Copper sulfate for plants

Copper And Soil – How Copper Affects Plants

Copper is an essential element for plant growth. Soils naturally contain copper in some form or other, ranging anywhere from 2 to 100 parts per million (ppm) and averaging at about 30 ppm. Most plants contain about 8 to 20 ppm. Without adequate copper, plants will fail to grow properly. Therefore, maintaining fair amounts of copper for the garden is important.

Copper Deficiency in Plant Growth

On average, the two factors that commonly influence copper are the soil pH and organic matter.

  • Peaty and acidic soils are most likely to be deficient in copper. Soils that already have high alkaline content (above 7.5), as well as soils that have had pH levels increased, result in lower copper availability.
  • Copper levels also drop as the amount of organic matter is increased, which usually hampers the availability of copper by reducing soil mineral fixation and leaching. However, once organic matter has sufficiently decomposed, adequate copper can be released into the soil and taken up by plants.

Inadequate levels of copper can lead to poor growth, delayed flowering, and plant sterility. Copper deficiency in plant growth may appear as wilting with leaf tips turning a bluish-green color. In grain-type plants, the tips may become brown and appear to mimic frost damage.

How to Organically Add Copper to Your Garden

When considering how to add copper to your garden, remember that not all soil tests for copper are reliable, so careful examination of the plant growth is important. Copper fertilizers are available in both inorganic and organic forms. The rates for application should be followed closely to prevent toxicity.

Generally, the rates of copper are about 3 to 6 pounds per acre (1.5 to 3 kg per .5 hectare), but this is really dependent on the soil type and plants grown. Copper sulfate and copper oxide are the most common fertilizers for increasing copper levels. Copper chelate can also be used at about one-quarter of the recommended rate.

Copper can be broadcast or banded in the soil. It can also be applied as a foliar spray. Broadcasting is probably the most common method of application, however.

Copper Toxicity in Plants

Although soil rarely produces excessive amounts of copper on its own, copper toxicity can occur from the repeated use of fungicides that contain copper. Copper toxicity plants appear stunted, are usually bluish in color, and eventually turn yellow or brown.

Toxic copper levels reduce seed germination, plant vigor, and iron intake. Neutralizing copper soil toxicity is extremely difficult once the problem occurs. Copper has low solubility, which enables it to persist in the soil for years.

Copper Sulphate 1 Kg Micro Nutrient for Plants

Description

Soil Enrichment
Used in an area of copper-deficient soil, copper sulphate enriches the soil and provides an essential nutrient to growing plants. When soil is copper-deficient, young plants may develop chlorosis, a condition in which leaves yellow due to lack of chlorophyll. Copper deficiencies can also cause stunted or atypical growth; young plants in very nutrient-deficient soil may simply die. Wilting, lack of flowers and reduced fruit harvest are all likely effects of copper-deficient soil. It prevents these problems. Test soil regularly, and apply copper sulphate as needed in a spray or fertilizer preparation.

Fungus Protection
It has anti-fungal properties, and is a key ingredient in some commercial fungicides for farm and garden. These fungicides are typically mixed with water and either lime or soda ash, then sprayed onto the plants. The effect of such a fungicide is prevention or reduction of fungal infections that can disease or destroy the plant. If a plant is already affected by fungus, fungicides may be effective in removing the fungus. This use is effective only if the fungicide is applied soon after fungal infection occurs.

Effects on Fruit
In fruiting plants, copper affects the sugar content and flavor of the fruits produced. The effects are most pronounced in blueberry, tomato, watermelon, onion, parsnip, lettuce, beet, carrot, cabbage, eggplant, celery and spinach plants. In general, water accumulation in a plant is lower, and therefore its taste is sweeter, when its conductivity is low. Excess amount increases conductivity, reducing the sugar concentration and flavor intensity of the fruit. If you want to grow sweet fruits that are not watery, ensure you are not over-applying copper sulphate to your plants.

