Cabbage leaf on head

What is Eating My Cabbage Plants

Yesterday, I received a question in my Facebook inbox that included pictures. It is an excellent question too. What is eating my cabbage plants ?

Anytime, I receive a question on Facebook I try and answer it to the best of my ability.

If you are finding that any of your cabbage, swede, kale, brussel sprouts etc. plant leaves are becoming full of holes throughout the summer there are a few garden pest you will need to rid yourself of.

Can you see the caterpillar under the leave in the second picture? See the eggs under the leaf in the first? Both of them are connected.

There are two culprits that I know of that will eat through leaves like this. Both are pretty similar when you see pictures of the caterpillar worms online.

1.) Cabbage White Butterfly

The pest you might be looking for is the cabbage white butterfly. The butterfly comes into the garden and looks for fresh, hearty leaves to lay it’s eggs on. As the eggs mature, they become caterpillars that eat all your leaves.

Cabbage White Caterpillar

Pictured above is what the caterpillars hatch from eggs to look like. You will note they do look a lot like the cabbage loopers you will see below.

2.) Cabbage Looper Moth
/span>


The adult of the species is called a cabbage looper moth. The moth is brown in color and in nocturnal.

Cabbage Looper Caterpillar

The caterpillar, a measuring worm, is smooth and pale green with white stripes and is one of a many species called cabbage worm.

It is called a “looper” because it arches its body as it crawls, inchworm-style. This species is very destructive to plants due to its voracious consumption of leaves.

It is not restricted to cole crops; other plant hosts include tomato, cucumber, collard greens, and potato.

How to Control These Pests

Since you are here – you already have these pests and are looking for a way to control them. I will start here.

1.) Good news for you! One product will control your garden pests, so you do not need to really know which one you have above.

All caterpillars, can be controlled with the non-chemical biological control called b.t. (Bacillus thuringiensis), often sold as Dipel or Thuricide.

You can get the product in spray or garden dust. Can be used on all plants.

2.) Some people take to the garden and pick each and every caterpillar off their plants. This takes time and dedication. It works for a small infestation.

I suggest using a pail and drown them in soapy water.

3.) What really works well for me is to place Lightweight Row Covers over my plants in the spring. If you click on the highlighted text, those are what I use.

This will keep the butterflies and moths from landing on your plants. Keeping unwanted insects out and they help with shading and cooling in the summer.The row covers allow 85% light transmission in and will give you frost protection down to 28 degrees F/-2 degrees C.

4.) Plant marigolds around your garden. My great-grandfather swore by planting marigolds around his garden. He said that the flowers attract “good” insects to your garden. This keeps the “bad” ones at bay. That man could grow anything!

If I have too – I will do a ritual dance to 🙂 That is all the help I can give you on the subject. Hope this helps!

Facebook Comments

Cabbage Growing Problems: Avoid many cabbage growing problems by sowing cabbage seed so that plants come to harvest in cool weather.

Grow cabbage as rapidly as possible. Give cabbage plenty of moisture and be sure to feed it through the season–a planting bed amended with aged compost and side dressings of compost tea every two weeks will do the job.

Cabbage can be grown in three distinct crops: early, midseason and late. Early cabbage can be wintered over in cold frames from seed started the preceding fall (or sow early cabbage in hotbeds in late winter and transplant in early spring). Midseason cabbage may be sown in the cold frame 6 weeks before transplanting into the garden after the last frost in spring. Late varieties may be sown in early summer directly in the garden where they are to mature.

While cabbage is hardy at maturity, young plants should not be subjected to frost.

For cabbage growing tips see Cabbage Growing Success Tips at the bottom of this post.

Here are common cabbage growing problems with cures and controls:

• Seedlings fail to emerge from soil; seedlings are eaten; roots are tunneled. Cabbage maggot is a small gray-white, legless worm to ⅓-inch long; adult is the cabbage root fly, looks like a housefly. Flies lay eggs in the soil near the seedling or plant. Maggots will tunnel into roots leaving brown scars; some plants may be honeycombed with slimy tunnels. Exclude flies with floating row covers. Remove and dispose of damaged plants. Apply lime or wood ashes around the base of plants; time planting to avoid insect growth cycle. Plant a bit later when the weather is drier. Companion plant with mint.

• Seeds rot or seedlings collapse with dark water-soaked stems as soon as they appear. Damping off is a fungus that lives in the soil, particularly where humidity is high. Do not plant in cold, moist soil. Make sure soil is well drained.

• Seedlings are eaten or cut off near soil level. Cutworms are gray grubs ½- to ¾-inch long that can be found curled under the soil. They chew stems, roots, and leaves. Place a 3-inch paper collar around the stem of the plant. Keep the garden free of weeds; sprinkle wood ash around base of plants.

• Young sprouts fail to grow or die back; bluish-black spot on leaves and stems. Blackleg is a fungal disease which leaves sprouts girdled and rotting at soil level–“blacklegs.” Blackleg is spread by cutworms and cabbage maggots. Remove and destroy infected plants; keep the garden free of plant debris. Add organic matter to planting bed; make sure soil is well-drained. Rotate crops.

• Young plants flower. Cold will cause young plants to flower and produce seed without forming a head. Protect young plants from cold weather with floating row covers; set transplants into the garden no sooner than 1 to 3 weeks before the last average frost date in spring.

• Main stem becomes dark and wiry. Wirestem is caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus which also caused damping off. Infected plant will not produce strong heads. Do not plant in cold, moist soil. Make sure soil is well drained.

• Irregular yellowish to brownish spots on upper leaf surfaces; grayish powder or mold on undersides. Downy mildew is caused by a fungus. Improve air circulation. Plant resistant varieties. Rotate crops. Keep garden free of plant debris.

• Plant wilts; roots are swollen and misshapen, roots rot. Clubroot is a soilborne fungal disease. Fungus interferes with water and nutrient uptake of roots. Keep the garden clean of plant debris and weeds that can harbor the fungus. Remove and destroy infected plants including soil around roots. Clubroot is found in acid soils; add lime if soil pH below 7.2. Rotate crops for at least 2 years. Purchase transplants from disease-free supplier.

• Leaves become dull yellow, curl, and plant may die. Cabbage yellows is caused by the Fusarium soil fungus that infects plants usually where the soil is warm. The disease is spread by leafhoppers. Remove infected plants. Control leafhopper. Keep the garden free of weeds which can harbor disease. Keep soil evenly moist, but not wet. Rotate crops. Plant resistant varieties: Early Snowball.

• Leaves yellow; plant stunted; small glistening white specks on roots. Cyst nematode is a microscopic worm-like animal that lives in the film of water that coats soil particles. Rotate cabbage family crops. Solarize the soil with clear plastic in mid-summer.

