporting the seeds to new locations that are appropriate for growing Proboscidea devil’s claw.

Devil’s Claw Plant Info

Devil’s claw is found in hot, dry, disturbed sites. Proboscidea plant care is about as easy as caring for a weed, and the plant grows without any intervention in arid zones. The preferred method for growing Proboscidea devil’s claw is from seed. If you wish to plant it, you can gather seeds, soak them overnight and then plant them in a sunny location.

Keep the seed bed moist until germination and then allow the soil to dry lightly between watering. Once the plant is mature, apply water only every two to three weeks. Suspend watering entirely when seed pods begin to form.

The plant is not susceptible to many pest or disease problems. If you choose to grow the plant indoors, use an unglazed pot with a mixture of topsoil and sand as your planting medium. Keep in a sunny, warm room and water only when the soil is completely dry.

Devil’s Claw Uses

Native people have long used devil’s claw plant for baskets and as a food item. The young pods resemble okra and Proboscidea plant care is indeed similar to okra cultivation. You can use the soft immature pods as a vegetable in stir fries, stews and as a cucumber substitute in pickles.

The longer pods were hunted and later cultivated for their use in baskets. The pods are buried to preserve the black color and then woven with bear grass or yucca leaves. Native people were very creative at coming up with devil’s claw uses for fixing and mending, fresh and dried food options, for connecting things, and as a toy for children.

Plant Database

Schwartzman, Steven

Proboscidea louisianica

Louisiana Devil’s-claw, Devil’s-claw, Ram’s-horn, Unicorn Plant, Proboscis Flower

Synonym(s): Proboscidea louisiana

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (I)

Ram’s-horn or devil’s claw is a low, spreading, bushy plant, 1-2 ft. tall, with large, long-stemmed, palmately lobed leaves. Leaves, 5-inches across and up to 1 foot long, covered with glandular nectar which often collects sand particles. Its creamy-yellow, tubular, five-lobed flowers are spotted with purple and appear in few-flowered, axillary clusters after summer rains. The fruit is a fleshy, curved pod that splits into two claws when it dries.

The name unicorn plant refers to the remarkable fruits. These are at first fleshy, the flesh later falling away, leaving an inner woody shell tipped by a long, curved beak (the horn of the unicorn). The beak splits lengthwise, and the shell opens between the two parts of the split beak. These fruits are easily caught on the legs of deer, rabbits, and cattle or hooked in the wool of sheep by their spreading claws (thus the name devils claw). The fruits are collected and used in nature crafts.

From the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Size Class: 1-3 ft.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: White , Pink , Yellow , Purple
Bloom Time: May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep


USA: AL , AR , CA , CO , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , VT , WA , WV , WY
Native Distribution: Native to TX, Mex. & possibly LA; naturalized in the s.e. and as far n. as ME & MN
Native Habitat: River banks; meadows; waste areas

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil pH: Acidic (pHSoil Description: Moist, sandy soils. Sandy, Sandy Loam


Use Ornamental: The fruits are collected and used in nature crafts.
Use Food: This plant is often cultivated for the fruit, which is pickled and eaten like okra.
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Nectar Source: yes


Propagation Material: Seeds
Description: Propagate by seed.
Seed Collection: Not Available
Seed Treatment: Not Available
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

Order seed of this species from Native American Seed and help support the Wildflower Center.

National Wetland Indicator Status


This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241).Click herefor map of regions.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Fredericksburg Nature Center – Fredericksburg, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – Austin, TX
Texas Discovery Gardens – Dallas, TX

Wildflower Center Seed Bank

LBJWC-1175 Collected 2008-07-03 in Hays County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center


Bibref 765 – McMillen’s Texas Gardening: Wildflowers (1998) Howard, D.
Bibref 248 – Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 328 – Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 – Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.
Search More Titles in Bibliography

Additional resources

USDA: Find Proboscidea louisianica in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Proboscidea louisianica in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Proboscidea louisianica


Record Modified: 2017-09-07
Research By: NPIS, ADA

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