Journal of Plant Nutrition

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of copper (Cu) in clay loam and sandy clay loam soil. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were grown in pots for 45 d. When mature, plants were treated for 15 additional days with 0, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 mg Cu kg−1 as CuSO4·5H2O. After harvest, Cu in soils and plant tissues was determined. In soils, applied Cu raised total and EDTA-extractible Cu. Results also revealed that the amounts of Cu extracted from sandy clay loam soil (80%) were higher than those extracted from clay loam soil (70%). In plants, increasing soil Cu concentration increased plant concentration of the metal. Plant species vary in their capacity for Cu accumulation: Lettuce has a relatively higher potential for Cu uptake and translocation than does spinach. Cu accumulation also differs among plant organs. In lettuce, metal accumulation is higher in roots than in shoots, where 60% to 80% of the total Cu of the plant is located in the roots. However, in spinach, there is no significant difference in Cu content between roots and shoots. The transfer of the metal from soil to plant is higher for plants grown on sandy clay loam soil. For a given rate of applied Cu, metal content in plant tissues is higher on sandy clay loam soil due to its higher transfer coefficient (CT) from soil to plant. Nevertheless, all crops studied showed a positive linear relationship between extractible soil Cu and plant Cu.

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Copper and ergot

Ergot is a disease that often seems to be present when there is significant lodging in cereal crops. Some experts believe that the correlation between the two relates to copper. “If you have poor lignifications and poor pollination (because of copper deficiency), the plant is predisposed to fall over, even though there isn’t much weight in the heads,” says Elston Solberg, president of Agri-Trend Agrology Ltd., who has conducted extensive research into the role of copper in plant development. “The heads are predisposed to stay open for a longer period of time because, even though they are close-pollinated, if they have none of their own pollen, they will keep their heads open for a longer period of time in the hopes of getting pollen from a nearby plant, and that’s when the ergot infection gets in.”

Although Brook acknowledges that copper can sometimes play a role in ergot infection, he believes that weather is more often the biggest contributor to the problem. “Wheat is most susceptible to ergot because it has a period of time when the flowers are mostly open to the outside atmosphere as the head emerges,” he says. “If you get a period where it gets cool and it slows down the development of the wheat, you have the wheat flowers exposed for a longer period of time to any windblown spores or fungus. So (ergot infection) is mostly weather related.”

The important message is that copper deficiency should be correctly diagnosed before copper fertilizer is applied.

Detecting copper deficiency

Some of the main indicators of copper deficiencies in cereal crops are light green leaves and dry leaf tips, with slow and stunted growth. Another symptom that has been observed in copper deficient cereal crops is bending of the stems or heads, which may break 15 to 30 cm below the head.

“The best way for a farmer to know for sure if he has a copper deficiency is to have soil and tissue tests done,” says Aberhart. “Just having a soil test alone will not provide the same level of confidence as having both soil and in season tissue analysis.” If a farmer sees some of these symptoms or feels he is not getting the yields and crop quality he’s striving for, he should get in-depth soil and tissue tests done to determine the extent of the copper issue and develop a strategy to deal with it, he adds.

A wheat crop will take up just over 0.5 grams of copper per bushel, and remove about 0.15 g/bu. from the soil. So a 70 bushel crop will need to find 36 to 37 grams of copper and will remove about 10 grams.

Barley will take up about 0.38 g/bu. and remove about 0.34 g/bu. of copper from the soil. A barley crop will remove almost all of the copper it takes up. A 100 bushel barley crop will need to take up about 38 g/bu. and will remove about 34 g/bu. from the soil.

Oats take up almost the same amount of copper as barley but only remove about 0.18 g/bu., so a 130 bushel per acre oat crop will need to take up about 47 g/bu. of copper and will remove only 23 g/bu. from the soil.

Correcting copper deficiency

Copper can be applied within a seed treatment as a granular application, impregnated on dry fertilizer, in a liquid fertilizer blend or as a foliar treatment.