• Plant stunted; worms tunnel into roots. Plump grayish grub with brown head is the larva of the June beetle, a reddish brown or black hard-shelled beetle to 1 inch long. Wireworms are the soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles; they look like wiry-jointed worms. Check soil before planting; hand pick and destroy pests; flood the soil if wireworms are present. Remove infested plants and surrounding soil. Keep the garden free of refuse that could shelter beetle eggs.

• Leaves are yellowish and slightly curled with small shiny specks. Aphids are tiny, oval, whitish-green, pink, or black pear-shaped insects that colonize on leaves. They leave behind sticky excrement called honeydew which can turn into a black sooty mold. Remove with a blast of water. Use insecticidal soap solution. Mulch with aluminum foil to disorient aphids.

• Leaves have whitish or yellowish spots; leaves are deformed; plant wilts. Harlequin bugs or stink bugs. Harlequin are black with bright red yellow or orange markings. They suck fluids from plant tissue causing white and yellow blotches. Handpick and destroy bugs and egg masses. Keep garden free of crop residue and weeds where bugs breed. Spray plants wit Sevin, pyrethrum and rotenone. Stink bugs are gray or green shield-shaped bugs about ¼-inch long; they feed on fruits. Remove garden debris and weeds where bugs can overwinter. Hand-pick egg masses and bugs and destroy.

• Tiny shot-holes in leaves of seedlings. Flea beetles are tiny bronze or black beetles a sixteenth of an inch long. They eat small holes in the leaves of seedlings and small transplants. The larvae feed on roots of germinating plants. Spread diatomaceous earth around seedling. Handpick off plants, Cultivate often to disrupt life cycle. Keep garden clean. Spade garden soil deeply to destroy larvae in earl spring. Treat plants with Sevin, pyrethrum, or rotenone.

• Leaves partially eaten; leaves webbed together; eggs in rows on undersides of leaves. Cabbage webworms are green with a light stripe to ¾ inches long; the webworm is the larvae of a brownish yellow moth with gray markings. Larvae spin light webs. Clip off and destroy webbed leaves. Destroy caterpillars. Keep garden weed free.

• Leaves are eaten and plants are partially defoliated. Blister beetles are slender gray or metallic black beetles to ¾-inch long; they may have striped spots on their wings. Handpick beetles and destroy. Keep the garden weeds and debris. Cultivate in spring to kill larvae and interrupt the life cycle. Spray or dust with Sevin or use a pyrethrum or rotenone spray.

• Small holes in leaves; loose cocoons about ⅓-inch long on leaves. Pale green caterpillar is the larvae of the gray diamondback moth. Moth has yellow diamondback-shapes on folded wings. Keep garden free of weeds, particularly mustard plants. Handpick and destroy caterpillars. Spray with Bacillus thuringiensis is very effective.

• Large holes in leaves; leaves skeletonized. Cabbage loopers or armyworms. (1) Cabbage looper is a light green caterpillar with yellow stripes running down the back; it loops as it walks. Keep garden clean of debris where adult brownish night-flying moth can lay eggs. Cover plants with spun polyester to exclude moths. Pick loppers off by hand. Use Bacillus thuringiensis. Dust with Sevin or rotenone. (2) Armyworms are dark green caterpillars the larvae of a mottled gray moth with a wingspan of 1½ inches. Armyworms mass and eat leaves, stems, and roots of many crops. Armyworms will live inside webs on leaves. Handpick caterpillars and destroy. Cultivate after harvest to expose the pupae. Use commercial traps with floral lures.

• Leaves are chewed and slimed. Snails and slugs eat leaves. Collect these pests at night. Set beer traps at soil level to attract and drown snails and slugs.

• Leaves chewed; tunnels inside cabbage and cauliflower heads. Imported cabbage worm is a pale green caterpillar with yellow stripes to about 1¼ inches long; the adult is a white moth with two or three black spots on the forewing. Use Bacillus thuringiensis. Destroy all remains and weeds after harvest. Companion plant with mint. Encourage the predatory trichogramma wasp.

• Browning along margins of old leaves; water spots at core of plant; leaves are bitter and tough. Boron deficiency, often found in alkaline soils. Test soil. If deficient, add 2 ounces of borax per 30 square yards. Plant resistant varieties: Plant Wisconsin Ballhead, Wisconsin Hollander No. 8.

• Leaves and head become pale green; leaves wilt; slimy rot develops in stem, leaves, and head. Bacterial soft rot is caused by Erwinia bacteria. Water-soaked spots appear on leaves and roots; spots enlarge and turn dark and mushy. Black ooze develops in cracks in roots and stems. Rot can not be cured. Collect and burn infected plants Promote good drainage by adding aged compost and organic materials to planting beds. Avoid over-head watering. Rotate crops.

• Bolting; plants flower and go to seed. Cabbage will bolt prematurely if plants are exposed to 20 or more days with temperatures below 50°F; this can happen with cabbage planted to over winter. Protect young plants from cold; use horticultural cloth or cloches when temperatures are low. Don’t plant too early.

• Plants do not set heads or heading is poor. Overcrowding or dry soil. Give cabbage plenty of room to spread out; this will aid heading. Keep plants evenly moist.

• Leaves are pitted. Blowing soil particles can pit leaves and cause wart-like projections the size of a pinhead. Protect plants from blowing soil and sand with floating row covers or use windbreaks in large gardens.

• Margins of internal leaves turn brown. Tipburn is caused when leaves do not take up enough water. This can happen if there is a calcium deficiency in the soil. Test soil. Maintain consistent and even soil moisture. Mulch and cultivate only shallowly during drought. The soil pH should be between 6.0 and 7.0, add limestone which contains calcium if the pH is below 6.0.

• Heads split and crack. Too much water; too much nitrogen. Keep plants evenly moist; avoid wetting and drying soil. Do not overwater. If plants go dry, apply water slowly at first. Prune roots to slow uptake of water and slow growth; do this by turning the head a half turn to break off some of the roots and slow growth. Feed plants will aged compost; avoid nitrogen-rich fertilizers. Harvest plants when they are mature; do not allow them to sit too long in the garden.

Cabbage Growing Success Tips:

Planting. Grow cabbage in full sun in cool weather. Plant cabbage in well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. Add aged compost to the planting bed in advance of planting. Cabbage is most easily grown from transplants which are better able to withstand pests and disease. For small heads, space cabbage about 12 inches apart and harvest as soon as heads are the size of a softball. For larger heads, space plants from 18 to 24 inches apart.

