Cryptomeria globosa nana pruning

Cryptomeria japonica: Japanese Cedar1

Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2

Introduction

The tree keeps a billowy pyramidal form on one central trunk until close to maturity when the crown opens up into an irregular, narrow oval. It will reach a height of about 50 feet and spread about 20 feet. Old specimens can develop trunks to 3 feet in diameter. The reddish-brown bark is ornamental, peeling off in long strips, and is the most pronounced characteristic on old trees. The foliage will become bronzed during the winter but greens up again in spring. Branches usually persist on the tree with old specimens branched to the ground.

Figure 1.

Middle-aged Cryptomeria japonica: japanese cedar.

Credit:

Ed Gilman, UF/IFAS

General Information

Scientific name: Cryptomeria japonica Pronunciation: krip-toe-MEER-ee-uh juh-PAWN-ih-kuh Common name(s): Japanese cedar Family: Taxodiaceae USDA hardiness zones: 6A through 8B (Fig. 2) Origin: not native to North America Invasive potential: little invasive potential Uses: screen; street without sidewalk; specimen; parking lot island 100–200 sq ft; parking lot island > 200 sq ft; tree lawn 4–6 feet wide; tree lawn > 6 ft wide; urban tolerant; highway median; Bonsai; parking lot island < 100 sq ft Availability: not native to North America Figure 2.

Range

Description

Height: 40 to 60 feet Spread: 15 to 20 feet Crown uniformity: symmetrical Crown shape: pyramidal, oval Crown density: dense Growth rate: slow Texture: fine

Foliage

Leaf arrangement: spiral (Fig. 3) Leaf type: simple Leaf margin: entire Leaf shape: awl-like Leaf venation: none, or difficult to see Leaf type and persistence: evergreen Leaf blade length: less than 2 inches Leaf color: green Fall color: copper Fall characteristic: not showy Figure 3.

Foliage

Flower

Flower color: unknown Flower characteristics: not showy

Fruit

Fruit shape: round Fruit length: .5 to 1 inch Fruit covering: dry or hard Fruit color: brown Fruit characteristics: does not attract wildlife; not showy; fruit/leaves not a litter problem

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: branches droop; very showy; typically one trunk; thorns Pruning requirement: little required Breakage: resistant Current year twig color: green Current year twig thickness: medium Wood specific gravity: unknown

Culture

Light requirement: full sun Soil tolerances: clay; sand; loam; acidic; well-drained Drought tolerance: high Aerosol salt tolerance: unknown

Other

Roots: not a problem Winter interest: no Outstanding tree: yes Ozone sensitivity: unknown Verticillium wilt susceptibility: resistant Pest resistance: sensitive to pests/diseases

Use and Management

Provide an acid soil and protection from winter winds. Locate the tree so air circulation is good, particularly during summer to help prevent leaf blight. Best with afternoon shade in southern part of its range. A number of cultivars are available varying in growth habit and ability to hold green foliage color in the winter. Cryptomeria is tolerant of compacted soil and performs well in parking lots and other tough, urban sites with some irrigation in drought. It makes a wonderful accent, screen, or border tree for larger properties. It may grow too large for most residential landscapes. They can be planted as street trees 10 feet back from the street in residential areas to provide an elegant flavor to the neighborhood.

Propagation is by cuttings which root slowly or by seed which germinates slowly.

‘Yoshino’ holds green foliage color in the winter. ‘Elegans’ grows to 15 feet tall.

Pests

Mites can infest the foliage.

Diseases

Leaf blight and leaf spot are two problems. Leaf blight often causes much of the interior foliage to brown, creating an unsightly specimen. Fungicide sprays help prevent the disease, as does placing the tree so it receives early morning sun to dry the foliage. Keep the foliage as dry as possible.

Footnotes

This document is ENH376, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Reviewed June 2014. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville FL 32611.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county’s UF/IFAS Extension office.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.

JC Raulston Arboretum

Cryptomeria japonica

Cryptomeria japonica, Japanese cedar, is one of the best evergreen conifers for southern gardens with its soft, refined foliage, great beauty of form, and tough adaptability to the rigors of the southeastern climate. Many horticulturists are familiar with the full size, rapidly growing forms of this plant, ‘Yoshino’ and ‘Benjamin Franklin’, that are becoming popular choices for screening and as alternatives to Leyland cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii). But many are not aware that there are over 70 cultivars of Japanese cedar with an incredible diversity of form, color, mature size, and growth rate. Cultivars range from tiny dwarf plants to tall trees, with many variegated and unusual foliage forms available. In fact, there is a perfect cultivar of Japanese cedar for each and every garden in the south.

The primary reason for this great abundance of forms of Cryptomeria is because this species is revered in its native Japan both as an important forest tree and as a beautiful ornamental. Japanese cedar has been the subject of horticultural attention and selection for hundreds of years, not only in Japan, but also, to a lesser extent, in the gardens and nurseries of Europe and North America. Two forms of Japanese cedar which are especially beautiful in the winter garden are ‘Elegans’ and a closely related form, ‘Elegans Aurea’.