Copper is not mobile in the soil or in the plant, so placement and timing of products is very important. Most cereal crops have the highest demand for copper uptake in the vegetative and seed development stage. “So that is when you will want to ensure that your crop will be able to get the copper it needs to produce top yields and quality,” says Aberhart.

If only small amounts of copper are required, seed treatments and a foliar application may be sufficient and give the most economical response. “The thing to consider with seed a treatment is that you are applying a very small amount, and that copper will be gone by the time the crop gets to the critical stage,” says Aberhart. “The same is true with a foliar treatment. You are applying a small amount of copper, but it can be very effective if applied at the right time.”

Copper cannot be foliar applied once the head is starting to come out of the boot, as crop damage and reduced yields can occur. Foliar copper can cause some leaf burn to the plant if put on at higher rates and in hot conditions, especially if combined with fungicides, where there are additional surfactants.

Soil-applied copper is effective, but there needs to be good root interception and uptake. If a 20 per cent granular copper product is applied at five lbs./ac., it will result in one lb./ac. (or 454 grams) of actual copper. Depending on the crop and yield, this could provide enough copper for ten or 15 years or crops. “The issue is that you will only have about two or three granules per square foot of soil and will have very low root uptake and interception,” says Aberhart. “This is where applying lower analysis products, impregnation of other dry fertilizers which will increase granular distribution, or adding to a liquid blend can increase your chances and efficiency of uptake with soil applied products.”

There are many factors involved in copper uptake and application for crops. Farmers need to consider soil type, organic matter, copper levels throughout the soil profile (many soils may have poor copper levels at the surface but increases deeper down), pH levels, crop yield and quality, protein goals, and whether they are dealing with soil that they want to build, maintain or mine, says Aberhart.

Copper products

There are hundreds of copper products and application methods with various considerations including efficiency of uptake, timing, solubility of the product, and suitability for soil or foliar application. “Most of our growers that we work with on a copper strategy use a combination of a couple of different products and applications to best suit the needs of the crop and work with the logistics of their operation,” says Aberhart. “There are hundreds of easy, effective, and profitable ways to apply copper to you crops. There are many times we hear from growers that have tried applying copper to their crops with no response. There are two reasons for this, either the crop did not need copper, or they did not use the right product, in the proper manner or timing, as there are many ways you can apply these products and not get the value from them because of this.”

Aberhart suggests that farmers work with someone that can really understand their soils and all the different copper products and methods of application in order to achieve the best results. On his own farm, Aberhart has seen better crop yields, increased standability, reduced disease and ergot issues. “Overall we see better crop quality, more consistent yield and increased grain weight and plumpness especially in barley and oat crops, as well as increased protein levels in our wheat crops,” he says. “In today’s new pricing environments crop quality and protein levels will have a large economic impact on the farms bottom line.”

The debate about the role of copper and whether copper deficiencies have a role in lodging, ergot development or other crop problems could go on forever, but perhaps what’s more important in growing any crop is to think like a plant. What does it need and where is it going to get it? That involves moving away from traditional recipe farming along a continuum that leads to assessing and farming different parts of each field according to their individual requirements, says Solberg.

“There’s no better example than copper,” he says. “The variability of copper is so huge sometimes that only 30 per cent of the field may be affected by the copper deficiency. That’s where you see the lodging and the predominance of the ergot and all those other issues that are associated with copper deficiency. So it’s really important to collect information and act on that information in a logical and scientific manner.”

A proper crop planning system with a good soil and tissues testing program means that farmers can consistently track yields, quality, soil and plant levels every year to make sure they get the best economic benefit to their bottom line, says Aberhart. †

Copper: Helpful or Harmful?

Copper is one of the essential micronutrients, or trace minerals, that plants need for growth.

As with any nutrient, plants can absorb and use only certain forms of copper. For example, copper metal is useless to plants, but once dissolved in acidic conditions, copper enters plants very easily.

Under high pH conditions (alkaline) copper becomes unavailable to plants.

Copper has specific duties in the plant.

In onions, copper is the main ingredient needed to give yellow onions the brown papery skin desired by consumers.