Planting time. Cabbage is a cool-weather crop that grows best in spring and fall, when temperatures average between 60° and 70°F. Cabbage grows best when it comes to maturity in cool weather; however, long periods of temperatures below 50°F will cause cabbage to flower and go to seed. Grow cabbage in summer in cool-summer regions and in winter in mild-winter regions. Start cabbage indoors as early as 7 to 9 weeks before the last average frost date in spring; set transplants into the garden 1 to 3 weeks before the average last frost date. For a fall crop, set cabbage transplants in the garden 6 weeks before the first average frost date in fall; sow seed for a fall crop 12 weeks before the first hard frost.

Care. Keep cabbage evenly moist. Avoid allowing the soil to dry out; dry and wet and dry and wet periods will cause cabbage heads to either not grow well or to split and crack. Side dress cabbage with compost tea as soon as heads start to form; cabbage requires a steady supply of nitrogen. Rotate cabbage family crops on a regular basis; cabbage family crops share many of the same soilborne diseases. Use floating row covers to keep cabbage pests away from crops early in the growing season.

Harvest. Cabbage is ready for harvest as soon as heads are about the size of a softball and firm. A firm head to ready for harvest. Leafy cabbage such as napa cabbages and Asian cabbages can be cut when leaves are about 12 inches tall.

More tips: How to Grow Cabbage.

How to Tie a Tie: 6 Easy Tie Knots

Whether for business or social occasions, certain ensembles look better with a tie. Located underneath the shirt collar and knotted at the throat, a straight tie brings a level of professionalism and elegance to a suit, vest, or shirt and slacks. Although clip-on ties may seem like the easiest route, hand-tied straight ties are the most attractive option. With six tie knots to choose from, there’s something for every neck size and shirt style. If you prefer an easy knot, we suggest starting with the full Windsor. Our videos and simple instructions allow men and women to sport a polished tie in minutes. People should practice tying knots in front of a mirror for best results.

How to Tie a Full Windsor Knot

Featuring a polished triangular shape, the Windsor knot offers a good option for job interviews, presentations and social occasions. Because of its wide appearance, this knot looks best with a spread-collar shirt. Although it may appear complicated, tying the full Windsor knot is accomplished without much difficulty.

  1. To begin tying the full Windsor knot, raise the shirt collar and drape the tie around the neck, so the wide end is on the right side and extends about 12 inches below the narrow end.
  2. Cross the wide part of the tie over the narrow part.
  3. Pull the wide end up through the opening at the neck, then down.
  4. Pass the wide end underneath and to the right of the narrow part with the wrong side facing out.
  5. Cross the wide part over and to the left of the narrow part with the correct side facing out.
  6. Pull the wide end up through the opening at the neck.
  7. When bringing it down, pass it through the loop at the front.
  8. Holding the dangling parts with one hand, slide the knot carefully up toward the collar with the other hand until snug, then lower the collar.

How to Tie a Half Windsor Knot

The half Windsor knot offers a triangular and symmetrical shape for a classic presentation. Because it’s smaller than the full Windsor, it works best with wider, medium-weight ties and pairs well with any dress shirt. With a few simple instructions, the half Windsor knot comes together easily.

As with the full Windsor knot, begin the process by raising the shirt collar. Drape the tie around the neck so the wide end is on the right and extends roughly 12 inches below the narrow end.

  1. Cross the wide part over the narrow part.
  2. Cross the wide part behind the narrow part so the wrong side is facing out.
  3. Bring the wide end up and over to the left.
  4. Pull it through the opening at the neck so it lays wrong side out to the right.
  5. Bring the wide end over the narrow part from right to left with the correct side facing up.
  6. Bring the wide end up through the neck loop again.
  7. When bringing it down, insert it through the loop at the front of the collar.
  8. Adjust the knot by sliding it upward with one hand and holding the tails with the other.
  9. Lower the shirt collar to complete the look.

How to Tie a Four-in-Hand Knot

The four-in-hand knot works well for wide neckties in heavy fabrics. It looks most attractive when worn with a standard button-down dress shirt. With a few easy steps, people can tie the four-in-hand knot in a matter of minutes.

  1. To complete this knot, raise the shirt collar and drape the tie around the neck so the wide end is on the right side and extends roughly 12 inches below the narrow end.
  2. Bring the wide part of the tie across the narrow part.
  3. Then bring the wide part under the narrow part.
  4. Bring the wide side back over the top of the narrow part.
  5. Bring the wide side up through the large loop at the neck.
  6. With a loose hold on the knot, insert the wide end in a downward direction through the loop in front.
  7. Holding the bottom narrow part of the tie with one hand, slide the knot upward with the other until neat and snug. Lower the shirt collar to complete the look.

How to Tie a Trinity Knot

The Trinity knot offers a stylish look patterned after the Trinity symbol. With a more complex design than the Windsor and four-in-hand knots, tying the Trinity knot is a little more complicated, but it makes a fashion statement for formal functions.

  1. To tie the Trinity knot, raise the shirt collar and drape the tie around the neck with the wide edge hanging on the right side, just above the navel.
  2. Just below the collar, pinch the wide side of the tie long ways to form a dimple in the fabric.
  3. Take the thin part and cross it over the thick part.
  4. Bring the thin end up through the neck opening.
  5. Bring it back down toward the right side.
  6. Cross it under the thick part of the tie and to the other side, wrong side up.
  7. Bring the narrow end up.
  8. Pull it through the neck opening and toward the right to form a heart shape.
  9. Move it across the heart shape and bring it up through the neck loop.
  10. Pull it through the knot, keeping the top loop of the knot loose.
  11. Then move it behind the thick portion to the other side.
  12. Bring the now short end up and through the loose loop.
  13. Adjust the knot for tightness and symmetry and tuck the end under the neckline. Fold down the shirt collar for a finished look.

How to Tie a Pratt Knot

Also known as the Shelby knot, the Pratt knot offers a stylish look for any dress shirt. Because this knot is thinner than the Windsor knot, it works well when fashioned with lightweight to medium-weight ties. The Pratt knot requires just a few simple steps to master.

  1. To begin tying the Pratt knot, raise the shirt collar and drape the tie wrong side up with the wide end hanging on the right side roughly 12 inches lower than the narrow end.
  2. Cross the wide part of the tie under the narrow part.
  3. Bring the wide end up and loop it down through the opening at the neck and tighten.
  4. Cross the wide end to the right with the correct side up.
  5. Pull it up through the neck opening.
  6. Bring it down through the knot loop.
  7. Slide and adjust the knot gently and lower the shirt collar to complete the process.

How to Tie an Eldredge Knot

With its intricate design, the Eldredge knot makes a bold statement. While tying this knot involves a variety of steps, the process is not as complicated as it seems. While some knots are created with the wide portion of the tie, this knot is fashioned entirely from the narrow portion.