Both ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are medium sized tree forms reaching 20 feet and greater with age, but they are slower growing than the cultivars recommended for screening with growth rates on the order of 1 foot a year (as opposed to the 3 feet per year and greater that ‘Yoshino’ and ‘Benjamin Franklin’ are capable of). They are both evergreen conifers with an informal, rounded, pyramidal habit but they both have very unique, completely juvenile foliage. The juvenile foliage of very young seedling conifers of all species is generally much softer, more feathery, and less distinctive than the adult foliage that will eventually develop on the plant as it matures. Cultivars of many species of conifers have been selected, however, for ‘permanent’ retention of their juvenile foliage characteristics (this proclivity of conifer afficionados to select juvenile foliage forms has created a nightmarish task for horticulturists who are trying to keep the identity of all of these juvenile forms straight!). ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’, are two forms of Japanese cedar selected, in part, for their juvenile foliage, but they are especially distinctive among juvenile-foliaged conifers because the foliage of each changes to a dramatically different color in the colder weather of winter.

‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are both a bright, emerald green in the spring, summer and fall with wonderfully soft-textured foliage that can be compared with the softness of goose down (even the most inveterate conifer-phobe will never be ‘stuck’ by the feathery foliage of these two Japanese cedars). It is in the winter, however, when these two trees literally shine. As soon as

the weather has turned cold for a week or two, both ‘Elegans and ‘Elegans Aurea’ begin a fascinating transformation. The foliage of ‘Elegans’ turns a deep burgundy-plum color, while that of ‘Elegans Aurea’ glows a startlingly bright, lime-gold.

When planted together, the rich plum of ‘Elegans’ combines with the blazing gold of ‘Elegans Aurea’ to create a study in garden color that defies description. These two Japanese Cedars are fabulous companion woodies for perennials because they are a fresh green foundation in summer – while the perennials are blooming – but in winter both ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are transformed into bold sculptures of spectacular color while the perennials are dormant. These two Cryptomeria have the added attraction of moderate size and growth rate for use in combination, not only with perennials, but other specimens that might be overshadowed and out competed by more robust growers. Their moderate growth rate also makes them excellent choices to bring the interest of an unusual specimen or the dazzle of an incredibly bold hedge to smaller landscapes.

Like other Japanese cedars, ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are well adapted to the heavy wet clays of the southeast. They are tolerant of most soils as long as they are not subject to long periods of drought. Most Japanese cedars are completely hardy throughout the Piedmont and Coastal Plain with a few forms being reliably hardy in the mountains (like ‘Yoshino’), however, ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are subject to foliar die back in the mountains when temperatures dip below the twenties. These two forms can be grown in the mountains with some winter protection or in a sheltered site, but beware of late frost damage on early flushes of growth in very sheltered sites where the plants may be ‘fooled’ into pushing out early. It is especially important to keep these two cultivars out of exceptionally windy sites. Both ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ are particularly easy to root from cuttings because of their juvenile character. Cuttings can be successfully rooted any time of the year (except during the peak of the first spring flush of growth) as long as there is some wood on the cutting. Cuttings will root best if treated with rooting hormone and rooted under mist.

At The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans’, and ‘Elegans Aurea’, glow from the Winter Garden with vibrant hues. They are among the most beautiful trees that light up the collections in winter. ‘Elegans’ and ‘Elegans Aurea’ alone are reason enough for a trip to The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum), but once there, the thousands of other fascinating plants at the Arboretum will give you a brilliant new look at winter in the garden. br>

Yoshino Japanese Cedar

Yoshino Japanese Cedar

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Yoshino Japanese Cedar foliage

Yoshino Japanese Cedar foliage

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

* This is a “special order” plant – contact store for details

Height: 30 feet

Spread: 20 feet

Sunlight:

Hardiness Zone: 6a

Description:

A spreading, pyramid shaped evergreen tree with blue-green foliage throughout the year, ideally suited for accent or articulation in the landscape

Ornamental Features

Yoshino Japanese Cedar has attractive bluish-green foliage. The scale-like leaves are highly ornamental and remain bluish-green throughout the winter. Neither the flowers nor the fruit are ornamentally significant. The peeling indian red bark adds an interesting dimension to the landscape.

Landscape Attributes

Yoshino Japanese Cedar is an evergreen tree with a strong central leader and a distinctive and refined pyramidal form. Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage.

This is a relatively low maintenance tree. When pruning is necessary, it is recommended to only trim back the new growth of the current season, other than to remove any dieback. It has no significant negative characteristics.

Yoshino Japanese Cedar is recommended for the following landscape applications;

  • Accent
  • Vertical Accent

Planting & Growing

Yoshino Japanese Cedar will grow to be about 30 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 20 feet. It has a low canopy with a typical clearance of 4 feet from the ground, and should not be planted underneath power lines. It grows at a fast rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for 60 years or more.