Plants have several copper- containing enzymes that play an important role in photosynthesis, respiration and the formation of lignin in woody plants.

Insufficient levels of copper (copper deficiency) can lead to symptoms of reduced starch formation, reduced nitrogen fixation and nodulation in legumes, delayed flowering and maturity and pollen sterility.

In broadleaf plants the upper portion of the plants wilt, the growing point may die and the top leaves turn a distinctive bluish-green color.

Some plants require more copper than others. Beet, onion, lettuce, spinach, sunflower and tomato have relatively high copper requirements compared to other crops.

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It is interesting to note that archaeologists have discovered that metal-tolerant plants helped ancient civilizations identify ore bodies and mining and smelting sites.

For example, the African copper flower is found only in soils rich in copper and helped with the discovery of mines and smelting areas in 14th century Zaire.

Other examples of copper-tolerant plants include the Vernal Sandwort and the Sea Thrift from Europe, and Elsholtzia haichowensis (no English common name) from China.

As a rule, beans, broccoli, cabbage, cucumber, mint, pea and potato do not require extra copper supplementation.

High levels of copper can be toxic to plants. The symptoms of copper toxicity are reduced seed germination, low shoot vigor, and lower iron availability.

Copper as a Plant Disease Fighter

Copper has very powerful anti-microbial properties. For example, a stainless steel sink will harbor germs for two weeks while a copper sink will be germ-free in two hours.

This was confirmed by a recent EPA study and it is why most hospital door knobs, handrails and fixtures are made of copper or plated with brass (a copper alloy).

For over a hundred years, copper sulfate has been used in commercial agriculture as a foliar fungicide for powdery mildew disease control and copper plating was a technology that began in the mid-1600s.

One common use for copper plating, widespread in the 1700s, was the sheathing of ship hulls. Copper sheathing was used to protect wooden hulled ships from algae and shipworms (which are not a worm but a mollusk).

The ships of Christopher Columbus were among the earliest to have this protection. Today, copper sulfate is sometimes used in swimming pools, reservoirs and lakes to control algae. Similarly, copper compounds were the principal ingredient in boat anti-fouling paints, although newer chemistries are being developed for this purpose.

Copper metal strips and tapes are used in greenhouses as physical barriers that snails and slugs will not cross. Copper also is used as a wood preservative and it is not uncommon to see older wooden greenhouse benches with a light green color indicating copper treatment.

Under the organic food laws, copper may not be added as a plant nutrient unless there is a documented soil or tissue deficiency. The amount of copper that can be in a product is restricted by most states.

For example, in California, copper is one of nine heavy metals that are regulated in plant products, along with arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and selenium.

Copper as Plant Fertilizers

Copper salts (copper sulfate) are commonly applied to soil to provide copper. However, these forms of copper readily react with other chemicals in the soil and become unavailable to the plant. In order to protect the copper from reacting with other chemicals, fertilizer manufacturers make chelated products.

Chelation is a term that describes the process of creating a chemical shell around the copper. Once the chelated copper is inside of the plant, the shell comes off and the copper is released to do its work. Copper chelates do not have the fungicidal property that copper salts have.

There are several materials that can be used as chelators to make a shell around copper. A common chelating agent is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This material is synthetically made and not suitable for use on organically certified food crops.

EDTA binds tightly to copper and does not let it go easily. For example, people with heavy metal poisoning (like lead or mercury) are given EDTA to bind to the metal and physically filter it out.

Obviously, the doctors do not want the EDTA to let go of the heavy metal easily. Furthermore, EDTA has a separation anxiety in that it will not give up its metal unless there is another one to trade.

So, people treated with EDTA for heavy metal poisoning often get calcium deficiency. In plants the same is true. For example, plants given iron EDTA will often develop manganese deficiency, so in effect you are trading one deficiency for another.

Another type of chelate on the market is the amino acid chelates. These products use amino acids (the building blocks of protein) as a shell. This shell is held onto the copper with citric acid as a binder.