  1. To begin tying the Eldredge knot, raise the shirt collar and drape the tie so the wide end lays on the right side just below the navel.
  2. Pinch the thicker side of the tie near the collar to create a dimple long ways.
  3. Bring the thin part over the thick part of the tie.
  4. Bring the thin part under the thick part of the tie, wrong side up.
  5. Bring the thin part up toward the neck.
  6. Bring it down through the neck loop to the right, wrong side up.
  7. Going left, take it around the front of the knot.
  8. Take it up through the neck loop.
  9. Bring it back down to the right.
  10. Take it behind the wide part of the tie to the left, wrong side up.
  11. Take it across the front to the right and through the loop created in the previous step.
  12. Tighten the knot by pulling the narrow end to the right.
  13. Bring the end straight up and through the neck loop to the right of the knot.
  14. Again, bring it up, over the knot to the left of the knot.
  15. Keeping the knot loose, bring the short tail up to the right and through the loop just created.
  16. Pull to tighten.
  17. Tuck the end behind the neckline on the left. Lower the shirt collar for a smart and finished look.

Types of Necktie Accessories

Men or women who wear ties may wish to enhance function and fashion with tie accessories. People can choose from various types of tie accessories to keep ties in place and add a hint of style.

  • Tie bar: Slides across the middle section of the tie to keep it in place
  • Tie clip: Attaches to the same area by clipping into place
  • Tie tack: Features a pin, base and chain that help keep the tie from shifting
  • Tie chain: Features a bar and chain combination
  • Tie strap: Slips through the label on the tie’s back and attaches to shirt buttons

By presenting a polished look for work or social occasions, neckties enhance the wardrobe of men and women. Straight ties come in an array of patterns, colors and fabrics for every season and situation, and a variety of different tie knots keep them looking sharp.

Wearing a bow tie? Go here for step-by-step directions on how to tie a bow tie.

This article will show you how to tie a tie in 18 different ways.

Want to signal power?

What about trust in a business relationship? Or casual approachability?

One subconscious signal can give this.

The tie knot.

Why?

It’s a subliminal message that speaks to our attention to detail.

Don’t believe me?

Look at nearly every President. The full Windsor knot.

Look at less formal business outfits. The four-in-hand or half Windsor knot.

Each style sends a different message and suits a different shirt collar and neck. There are tie knots for tall guys, short guys, big guys and skinny guys.

Yet most men use one tie knot their entire lives.

I’m showing you 18 ways to tie a necktie, so you will be able to tie all the best tie knots – starting with the quickest and easiest tie knot, the Simple or Oriental Knot.

Learn how to tie a tie step by step:

The Simple Knot (Oriental Knot) Tying Instructions

Learn how to tie a tie: The Simple Oriental Knot:

  1. Drape the tie around your collar with the seam facing inward and the thick end on your left, two or three inches lower than your desired finishing position.
  2. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the narrow end, and then pass it back horizontally behind the narrow end.
  3. Pass the thick end again across the front of the knot from left to right.
  4. Now pass the thick end again behind the knot horizontally from right to left.
  5. Pass the thick end AGAIN across the front of the knot from left to right. Slip a finger under this third horizontal loop.
  6. Bring the tip of the thick end up underneath the loop around your collar and feed it up behind the knot, down over the front of the knot and through that third horizontal loop.
  7. Pull the thick end through the horizontal loop and snug it down.
  8. Adjust the tie by holding the knot in one hand and pulling gently on the narrow end with the other.

Now you know how to tie a necktie the easiest way… are you ready for a challenge?

Click any of these 17 knots to find out if it’s right for you and get step-by-step instructions.

  1. Four In Hand Knot
  2. Half Windsor Knot
  3. Full Windsor Knot
  4. Nicky Knot
  5. Bow Tie Knot
  6. Kelvin Knot
  7. Pratt Knot
  8. St Andrew Knot
  9. Balthus Knot
  10. Hanover Knot
  11. Plattsburgh Knot
  12. Grantchester Knot
  13. Victoria Knot
  14. Cafe Knot
  15. Eldredge Knot
  16. Trinity Knot
  17. Christensen Knot

1. Four In Hand Knot

Learn how to tie a Four In Hand Knot:

  1. Loop the tie around your collar. Thick end on the left, 3-4 inches lower than the thin end.
  2. Cross the thick end in front of the thin end.
  3. Wrap the thick end around behind the thin end and cross horizontally from right to left.
  4. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot from right to left. Slip a finger beneath this horizontal band.
  5. Turn the tip of the thick end upward and in, sliding it beneath the loop around your neck.
  6. Feed the thick end down through the loop you’ve held open with your finger.
  7. Pull the thick end all the way through the loop and snug the knot down tightly.
  8. Tighten the knot by holding it gently in one hand and tugging on the thin end with the other.

The four in hand knot is one of the most popular necktie knots for beginners learning how to tie a tie. Not only is it easy to learn, but it’s also one of the oldest – British horsemen are said to have invented it to tie scarves while holding the reins of four horses in the other hand.

This knot requires less of the tie’s length, making it a great choice for tall men trying to tie a regular length tie.

The narrower shape is perfect for narrow spread collars and button-down collar dress shirts.

2. Half Windsor Knot

Learn how to tie a Half Windsor Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the wide end on your right hanging down to your thigh and the thin end on the left at about your rib cage.
  2. Cross the wide end in front of the thin end from right to left, making an X-shape below your chin.
  3. Loop the wide end of the tie horizontally around and behind the thin end.
  4. Take the wide end over from the top and through the opening of the X and pull tight.
  5. Hold the wide end with your right hand and wrap it in front over the thin end, from your right to your left.
  6. Keeping the triangle intact with your left hand, bring the wide end towards your chest and from behind the loop, pass it over the X.
  7. Using the index finger of your left hand, open up the triangle that has now formed over the X and pull the wide end all the way through.
  8. To adjust the length, pull the knot up towards your collar while pulling the thin end of the tie down. You may need to adjust the horizontal loop to make sure it’s flat and even.

Along with the Four-In-Hand knot, the Half Windsor is most suited to guys just beginning to learn how to tie a tie.

This knot is the perfect choice for medium-width and thick ties. It is the most versatile and popular tie knot.

Because the half Windsor requires less of the tie’s length than the larger Windsor knot, it is also a great choice for big and tall men trying to wear a regular length tie.