This tree does best in full sun to partial shade. It prefers to grow in average to moist conditions, and shouldn’t be allowed to dry out. It is particular about its soil conditions, with a strong preference for rich, acidic soils, and is able to handle environmental salt. It is quite intolerant of urban pollution, therefore inner city or urban streetside plantings are best avoided, and will benefit from being planted in a relatively sheltered location. Consider applying a thick mulch around the root zone in winter to protect it in exposed locations or colder microclimates. This is a selected variety of a species not originally from North America.

* This is a “special order” plant – contact store for details

Cryptomeria ‘Globosa Nana’

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Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’ (Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’)

Botanical name

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’

Other names

Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’, Dwarf Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’

Genus

Cryptomeria Cryptomeria

Variety or Cultivar

Native to

Garden origin

Evergreen

Habit

Compact, Cushion or Mound Forming, Dense, Domed

Awards

RHS AGM (Award of Garden Merit)

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Colour

Green in All seasons

How to care

Watch out for

Generally pest-free.

Generally disease-free.

General care

Pruning

Little to no pruning required.

Propagation methods

Semi-hardwood cuttings

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Where to grow

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’ (Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’) will reach a height of 1m and a spread of 1m after 10-20 years.

Suggested uses

Architectural, Beds and borders, Cottage/Informal, Gravel, Low Maintenance, Rock

Cultivation

Plant in any moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Needs a sheltered location.

Soil type

Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Sandy (will tolerate most soil types)

Soil drainage

Moist but well-drained

Soil pH

Acid, Alkaline, Neutral

Light

Partial Shade, Full Sun

Aspect

South, East, West

Exposure

Sheltered

UK hardiness Note: We are working to update our ratings. Thanks for your patience.

Hardy (H4)

USDA zones

Zone 7, Zone 6, Zone 5

Defra’s Risk register #1

Plant name

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’ (Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’)

Common pest name

Cypress twig; borer

Scientific pest name

Argyresthia cupressella

Type

Insect

Current status in UK

Present (Widespread)

Likelihood to spread in UK (1 is very low – 5 is very high)

Impact (1 is very low – 5 is very high)

General biosecurity comments

Has spread following introduction; little evidence of significant damage. Stakeholder groups may wish to monitor.

Defra’s Risk register #2

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’ (Japanese cedar ‘Globosa Nana’)

Stubby-root nematode

Trichodorus cedarus

Nematode

Absent

Likelihood to spread to UK (1 is very low – 5 is very high)

Polyphagous nematode pest from Asia; occasionally intercepted by the UK. Causes direct feeding damage on plant roots and has the potential to vector viruses.

About this section

Our plants are under greater threat than ever before. There is increasing movement of plants and other material traded from an increasing variety of sources. This increases the chances of exotic pests arriving with imported goods and travellers, as well as by natural means. Shoot is working with Defra to help members to do their part in preventing the introduction and spread of invasive risks.

Traveling or importing plants? Please read “Don’t risk it” advice here

Suspected outbreak?

Date updated: 7th March 2019 For more information visit: https://planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk/

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar

(Photo courtesy of NetPS Plant Finder)

Height: 3 feet

Spread: 3 feet

Sunlight:

Hardiness Zone: 4

Description:

A rare compact garden detail plant; forms a dense mounded pyramid with blue green needles that turn light brown over the winter

Ornamental Features

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar has attractive bluish-green foliage. The scale-like leaves are highly ornamental and turn indian red in fall. Neither the flowers nor the fruit are ornamentally significant.

Landscape Attributes

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar is a multi-stemmed evergreen shrub with a more or less rounded form. It lends an extremely fine and delicate texture to the landscape composition which should be used to full effect.

This is a relatively low maintenance shrub, and should not require much pruning, except when necessary, such as to remove dieback. It has no significant negative characteristics.

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar is recommended for the following landscape applications;

  • Mass Planting
  • Hedges/Screening
  • Rock/Alpine Gardens
  • General Garden Use
  • Container Planting

Planting & Growing

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar will grow to be about 3 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 3 feet. It tends to fill out right to the ground and therefore doesn’t necessarily require facer plants in front. It grows at a slow rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for 40 years or more.

This shrub does best in full sun to partial shade. It prefers to grow in average to moist conditions, and shouldn’t be allowed to dry out. It is particular about its soil conditions, with a strong preference for rich, acidic soils, and is able to handle environmental salt. It is quite intolerant of urban pollution, therefore inner city or urban streetside plantings are best avoided, and will benefit from being planted in a relatively sheltered location. Consider applying a thick mulch around the root zone in winter to protect it in exposed locations or colder microclimates. This is a selected variety of a species not originally from North America.

Dwarf Globe Japanese Cedar makes a fine choice for the outdoor landscape, but it is also well-suited for use in outdoor pots and containers. Because of its height, it is often used as a ‘thriller’ in the ‘spiller-thriller-filler’ container combination; plant it near the center of the pot, surrounded by smaller plants and those that spill over the edges. Note that when grown in a container, it may not perform exactly as indicated on the tag – this is to be expected. Also note that when growing plants in outdoor containers and baskets, they may require more frequent waterings than they would in the yard or garden.

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