These products are generally certified as organic fertilizers. In California, the fertilizer laws state that citric acid is the chelating agent-not the amino acid. So, you will not see labels for amino acid chelated copper in California.

Amino acid (or citric acid) chelates are a smaller molecule than EDTA so they penetrate the leaf easier and absorption time is greatly reduced. Also, plants recognize the amino acid as a building block and readily take it in.

Once inside the plant, the amino acid shell is stripped off and used, as is the copper. Conversely, EDTA is synthetic so only the copper is used by the plant. The good thing about chelated copper fertilizers is that they can be used on the plant foliage, the soil or in nutrient solutions; however, there are some restrictions.

Hydroponics and the Use of Copper

Organic matter (humus) binds to copper more tightly than it does with any other micronutrient. This tie-up of copper is a common cause for copper deficiency in soil systems. If the copper level in your solution is on the high side, than knowledge of this property may affect your choice of substrate.

Choosing an organic soil over a sand substrate can mitigate the effect of high copper in your solution. Increasing the pH level increases the amount of copper held by organic matter or clay (which reduces the availability of copper to the plants).

If you are growing plants on a soil substrate with a pH above 7.5, then you need to check periodically for copper deficiency symptoms in your plants.

Copper metal is very malleable and is not as susceptible to corrosion like other metals, which is why it is still used today for pipes. In addition, copper has antibacterial properties that help to ward off micro-organisms like those that cause Legionnaire’s disease.

Unlike plastic, copper does not give off fumes, melt or burn. However, the copper content in a closed hydroponic system should be minimized to prevent copper accumulation in the nutrient solution and in the plants. If the levels of copper are high in your source water, replace the copper pipes with high pressure PVC piping.

Aquaponics and Copper

Copper is a soft metal that readily corrodes or ionizes, especially in acidic environments like aquaponics. Copper is considered to be a heavy metal and fish readily accumulate copper in their flesh.

Aquaponic systems are recirculating by design, which compounds the possibility of exposure and bioaccumulation of copper in both fish and humans.

Copper is toxic to fish at low levels and crustaceans at miniscule levels. Do not use copper heat exchangers in solar water heaters and minimize the use of copper pipes in the system. Most systems today use plastic PVC pipe almost exclusively.

Aeroponics and Copper

In aeroponic systems where the nutrient solution is periodically misted onto roots suspended in the air, copper is added to the nutrient solution.

Since the roots are not immersed in the solution it is unlikely that the plants will absorb enough copper to be phytotoxic. In this system is it not so imperative that copper piping or plumbing be eliminated from the system.

In Conclusion

Copper is not only an essential plant nutrient, it’s also a tool that can be very beneficial to your indoor growing operation. Copper can be a big problem when not used in the proper environment or in the right form.

But now that you know the hazards and the benefits of copper products, you can more confidently use them to keep your operation running smoothly and efficiently.

Copper

Copper is required by both plants and animals. Experts say it makes our vegetables taste better. So, our plants need copper; however, our soil life is easily injured by copper in the wrong form.

We include two copper sources on our worksheets. The OMRI organic farming standard is to use copper sulfate (25% Cu) to build soil reserves, when a soil or tissue test determines the soil needs copper. Our second option is an OMRI approved copper chelate, Biomin copper (4% Cu). Industry practice is to use the copper chelate as a foliar, only after a tissue test determines copper is deficient. The copper chelate is considered too expensive for farm scale soil applications; therefore no manufacturer’s data is available for building soil reserves with copper chelate. The primary reason we include the copper chelate is because of the problems associated with copper sulfate.

Whereas the other major and minor minerals deserve care in handling, copper sulfate is a real problem. It can be absorbed directly through skin. When I used it, I mixed it with boron and applied it to the soil (not on the plants) as a spray, separate from the other minerals. That way I could be more careful with it. Copper sulfate does stabilize in the soil and loses its toxic properties. And, as copper is immobile in the soil, once there is sufficient stabilized copper you don’t need to keep re-applying it.