3. Full Windsor Knot

Learn how to tie a Full Windsor Knot or Double Windsor Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the wide end on the right hanging 4-6 inches lower than your waistband.
  2. Cross the wide end horizontally in front of the slim end, making an X-shape just below your chin.
  3. Tuck the wide end up and beneath the loop around your neck, coming out point-upward behind the X. Use one finger to hold the X in place.
  4. Pull the wide end all the way down.
  5. Bring the wide end around behind the knot and pass it horizontally from right to left.
  6. Flip the wide end tip upward and tug it diagonally across the front of the knot.
  7. Loop the wide end over the top of the loop around your collar and bring it back down. It should emerge on the left of the thin end.
  8. Bring the wide end horizontally across the front of the knot, from left to right. This forms a horizontal band. Tuck a finger through it and hold it in place.
  9. Bring the wide end underneath the loop one more time, around the collar with the tip aiming upward.
  10. Turn the wide end downward and slide the tip through the horizontal loop you saved with your finger in step 8.
  11. Pull the wide end all the way down and smooth out any creases or slack in the knot.

When I’m asked how to tie a tie, the Full Windsor Knot is always mentioned. Also known as the Double Windsor, the Full Windsor has a large, triangular symmetric shape and is perfect for wide spread collars, and on men with a large neck.

Additional tie length is required for the Windsor knot because of the two wrappings. Tall men with a larger neck size will need a tie that measures between 61 – 64 inches.

4. Nicky Knot

Learn how to tie a Nicky Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam outward and the thick end on your left, about two inches lower than you want the finished position.
  2. Cross the thick end underneath the thin end, making an X-shape below your chin.
  3. Flip the thick end up in front of the loop around your collar, then tuck it down through the loop, emerging to the left of the thin end.
  4. Bring the tip of the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot. Slip a finger underneath the horizontal band you’ve just created across the front of the knot.
  5. Bring the tip of the thick end up and underneath the loop around your collar.
  6. Tuck the tip of the thick end down through the horizontal loop you created in Step 4.
  7. Pull the thick end all the way through the horizontal loop and snug it down.
  8. Adjust the knot as needed by holding it with one hand and pulling on the narrow end of the tie with the other.

5. Bow Tie Knot

Learn How To Tie A Bow Tie Knot:

  1. Start with the bow tie draped around your neck with the seams facing down and the right side longer than the left.
  2. Place the right end over the left end, making an X-shape just below the chin.
  3. Loop the longer end behind the ‘X’ to create a simple knot similar to the first knot while tying shoelaces. Pull tight and leave the longer end resting on your shoulder.
  4. Placing your index finger on the widest part of the curve of the shorter end, fold it to create a bow shape. Place the folded tip across your collar with the shorter end as close to your neck as possible.
  5. Holding the bow created above with the forefinger and thumb of your left hand, bring the longer end straight down over the shorter end in the middle of the bow.
  6. Using your right hand, fold the longer end back towards the chest, pinch the fold and double the tip over to make a wing.
  7. Tuck the folded tip of the longer end behind the folded tip of the shorter end and through the small loop you formed when you first passed it up behind the knot.
  8. With the wings in place, tug the loops behind them to tighten the vertical front knot.
  9. Hold the front of the knot down with one finger, and wriggle the wings until they’re symmetrical.
  10. Make final adjustments. Ensure your bow tie lies flat and horizontal against your collarbone. You’re done! Now you know how to tie a tie AND how to tie a bow tie.

6. Kelvin Knot

Learn how to tie a Kelvin Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam facing outward and the thick end on your left, hanging two to three inches lower than the desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end under the thin end from left to right, creating an X-shape under your chin.
  3. Bring the thick end back across the front of the knot from right to left. Continue wrapping it around the thin end and pass it back from left to right behind the knot.
  4. Next, bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot from right to left again. Slip a finger underneath the horizontal band this creates.
  5. Tuck the thick end upward underneath the loop around your collar.
  6. Bring the tip of the thick end down through the horizontal loop you created in Step 4 (but not the smaller one you created in Step 3).
  7. Pull the thick end all the way through the horizontal loop, snugging the knot down into place.
  8. Tighten the tie by grasping the knot with one hand and pulling gently on the narrow end with the other.

7. Pratt Knot

Learn how to tie a Pratt Knot:

  1. Drape the tie around your collar with its seam facing outward and the thick end hanging on your left, 1-2 inches lower than the desired finishing spot.
  2. Cross the thick end underneath the thin end – forming an X-shape below your chin.
  3. Pass the thick end through the loop.
  4. Pull the thick end all the way down and flip the tip so that it’s pointing to your left.
  5. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot (from right to left). Tuck a finger behind the horizontal band you’ve just created.
  6. Slip the thick end up through the loop from underneath.
  7. Point the tip of the thick end downward – directly on top of the narrow end.
  8. Pull the thick end down through the horizontal band. Snug it firmly into place.
  9. Adjust the necktie by grasping the knot with one hand while pulling on the narrow end gently with the other.

8. St Andrew Knot

Learn how to tie a St Andrew Knot:

  1. Drape the neck-tie around your collar with the seam facing out and the thick end on your left, two to three inches lower than the desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end horizontally beneath the thin end, making an X-shape under your chin.
  3. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the thin end.
  4. Continue looping the thick end around the thin end, passing it horizontally behind the back of the thin end from left to right.
  5. Flip the thick end vertically up and over the front of the knot, then tuck it back down behind the knot.
  6. Bring the thick end out and to the left of the thick end.
  7. Bring the thick end across the front of the knot from left to right. This will form a horizontal band. Slip a finger through it.
  8. Finally, bring the thick end up behind the knot and tuck it through the horizontal loop you made in Step 7.
  9. Pull the thick end all the way through and tighten the knot by grasping it with one hand and pulling carefully on the thick end with the other.

9. Balthus Knot

Learn how to tie a Balthus Knot:

  1. Drape a LONG tie around your neck with the seam upward and the thick end on your left. The thick end should hang at least to mid-thigh and the thin end to the center of the chest.
  2. Cross the thin end over the thick.
  3. Bring the thick end up in front, tuck it down behind the thin end and cross behind it.
  4. Bring the thick end back up in front and loop over the thin end, this time on the left side of the forming knot.
  5. Tuck the thick end down and across, finishing with it behind the thin end and to its right.
  6. Flip the thick end upward and loop it over the center of the knot.
  7. Now bring the thick end down behind the knot, crossing from right to left.
  8. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot, crossing from left to right.
  9. Bring the thick end behind the knot and upward. Leave a little looseness in the horizontal pass you just made.
  10. Tuck the thick end through this horizontal pass.
  11. Adjust by tugging gently down on the thin end while snugging the knot in place with your other hand. Ideally, the tie beneath the knot should be quite wide but still fall to your beltline.

The Balthus knot is highly recommended for any fancy events – make sure you wear it to those fine dining dinners, theater and art events.