If you are going to use copper sulfate, read the MSDS. You can compare it to the MSDS for Biomin Copper.

Copper sulfate is a powerful fungicide. Copper chelate will not harm our friends the fungi. In gardens, it is economical enough to build soil copper levels. In fields, it can be applied as a foliar or to the soil every year at low concentrations. It takes less to do more. University papers say it can be used at 1/6 the rate of copper sulfate, when used as a foliar spray. If you are working a large acreage, you will want a tissue test before spending your money on copper fertilizer. Copper is an expensive element to add to fields. Indeed, it is always better to get a tissue test before applying copper.

There are two major types of copper chelate on the market, one using EDTA, and one using citric acid. Only the citric acid copper chelate qualifies for OMRI certification.

Chelation means that the copper is surrounded by a ring of other atoms or molecules. This ring makes the chelated copper non-reactive compared to CuSO4, and without fungicidal properties. The mechanism by which the plant can then access the copper is complex. There is strong chelation and weak chelation. Basically the citric acid is used as a sort of binder, and the outer ring is an amino acid which the plant wants to absorb. So, the citric acid chelated copper is readily available to plants.

Application rates for copper chelate can vary according to your circumstances. If you have a 4% copper chelate solution, just 3-4 tsp per 1000 sq ft every 4 to 6 weeks applied to plants provides sufficient copper. If you prefer to apply it to soil, use 4-6 tsp per 1000 sq ft. If you want to establish a soil reserve, you can bring the copper level up slowly up to 5 ppm (10 lbs/ac, 6” deep) by applying 2 lbs of elemental copper chelate at a time.

We keep updated sources of Biomin copper on our page about where to source the amendments.
The Biomin copper chelate is a liquid. The worksheets give copper recommendations by weight. You’ll need to convert the worksheet results to liquid measurements:

In Australia, Biomin copper is available at a different concentration, not 4%.

Copper requirements are debatable. In a recent Acres article, Hugh Lovel summed up the situation nicely. “Though 2 ppm copper is generally considered adequate, 5 ppm gives more margin and 10 is not harmful unless the soil is extremely light with poor humus reserves.” These are similar to the numbers Neil Kinsey gives us “Anything below 2 ppm copper means deficiency. Five ppm is excellent, but 10+ ppm is still not considered excessive.”

Here are some estimates of copper requirements. These numbers are all based on Mehlich 3 extractions, and are expressed in lbs/ac (6” deep) of elemental copper, which are double the ppm numbers.

Copper garden art can give your outdoor living space a face lift with stunning sculpture, statue and decor pieces. The warm glow of copper can’t be beat – whether it be caught in sunlight or candle light. Being a malleable metal, copper is a favorite for artisans to work with. And with such such a rich appearance, it’s been the favorite of designers as well. From copper flowers to kinetic wind sculptures, from copper rain chains to copper water features – there are hundreds of decorative and functional outdoor items to choose from. We’ve assembled 56 of the best copper garden art pieces – outdoor sculptures, statues and and decor pieces – for you below.

Source

You can choose your copper for the garden from assorted finishing options. Copper looks fantastic when paired with enamels for color. Many love natural copper which will develop a fine patina over time when used outdoors. Or seal your copper pieces with a clear protective coating that will always keep the warm luster and shine. It all depends on your style.

Copper Garden Art: Flowers and Plants

Sculptor Gary Pickles created this copper outdoor water fountain – the water lily. Source

This copper Lily garden sculpture set is highly detailed. Source

Copper roses and lilies go well together out in the garden with your other plants. Source

Your copper tulip garden can be used as bird feeders or use them as votive candle holders, they look magnificent at night (see first photo). Source

This copper garden is full of poppies. Source

Copper toadstools are a whimsical addition in among the daisies in the garden. Source

This copper water feature has blue glass flowers for a stunning effect. Source

The Flowers of Halcyon copper water feature combines copper sculpture with hand blown glass. Source

How artistic – copper fiddleheads for the garden. A simple DIY with copper piping. Source

Copper Trees: Natural Art for the Garden

The Olive tree is a stately copper garden art sculpture with a bonus. It’s a water feature, too. Source

This Weeping Willow copper garden art sculpture comes with its own self-contained pond. Source

The copper Acer tree has broad, flat leaves to amplify the sound of the water feature. Source

Another stunning copper garden tree, set right into the ground. Source

The Japanese maple copper garden tree is a fine example of an outdoor garden art sculpture with water feature. Source

Copper Statues and Sculptures: Backyard Art

This copper lawn dragon is a whimsical modern-day replacement for the old pink lawn flamingos. Source

David Harber is one of the preminent sculptors of copper garden art. Source

This Stanwood kinetic wind sculpture – made from copper – is mesmerising. Source

Copper cat and mouse – garden decor on a stake. Source

Copper garden art comes in many forms – these kenetic wind sculptures are fascinating examples of art and nature combined. Source

Copper Waterfalls and Water Features

This copper waterfall has an industrial look (we love it). Source

Copper is a great material to use in a garden water feature or pond. Source

A copper bowl makes a magnificent fountain for the garden pond. Source

Louisianna sugar kettle upcycled as a copper garden water feature. Source

A copper ledge is a nice decor touch for this garden water feature. Source

The copper ball rotates as if floating on the water – art in motion in the garden. Source

Copper – It’s for the Birds

This fly through bird feeder is made of glass and copper – a great garden decor piece as well as a working bird feeder. It’s pretty squirrel-proof, too. Source

This beautiful copper bird bath is nothing less than art for the garden. Source

Mixing and matching copper flowers with ferns – it’s a copper garden of blooms. Source

A bird house that doubles as garden art – this copper teapot has been recycled to be a functioning piece of the garden. Source

Outdoor Copper Furniture

This copper garden chair rocks. Or should we say, swings. Despite being made of metal, it looks really comfortable.

This copper garden table doubles as a patio firepit. Source

Washington Skeleton copper chairs (above and below) are art for the garden – in the form of furniture. Source

Copper Flowerpot and Planters

This copper garden sconce looks great haning on a fence. Source

Large copper planters dominate this garden patio. Source

This copper garden living art planter is a fantastic way to dip your toe into succulent gardening. Vertical gardening, too – they’re both hot now. Source

A copper window box is a great idea for growing herbs or edible flowers. Source

Another great flowerbox – this one with succulents. Source

The half moon copper outdoor sconce can add a splash of color to the yard. Source

Copper Accents and Garden Decor

A trio of copper garden gazing balls sits in the flower bed. Source

Lynn Mahoney designed this copper garden art sculpture – and appropriately placed by water. Source

These Kabash garden lanterns are made from copper and have a Morroccan look to them. Source

No copper garden would be complete without a big copper pot to hide the outdoor hose. Source

Copper garden art markers can be whimsical or practical. Source

Copper garden collars for young plants look much more attractive than the common plastic rings. Source

And for entertaining – a copper beverage tub and tray for your outdoor summer party in the garden. Source

Copper Rain Chains

Copper rain chains for the garden are available in many styles and themes.

Koi copper rain chain to divert water run off to your Koi pond. Source

A copper garden rain chain is a great way to divert roof water to where you want it. Source (above and below)

Copper Weathervanes

Copper weathervanes are fantastic outdoor sculptures for the garden. Source

St. George and the Dragon – copper garden art disguised as a weathervane. Source

More copper garden art disguised as a weather vane. There’s incredible detail in this stagecoach reproduction. Source

Copper Tubs for Relaxing in the Garden

Outdoor copper garden spa by Diamond Spas. Source

This copper hot tub is a work of of art. Can you picture this in your garden? Source

A copper soaking tub – out in the garden. Source

A garden oasis is capped off with a freestanding copper tub.

This stunning copper garden tub is a bit of a cheat – it’s in Bali. But to make up for it – you can rent it on Air BnB. Source

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