10. Hanover Knot

Learn how to tie a Hanover Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam exposed and the thick end on your left, hanging 4-5 inches lower than the desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end under the narrow end from left to right, creating an X.
  3. Bring the thick end across the front of the narrow end from right to left. Hold on to the forming knot with one hand.
  4. Tuck the thick end up through the loop around your collar.
  5. Bring the thick end all the way down and tug it through. – but DON’T tuck it through the horizontal band you created in Step 4.
  6. Bring the thick end around from right to left, crossing behind the knot.
  7. Flip the thick end upward, passing diagonally in front of the center.
  8. Feed the thick end down through the loop, and let it emerge from behind the knot – hanging toward your right.
  9. Bring the thick end horizontally from right to left. This creates a second horizontal band. Slip a finger underneath this band.
  10. Next, bring the thick end upward, passing once more from underneath the loop around your collar.
  11. Bring the thick end down through the horizontal band and snug everything into place.

11. Plattsburgh Knot

Learn how to tie a Plattsburgh Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam exposed and the thick end on your left, 4-5 inches lower than the desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end of the tie underneath the narrow end to form an X. Hold on to that X and flip the tip of the thick end upward over the front of the loop around your collar.
  3. Tuck the thick end through the loop and bring it back toward your left side.
  4. Point the thick end upward.
  5. Bring the thick end back up in front of the loop – still staying to the left of the narrow end.
  6. Tuck the thick end down through the loop, emerging on your right.
  7. Bring the thick end horizontally across the front of the knot from right to left. Slip a finger under the horizontal band you just created.
  8. Tuck the thick end up through the loop around your collar from behind.
  9. Feed the thick end down through the horizontal band and snug it down firmly.
  10. Tighten by holding the knot with one hand and pulling on the narrow end with the other. Adjust the edges so it looks symmetrical.

12. Grantchester Knot

Learn how to tie a Grantchester Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam outward and the thick end on your left, 4-5 inches lower than your desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end underneath the thin end, forming an X.
  3. Wrap the thick end across the front of the thin end, going horizontally from right to left.
  4. Then wrap the thick end from left to right behind the thin end.
  5. Now wrap the thick end across the front from right to left. Use a finger to hold the horizontal band you’ve just made in place.
  6. Slip the thick end of the tie under the loop around your collar.
  7. Flip the thick end down and let it hang in front of the knot. Keep using your finger to hold the band in place.
  8. Wrap the thick end behind the knot from right to left.
  9. Wrap the thick end around the front of the knot from left to right and insert a finger under the horizontal band you’ve created.
  10. Bring the thick end through the loop around your collar from underneath.
  11. Feed the thick end down through the horizontal band, snug it down and tease the corners of the knot out into an even shape.

13. Victoria Knot

Learn how to tie a Victoria Knot:

  1. Drape the neck-tie around your collar with its seam inward and the thick end on your left, about 2-3 inches lower than your desired finishing position.
  2. Cross the thick end of the tie horizontally in front of the narrow end and then behind it.
  3. Pass the thick end across the front again from left to right.
  4. Pass the thick end behind the knot from right to left.
  5. Bring the thick end across the front a third time and slip a finger under the new horizontal band you’ve just created.
  6. Insert the thick end through the loop around your collar, coming from underneath it.
  7. Feed the thick end down through the horizontal band.
  8. Snug the thick end into place. Adjust by holding onto the knot with one hand and pulling gently on the narrow end with the other hand.

14. Cafe Knot

Learn how to tie a Cafe Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam facing inward and the thick end on your right, about a half an inch lower than you want the finished tie to hang.
  2. Cross the thin end over the thick end, forming an X. Then bring the thin end up through the loop you just formed, behind the X.
  3. Flip the thin end over the top of the knot.
  4. Bring the thin end behind the knot from left to right.
  5. Then bring the thin end across the front from right to left.
  6. Now bring the thin end behind the knot and up through the loop around your neck. This will leave a horizontal band across the front of the knot.
  7. Flip the thin end over the front of the knot so that it hangs down.
  8. Bring the thin end slightly to the left of the thick end, then fold it around behind the knot, passing from left to right.
  9. Bring the thin end up in front of the knot, pointing the tip upward and toward your left shoulder.
  10. Tuck the thin end through the loop around your collar, behind the rest of the knot and emerging on the left side of the thick end.
  11. Tug the thin end down firmly and take a moment to arrange the center of the knot. You want the diagonal legs to rise at the same angle, meeting squarely beneath your chin.
  12. Flip the thick forward and up. You can toss it over one shoulder.
  13. Turn the thin end point-upward and slip it through the single horizontal loop across the back of the knot.
  14. Pull the thin end all the way through the loop and snug it up tight.
  15. Flip the two ends of the tie back down.
  16. Tighten carefully by holding the knot in one hand while tugging on the thick end with your other.

The Cafe Knot is a difficult one. Don’t try it until you’re very familiar with the basics of how to tie a tie.

15. Eldredge Knot

Learn how to tie an Eldredge Knot:

  1. Drape the tie around your collar, with the thick end on the right exactly where you want it to hang when the knot is completed.
  2. Pinch the wide end of the tie to form a dimple and cross the thin end in front of the thick end as horizontally as possible.
  3. Wrap the thin end around behind the cross-shape, crossing horizontally from right to left.
  4. Tuck the thin end through the loop around your collar.
  5. Bring the thin end horizontally across the thick end.
  6. Tuck the tip of the thin end up through the loop around your collar and flip it over the top of the knot, crossing diagonally downward from left to right. Pull it down snug to form a diagonal band along the right side of the knot.
  7. Bring the thin end around behind the back of the knot and up through the diagonal band.
  8. Feed through and pull tight to create a diagonal band on each side.
  9. Aim the thin end of the tie straight upward, then tuck it down beneath the loop around your collar, emerging to the right of the knot.
  10. Loop the thin end of the tie up and around the circle around your collar. Leave a little bit of slack in this step.
  11. Tuck the tip of the thin end down and to the left, underneath the loop around your neck, and up through the loop you just created.
  12. Flip the thin end over the top of the loop around your collar.
  13. Tuck the remainder of the thin end out of sight, either behind the thick end or by sliding it horizontally under the loop around your neck. Tighten if needed by pulling the thick end and adjust each diagonal band to roughly the same width.

This is a very complex tie knot that says you REALLY know how to tie a tie… and you’re not afraid to show it off.

16. Trinity Knot

Learn how to tie a Trinity Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the seam facing inward and the thick end hanging on your right where you want the finished length of the tie to be.
  2. Cross the narrow end diagonally in front of the thick end, making an X, and tuck it up under the loop around your neck.
  3. Bring the narrow end back over the top of the loop.
  4. Pass the narrow end horizontally behind the thick end.
  5. Flip the narrow end over the top of the loop around your collar.
  6. Feed the tip of the narrow end down and out underneath the loop around your neck, on the far right side of the knot.
  7. Bring the narrow end horizontally across the front of the knot from right to left. Slip a finger underneath the horizontal band this creates.
  8. Bring the narrow end up underneath the loop around your collar and down through the horizontal band. Slide a finger underneath the narrow end just above the knot.
  9. Pass the narrow end around behind the thick end from right to left.
  10. Feed the tip of the narrow end up over the loop around your collar and through the small vertical loop you reserved in Step 8.
  11. Pull the narrow end all the way through the vertical loop, still angling diagonally upward and to your right, and snug it down.
  12. Pull all the slack out of the knot and adjust as necessary to make the three visible folds identical in size and angle. Hide the narrow end either behind the thick end or under the loop around your collar.

17. Christensen Knot

Learn how to tie a Christensen Knot:

  1. Drape the necktie around your collar with the thick end on the left. This end should be hanging a good four to six inches lower than the finished length you desire.
  2. Cross the thick end horizontally in front of the thin end from left to right.
  3. Bring the thick end around behind the thin end horizontally from right to left.
  4. Flip the thick end up in front of the loop around your collar.
  5. Tuck the thick end down behind the loop around your collar, emerging on the right side of the thin end.
  6. Bring the thick end in front across the earlier horizontal band and the diagonal you created in Step 5. Slip a finger under this new horizontal crossing.
  7. Bring the thick end around behind the knot from left to right.
  8. Bring the thick end across the front, right on top of the horizontal fold you made in Step 6. (Your finger should still be holding the fold open.) Keep both horizontal bands held slightly off the collar with a finger.
  9. Bring the thick end up underneath the loop around your collar.
  10. Tuck the thick end down behind both of the horizontal crossings and pull through.
  11. Pull the knot into place by holding the knot with one hand. Now tug gently on the thin end with the other. Use your finger to tease out the diagonal folds until the X shape of the knot is very clear.

Now that you know how to tie a tie knot, here’s an article on the 9 Necktie Styles Every Man Should Own.

How To Tie A Tie – Men’s Ties & Necktie Knots Illustrated Guide

If you’re still struggling to learn how to tie a tie, you can get a larger poster size image of the best 18 tie knots along with step-by-step instructions when you grab my bestselling Men’s Necktie Book on Amazon.

And there’s more… I don’t just show you all the cool ways to tie a tie and types of necktie knots, to view all of my Men’s Style Amazon Bestsellers!

Don’t own a kindle – !

tie up

From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishtie up phrasal verb1 person tie somebody ↔ upTIE to tie someone’s arms, legs etc so that they cannot move SYN bind The intruders tied Kurt up and left him.2 object tie something ↔ upTIE to fasten something together, using string, rope etc He tied up all the old newspapers.3 busy be tied upBUSY/NOT AVAILABLE to be very busy, so that you cannot do anything else I can’t see you tomorrow – I’ll be tied up all day.4 traffic/phone/court etc tie something ↔ upTTC especially American English to block a system or use it so much that other people cannot use it or it does not work effectively → tie-up Don’t tie up the phone lines making personal calls. Protesters tied up the traffic for three hours today. 5 money be tied upMONEY if your money is tied up in something, it is all being used for that thing and is not available for anything elsebe tied up in My money’s all tied up in the house.6 arrangements tie something ↔ upFINISH DOING something to finish arranging all the details of something such as an agreement or a plan SYN finalize We’d better tie up the details with a solicitor.7 be tied up with somethingCONNECTED WITH to be very closely related to something SYN be linked to The shortage of teachers is tied up with the issue of pay. 8 tie up loose endsFINISH DOING something to do the things that are necessary in order to finish a piece of work I need to tie up a few loose ends before I go on vacation.9 animal tie something ↔ up to tie an animal to something with a rope, chain etc SYN tethertie something ↔ up to She left the dog tied up to a tree. 10 boatTTW to tie a boat to something with a rope, chain etc SYN moor We tied up alongside a barge.tie something ↔ up There was a boat tied up at the jetty. → tie→ See Verb tableExamples from the Corpustie up• Clara tied up all the books again and put the bundle under the desk.• The soldiers tied them up and beat them.• Mrs Bennett had been tied up and left in the back of the van.• I put the coins in a piece of cloth, tied it up and put the package in my bag.be tied up• “May I speak to Professor Smithers?” “I’m sorry. He’s tied up at the moment.”• I’m sorry, he’s tied up at the moment. Could you call back later?• I can’t see you tomorrow, I’m tied up all day.• No point in fixing dates when television’s cameras are tied up elsewhere.• Its fixed-interest bond pays 11.50 percent net provided the money is tied up for at least 12 months.. Key move on cards.• Her hair was tied up in a hair net and the hat was removed and placed to the right of her chest.• Most of this is tied up in grants, salaries and existing programmes, some of them five years long.• The Tin Woodman and the Scarecrow are destroyed, and the Lion is tied up in your yard.• Our identity is tied up with being some one who never achieves these goals.• The others were tied up with sickness, special duties, leave and – a key problem – court attendance.• On completion day, the legal ends are tied up, you collect the keys and move into your new home. tie in• Her hair was tied up in a hair net and the hat was removed and placed to the right of her chest.• No more than 10 percent of total investment to be tied up in any one company. 2.• Her platinum hair, with its dark roots, was tied up in dozens of tiny pigtails.• Most of this is tied up in grants, salaries and existing programmes, some of them five years long.• Traffic was tied up in most of downtown Washington until early afternoon.• Our mental images of ourselves are tied up in our body image.• The Great Bane was tied up in the yard.• The Tin Woodman and the Scarecrow are destroyed, and the Lion is tied up in your yard.be tied up with something• The trouble is, he’s going to be tied up with all this now.• Our identity is tied up with being some one who never achieves these goals.• Christianity in Africa is tied up with its colonial past.• The others were tied up with sickness, special duties, leave and – a key problem – court attendance.• Some of these are tied up with the conception of crime itself; and will be dealt with in the next section.• For many, aspiration to higher things through promotion was tied up with the idea of a larger wage-packet.• Apart from that, everyone else is tied up with this extraordinary business at the Savoy. tie up loose ends• There are still a few loose ends to tie up before we have an agreement.• His new movie will tie up some of the loose ends from the last one. Business basics, Motor vehiclestie-upˈtie-up noun informal 1 BBAGREEan agreement to become business partnerstie-up with IBM’s tie-up with Auspex System Inc2 British EnglishCONNECTED WITH a strong connection between two or more thingstie-up between the tie-up between class interests and politics 3 American EnglishTTC a situation in which traffic is prevented from moving or there is a problem which prevents a system or plan from working → tie up1Examples from the Corpustie-up• It is also contemplating tie-ups with software houses or large user organisations abroad.• The eight-day tie-up has been an agreed method within the Community during the current year.• The Apple/IBM/Novell tie-up will result in Object Management Group-compliant technology drawn from existing internal projects.• Indeed the whole colour market is rapidly moving upwards beyond the reach of the amateur following Adobe’s tie-up with Scitex.• He may consolidate his position by entering into a merger of sorts with Carlton when the Government permits such tie-ups in 1994.• The tie-up could send a chill through Bill Gates since it gives Novell an interesting point of entry to the enterprise.• The tie-up with petrochemicals is logical.• frustrating traffic tie-ups From Longman Business Dictionarytie up phrasal verb 1tie ↔ something up to use money for something so that it is not easily available to be used for anything elseThese securities could be a good choice for investors who can afford to tie up their money for two to seven years.tie ↔ something up inHer cash is all tied up in real estate.The bank had too high a percentage of its assets, about 20%, tied up in one borrower. 2to use a telephone line so that it cannot be used for anything else or by anyone elseWith broadband, your phone line will never need to be tied up again.3be tied up to be very busy so that you do not have time to see someone or to do somethingI can’t see you tomorrow — I’m going to be tied up all day.4to finish arranging all the details of a contract, deal, or planOur sales team were able to tie up a new contract.5American English to block the movement of vehicles or people so that they cannot move freelyThere’s a free roadside service for stranded vehicles that tie up traffic. → tie→ See Verb tabletie-upˈtie-up noun COMMERCE an agreement to become business partnerstie-up withThe company says that a tie-up with a foreign major is now on the cards.

Cabbage leaf for migraine : Hi All… – National Migraine…

Hi All

Yesterday, I had the most awful migraine.

In order to get of it, I went out for a long walk in the park. It reduced quite a bit but did not completely stop.

When I got home, the migraine returned with force.

I read somewhere, that applying cabbage leaves to the forehead could alleviate migraine. It made sense to me. I used cabbage leaves to reduce mastitis whilst breastfeeding and it worked. Apparently, there is an enzyme in cabbage that reduces inflammation.

I then bought one from the local store. I put the cabbage in the fridge for half an hour and then placed some the leaves on my head and forehead. I then wrapped my head with a towel and had a lie down for around 45 minutes. In between relaxing, I drank lots of sips of water.

I am now migraine free. I don’t know how long this will last, but my head more clear than after taking lots of medication.

Maybe you would like to give it a try. It beats having side effects from prescription and over the counter medication.

What’s the best way to soften cabbage leaves?

CONNECTTWEETLINKEDINEMAILMORE

QUESTION: When making stuffed cabbage, how do you get the inner leaves soft? — Dorothy Casey, Detroit

ANSWER: When I think of stuffed cabbage, I remember how my late parents, Mary and Joe Selasky, made it. They would always boil the cabbage in a big white pot. Once the cabbage was tender, my mom would peel off the leaves, hold one in her hand and trim the thick rib or vein. If my parents were making a lot for a gathering, they would place the stuffed cabbage leaves in a big roaster where they simmered for hours. And when it came to the sauce, the only thing I remember is that my dad used ketchup because, he once told me, it already had other ingredients in it.

Over the years I’ve come across different tips and techniques for easily removing cabbage leaves from the head. It’s a question that comes up often.

But before we discuss the best ways to get the leaves pliable so they are easy to work with, we must first prep the cabbage. First, remove some of the loose outer dark green leaves. You can blanch those leaves and use them to line the bottom of your baking dish if you like. Next remove the cabbage core, cutting in a few inches deep, and trim away any tough stems/veins from the area around it.

You can chop those vein scraps of cabbage and set aside to be sautéed and tossed into the sauce.

Once you’ve removed the core, it’s time to remove the leaves. (But before you begin, it’s best to have your filling and sauce ready.)

The most common way to separate the leaves is to place the whole head of cabbage, hollowed out core side down, in boiling water, then reduce heat to a medium simmer for about 8 minutes. Try not to use too big a head of cabbage. A 3-pound cabbage works nicely and will yield a good amount of leaves. Also, have ready a bowl of ice water.

As the leaves become soft, loosen them from the head using tongs or two wooden spoons. From the pot, transfer the leaves to the bowl of ice water for about 30 seconds to stop the cooking. You want the leaves pliable, but still intact. Set the leaves on a clean kitchen towel or a baking sheet layered with paper towel to drain.

Another method of removing the leaves is to stick the head of the cabbage in the freezer overnight. The next day, take it out of the freezer and allow it to thaw. Freezing the cabbage, like most other vegetables, changes the texture so it becomes softer. This technique is perfectly fine if you don’t want to mess with a big pot of boiling water. When you are ready to thaw the cabbage, allow a few hours to do so.

I found several online sources that suggest removing raw cabbage leaves and blanching them in boiling water several at a time. This method (which I’ve never tried) works only if you can easily remove the leaves from the head of cabbage and not tear them apart.

Using different varieties of cabbage, such as savoy or even napa cabbage, is also an option. The raw leaves of savoy and napa cabbage are softer than those of regular green cabbage and easily separated. If you do choose to use either savoy or napa, they benefit from a brief blanch to make them even softer.

Below is a basic stuffed cabbage recipe adapted from several recipes. Feel free to adjust the seasonings as you like and use either regular or savoy cabbage leaves.

Stuffed Cabbage

Makes: About 16 / Preparation time: 1 hour / Total time: 21/2 to 3 hours

CABBAGE

1 medium head cabbage

11/2 to 13/4 pounds lean ground beef

1/2 cup uncooked quick-cooking (or parboiled) rice

1/2 cup finely chopped onion (sautéed if desired)

1 egg, lightly beaten

1 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon garlic powder

1/2 teaspoon black pepper

SAUCE

1 can (8 ounces) tomato sauce

2 tablespoons tomato paste

1/3 cup ketchup

2 tablespoons brown sugar

2 tablespoons white vinegar

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon pepper

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.

Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Remove core from the cabbage. Place cabbage in water, core side down. Reduce heat to simmer and cook 8 to 10 minutes. Start pulling away the leaves using tongs or wooden spoons. Remove the tough center vein from each leaf; reserve extra leaves and line a large baking dish with them. (If leaves are not pliable enough, return to simmering water 1-2 minutes to soften.)

In a large bowl, combine the meat, rice, onion, egg, salt, garlic powder and black pepper. Place about 1/4 cup of the meat mixture on each cabbage leaf. Roll toward the stalk, tucking in sides. Place rolls, seam side down, in a baking dish.

In a saucepan whisk together all the sauce ingredients until brown sugar is dissolved. Pour sauce over the rolls. Cover and bake at 350 degrees for 11/2 to 13/4 hours.

Adapted from several recipes and tested by Susan Selasky for the Free Press Test Kitchen. Nutrition information not available.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *