- Grow Annuals for Butterflies and Hummingbirds
- Our Top 9 Plants for Butterflies, Bees and Hummingbirds
- Butterfly Gardening In Zone 5: Hardy Plants That Attract Butterflies
- About Butterfly Gardening in Zone 5
- Hardy Plants that Attract Butterflies
- Additional Plants for Butterflies
- Beautiful Butterfly Garden Plan
- Season by Season
- Digging Deeper
- Attracting Butterflies
Grow Annuals for Butterflies and Hummingbirds
Annuals for Color and Attracting Hummingbirds, Butterflies, and Bees
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For people in the Northern US, annuals are tender perennials, only living for one growing season. Annuals flower throughout the season, whereas perennials sometimes provide color only at certain times during the season. One of the biggest benefits of growing annuals is that they give the gardener more options for color and scent, which will aid in attracting hummingbirds, butterflies, and/or bees.
Depending on the species and cultivar, annuals can be planted into the ground or into containers . I plant a lot of annuals in containers, giving me more flowers and color around the yard. I mainly plant annuals to attract hummingbirds, butterflies, and bees or just for the color. Sometimes the flowers of a plant will attract all three. Annuals that are planted in the ground will often become larger and flower sooner than those grown in a container.
Annuals can be plants that are mainly grown for the foliage, such as Coleus, which puts out color all over, even in the shade.
Lately, I’ve been leaving my annuals in their containers and not disturbing them until sometime the following spring, because some of them survive the winter and will put out new growth.
Here are some annuals to consider growing:
Porterweed (Stachytarpheta) attracts hummingbirds & butterflies.
Lantana attracts hummingbirds & butterflies.
Rose Leaf Sage (Salvia involucrata ‘Hidalgo’) attracts hummingbirds and bees.
Hybrid Rose Leaf Sage (Salvia ‘Mulberry Jam’) is a good salvia if you don’t have the space for the larger Rose Leaf Sages.
Hybrid Rose Leaf Sage (Salvia ‘Mulberry Jam’)
Posted by vic
Hybrid Sage (Salvia ‘Scarlet Spires’)is one of my favorites to grow!
Salvia (Salvia coerulea ‘Black and Blue’) is a great Salvia to attract hummingbirds. It’s widely available through mail order or local sources. The flowers are a beautiful blue color.
Salvia (Salvia coerulea ‘Black and Blue’)
Posted by Onewish1
Salvia (Salvia coerulea ‘Black and Blue’)
Posted by kosk0025
Belize Sage (Salvia pansamalensis) has very red flowers and attracts hummers.
Zinnias come in many different colors and sizes and are known to attract hummers, butterflies, and bees.
Zinnia (Zinnia elegans Zowie! Yellow Flame)
Posted by kqcrna
Zinnia (Zinnia elegans ‘Magellan Coral’)
Posted by Marilyn
Cuphea ‘David Verity’ Fuchsia (Fuchsia triphylla ‘Gartenmeister Bonstedt’) Blue Pimpernel (Lysimachia monellii subsp. monellii) are all wonderful, easy, and provide great color.
Brazilian Firecracker Vine (Manettia cordifolia) and Candy Corn Vine (Manettia luteorubra) if you have space for a climbing annual.
When it comes to annuals, truly, the choices are endless. Enjoy them in your garden this year!!
Our Top 9 Plants for Butterflies, Bees and Hummingbirds
It is always interesting and exciting to watch visitors, like birds, butterflies and bees, enjoying our gardens. Besides being fun to watch, they are also pollinators that are essential for the health of our gardens – especially our food producing plants and trees.
“We need to think of our gardens as habitats for birds, butterflies and bees.” says Jean, our perennial expert here at West Coast Gardens. “By using organic practices and choosing plants that attract pollinators we are supporting their populations and contributing to the overall health of our gardens.”
Here are some of Jean’s favourite plants that will attract pollinators year after year:
Though this meadow-like flower attracts both bees and butterflies, Milkweed is well known for being the only plant to sustain the Monarch Butterfly.
Attracts: Bees & Butterflies
Jean’s Pick: Asclepius Incarnata for its pink blooms and pointed leaves.
Butterfly Bush (Buddleia)
The butterfly bush is sure to attract the winged visitors of its namesake with its large conical flower clusters that last all summer long. New varieties of butterfly bush do not seed themselves and come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Attracts: Butterflies & Bees
Jean’s Pick: Buzz Skyblue for its blue colour and compact shape.
These leggy flowers add a touch of whimsy and a pop of colour to your garden.
Attracts: Bees & Butterflies
Jean’s Pick: Yellow Moonshine for its yellow flowers and silver foliage.
Catmint is related to Catnip, but much more showy, your feline friends will thank you for adding this drought resistant plant to your garden, and so will the butterflies and bees. Catmint blooms are purple-blue and long lasting.
Attracts: Bees & Butterflies
Jean’s Pick: Prussian Blue for its bright blue flowers and low maintenance.
This all-time-favourite flowering shade plant has glossy green leaves year round. In the spring Skimmia has large conical bunches of tiny flowers that give a sweet and sophisticated fragrance.
Jean’s Pick: Skimmia Red Princess – the female plants will produce gorgeous bright red berries in the presence of a male.
Lavender is the classic Mediterranean beauty whose flowers and foliage also smell fresh and fragrant.
Attracts: Butterflies & Bees
Jean’s Pick: Double Anouk or “Butterfly Lavender” for its full foliage and buds.
Million Bells (Calibrachoa)
Hummingbirds show a preference for trumpet shaped flowers and they love Calibrachoa – a colourful annual for the sun. Next time you are in the store, look up, and you’ll probably see them zooming overhead from basket to basket.
Jean’s Pick: A hanging basket full of Calibrachoa for its low maintenance and sheer volume of flowers.
Honeysuckle Vines (Lonicera)
The honeysuckle is a sweet smelling vine that is known to be a quick and easy grower.
Attracts: Bees, hummingbirds and songbirds.
Jean’s Pick: Lonicera Mandarin or Lonicera Major Wheeler for their warm multi-coloured blossoms.
Add a little bit of drama to your garden with Coppertips. They are hummingbird magnets and have been known to cause these passionate and territorial birds to get quite feisty in the garden.
Jean’s Pick: Crocosmia Lucifer for the cascades of bright red trumpet-like flowers.
Have you been able to capture a butterfly, bee or hummingbird in action while enjoying your garden? Share your image on facebook and tag #MYWestCoastGarden.
As you prepare your shopping list for the garden centre this year include plants which will attract wildlife to your garden. I am talking about the kind of wildlife that Canadians really WANT in their yard…. like butterflies, song birds and hummingbirds. The secret to attracting song birds, hummingbirds and butterflies to your garden is providing their favourite food and nectar-laden flowers in a sheltered, warm and sunny location. Plant material plays a large role in attracting butterflies and hummingbirds (and song birds too!). Your choice of plants should include lots of native species, if you want to maximize the value of them as ‘magnets’ to butterflies and hummingbirds. Native plants that work:
- Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower)
- Rudebeckia hirta (Black Eyed Susan)
- perennial Salvia
- liatrus (shooting star)
Before planting, amend existing garden soil with PREMIER® BIO-MAX® fully composted manure. PREMIER® BIO-MAX® Manure meets the guidelines of the Compost Quality Alliance (CQA) for certification. Add nutrients and improve the structure of your garden with the safer alternative that meets the highest quality standards.
are migratory. They pass through our gardens once in spring and again in late summer / early fall. Have a hummingbird feeder set up near your kitchen window so that you can see them easily from the indoors. Hummingbirds are attracted by visual cues. Look for bright-coloured red or orange perennials and annuals with ‘trumpet’ shaped flowers for the hummingbirds. Bright, trumpet-shaped flowers include:
- Coral bells
- Monarda (Bee Balm)
- Trumpet vine
- Honeysuckle (both the hardy shrub and the vine)
- Hibiscus (the tropical varieties, the hardy perennial and the ‘rose of Sharon’ woody shrub)
- Lavatera (annual)
- Rose mallow (annual)
- Hollyhock (biennial)
- All hostas
- Fuchsia (annual)
- Nicotiana (annual)
While hummingbirds are attracted to your garden visually, they will stay longer if the flowers used to attract them in the first place have a sweet fragrance. They are, after all, looking for nectar to feed on. Feed your flowering plants with Plant-Prod® Flowering Plant Fertilizer 15-30-15. This formulation should be used from the early stages of flower bud development through flowering when demand for phosphorous is high in the plant.
are attracted to your garden by scents in the first place. Flat, bold faced flowers are attractive to butterflies because they are easy to perch on. ‘Flat flowering’ plants that provide a nectar rich platform from which butterflies will feed include:
- Shasta daisy
- Queen Anne’s lace
- Butterfly Bush (Buddleia)
- Asters (perennial and annual)
- Echinacea (Purple Coneflower)
- Liatris (Blazing Star)
- Butterfly weed, and many others.
Plant lots of trees for nesting and protection for the birds, including hummingbirds. Use a mixture of deciduous and evergreen trees as both provide protection, food sources and shelter. Bright sunshine is favoured by most butterflies and hummingbirds in fine weather, but trees provide protection from wind and severe weather. Place lots of still water around the yard for drinking. Butterflies prefer drinking from shallow water. Bird baths work well. Empty them weekly to avoid mosquito breeding. Songbirds are attracted to plants that produce a seed head, for the most part. Their food preference is seeds: which is why we use a select, clean combination of seeds to attract them to our birdfeeders. Plants that attract songbirds later in summer and into the autumn, when the seed heads develop, include Beebalm, Echinacea , Globe Thistle, Sweet William and many ornamental grasses.
You can attract different types of birds to the yard by offering different mixes of seeds:
- Black oil sunflower seed. Black oil sunflower seed is the universal bird food in my opinion. More birds seem to like it and go out of their way for it than any other single type of bird food.
- Finch Blend. I love wild finches. They are small, colourful much of the year and active beyond belief! Finches prefer a mix of pure white millet, Red millet and canary seed plus Nyjer and sunflower hearts.
- Songbird Blend. This should be a combination of shelled peanuts, red millet, black oil and striped sunflower, cracked corn, White Millet, Red Millet, canary seed and unhulled sunflower seed.
– love peanuts in the shell. No sooner do I have the peanuts out there and they are calling one another to get over to Mark’s place – there is a feast in the making!! And in they fly. Be sure NOT to use the peanuts in the shell that you buy for human consumption! Avoid anything that has salt on it. With a little planning of your flower garden and investment in quality, Canadian produced bird seed blends; you can keep the wild birds coming to your yard year round! Just the right types of wildlife for most any gardener! Hummingbird feeders should provide easy access to the feeding station, a perch and most important –the ‘nectar’ that you put out for them should be refreshed each week. Otherwise the sugary liquid may go rancid. Place in an open area near a water source.
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Butterfly Gardening In Zone 5: Hardy Plants That Attract Butterflies
If you love butterflies and want to attract more of them to your garden consider planting a butterfly garden. Think plants for butterflies won’t survive in your cooler zone 5 region? Think again. There are many hardy plants that attract butterflies. Read on to find out about butterfly gardening in zone 5 and what plants will attract butterflies.
About Butterfly Gardening in Zone 5
Before you begin picking out plants for the butterflies, give some thought to their needs. Butterflies are cold blooded and need the sun to warm their bodies. To fly well, butterflies need body temperatures of between 85-100 degrees. So select a site for the zone 5 butterfly garden plants that is in the sun, near a sheltering wall, fence or stand of evergreens that will protect the insects from winds.
You might also incorporate some dark colored rocks or boulders into the zone 5 butterfly garden. These will heat up in the sun and give the butterflies a place to rest. When the insects can stay warm, they fly more, eat more and search for mates more often. Hence, they lay more eggs and you get more butterflies.
Commit to not using pesticides. Butterflies are extremely susceptible to pesticides. Also, Bacillus thuringiensis kills both moth and
butterfly larvae, so even though this is a biological pesticide, it should be avoided.
Hardy Plants that Attract Butterflies
Butterflies go through four life cycles: egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Adults feed on the nectar of many types of flowers and larva feed mostly on the leaves of a more limited variety. You may want to plant both plants that attract the adult insects and those that will sustain the larvae or caterpillars.
Many butterfly plants also attract hummingbirds, bees and moths. Consider blending native and non-native plants in the butterfly garden. This will broaden the number and type of butterflies that visit. Also, plant large groupings of flowers together, which will attract more butterflies than just a plant here and there. Choose plants that bloom on a rotating basis throughout the season so the butterflies have a continuous source of nectar.
There are some plants (like butterfly bush, coneflower, black-eyed Susan, lantana, verbena) that are virtual butterfly magnets, but there are many others that are equally attractive to one species or more. Mix annuals in with perennials.
Perennials for butterflies include:
- Bee balm
- Red valerian
- Joe-Pye weed
- Obedient plant
Annuals that can be tucked in amongst the above perennials include:
- Mexican sunflower
These are only partial lists. There are many more butterfly attractive plants like azalea, blue mist, buttonbush, hyssop, milkweed, sweet william…the list goes on.
Additional Plants for Butterflies
While you’re planning your butterfly garden, be sure to incorporate plants for their offspring. Black Swallowtail caterpillars seem to have a rather human palate and prefer to dine on carrots, parsleyand dill. Wild cherry, birch, poplar, ash, apple trees and tulip trees are all favored by Tiger Swallowtail larvae.
Monarch offspring prefer milkweed and butterfly weed and the larvae of the Great Spangled Fritillary prefer violets. Buckeye butterfly larvae grub on snapdragonswhile Mourning Cloak nibbles on willowand elm trees.
Viceroy larvae have a yen for fruit from plumand cherry trees as well as pussy willows. Red spotted purple butterflies also prefer trees such as willows and poplars, and Hackberry butterfly larvae feed on hackberry, of course.
Beautiful Butterfly Garden Plan
Encourage beautiful butterflies to visit your garden by following this butterfly garden plan. Check out the detailed illustrations for an easy-to-follow guide.
By Nancy J. Ondra
If you have little to no gardening experience, but want to add color and texture to your yard, turn to Nancy J. Ondra’s new book Five-Plant Gardens (Storey Publishing, 2014). In this excerpt, from the chapter “Five-Plant Gardens for Full Sun to Partial Shade,” Ondra shows you how to create a beautiful butterfly garden with detailed illustrations. Find another gorgeous garden plan here: Amazing Rain Garden Plan.
You can purchase this book from the Mother Earth Living store: Five Plant Gardens
Any time you plant flowers in your yard, you increase the chances that butterflies will visit your yard to check them out. But if you really want to draw in these “floating flowers” and encourage them to linger longer, planting a garden filled with their favorite food sources is the way to go. Butterflies are especially fond of blooms that are made up of many small blossoms, such as daisy-form flowers, which are packed with nectar and pollen for the adults to eat. It’s also smart to include perennials with leaves that the caterpillars like to feed on, so you’re supporting the next generation, too.
Illustrations by Beverly Duncan
Full sun to partial shade; Average soil
1. Swamp Milkweed
• Asclepias incarnata: 3 plants
• Zones 3 to 9
• ALTERNATES: Another 3- to 4-foot-tall perennial with pink, butterfly-attracting flowers, such as ‘Marshall’s Delight’ or other pink-flowered bee balm (Monarda) or ‘Little Joe’ Joe-Pye weed (Eupatorium dubium)
2. ‘White Swan’ Purple Coneflower
• Echinacea purpurea: 6 plants
• Zones 3 to 8
• ALTERNATES: Another 30- to 40-inch-tall perennial with white, butterfly-attracting flowers, such as ‘David’ phlox (Phlox paniculata) or ‘Black Ace’ turtlehead (Chelone glabra)
3. ‘Little Spire’ Russian Sage
• Perovskia: 2 plants
• Zones 5 to 9
• ALTERNATES: Another 3- to 4-foot-tall perennial with blue, butterfly-attracting flowers, such as globe thistle (Echinops ritro) or ‘Longwood Blue’ blue mist shrub (Caryopteris × clandonensis)
4. ‘Coronation Gold’ Yarrow
• Achillea: 3 plants
• Zones 3 to 8
• ALTERNATES: Another 2- to 3-foot-tall perennial with yellow, butterfly-attracting flowers, such as ‘Prairie Sun’ Gloriosa daisy (Rudbeckia hirta) or ‘Sonnenschein’ Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum × superbum)
5. ‘Butterfly Blue’ Pincushion Flower
• Scabiosa: 5 plants
• Zones 3 to 8
• ALTERNATES: Another 1- to 2-foot-tall perennial with blue or purple-blue, butterfly-attracting flowers, such as ‘Kit Cat’ catmint (Nepeta × faassenii) or English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Season by Season
Spring: Along with lots of leafy growth, this garden offers some blooms for early arriving butterflies. The orange-centered white daisies of ‘White Swan’ purple coneflower may appear by mid spring in mild climates, and the lavender-blue blooms of ‘Butterfly Blue’ pincushion flower may begin in late spring.
To get your butterfly garden ready for the growing season, cut down any dead or winter-damaged stems and leaves on the swamp milkweed, coneflower, yarrow, and pincushion flower in early to mid spring. This is also the time to divide any of those perennials if they were starting to outgrow their space last year. Wait until the ‘Little Spire’ Russian sage starts growing; then, cut it back to about 6 inches. Apply a fresh layer of organic mulch around all of the plants.
Summer: ‘White Swan’ purple coneflower is generally in peak bloom in early to midsummer in southern gardens and in mid to late summer in northern regions. The golden yellow clusters of ‘Coronation Gold’ yarrow and lavender-blue ‘Butterfly Blue’ pincushion flower appear throughout the summer. Pink swamp milkweed usually joins the show in mid to late summer. In southern gardens, the ‘Little Spire’ Russian sage is in full bloom in early to midsummer; in northern gardens, the peak flowering period is usually mid to late summer.
Throughout the summer, clip off the faded flowers, if desired; it helps to keep the garden looking tidy and can extend the bloom period on the coneflower and pincushion flower. Cut back the Russian sage by about half if it gets floppy in midsummer. Water the garden during summer dry spells.
Fall and Winter: ‘Butterfly Blue’ pincushion flower continues to flower into fall, along with some rebloom possible on the ‘White Swan’ purple coneflower and ‘Coronation Gold’ yarrow. These plants also offer attractive seed heads for winter interest. The leaves of yarrow and the pincushion flower can stay green through the winter.
Stop clipping off the faded flowers in early fall (or even late summer) if you want the seed heads for winter, and wait until spring to clean up the frost-killed tops. Otherwise, it’s fine to cut down the dead stalks of the swamp milkweed, coneflower, yarrow, and pincushion flower in late fall.
This simple rectangular garden could work well in just about any spot: at the base of a lamppost, in a sunny corner, or on either side of a gate, arbor, doorway, or set of steps. Repeat the plan end to end as many times as needed if you want to extend it as a foundation planting around your house or an edging for a path or driveway. A site that’s sheltered from strong wind is ideal, because strong breezes make it tough for butterflies to land and feed on your flowers.
There’s little need for insecticide sprays in flower gardens, because perennials that are basically healthy and vigorous can withstand a fair bit of insect damage with no permanent harm. Avoiding pesticides (even organic ones) is especially important in butterfly gardens, because you don’t want to harm the very creatures you’re trying to attract. If you find caterpillars chewing on the leaves here, it’s cause for celebration, not worry!
Milkweeds (Asclepias) are a favorite food source for the larvae of monarch butterflies (queen butterflies, too), but they’re not the only perennials that provide food for butterfly larvae. Some other great “host plants” include asters (Aster), coreopsis (Coreopsis), false indigos (Baptisia), hollyhocks (Alcea), and turtleheads (Chelone).
Use an Amazing Rain Garden Plan, also from Five-Plan Gardens, to reduce stormwater runoff and your water bills.
Excerpted from Five-Plant Gardens (c) Nancy J. Ondra. Photography by (c) Rob Cardillo. Photo styling by Nancy J. Ondra. Illustrations by Beverly Duncan. Used with permission of Storey Publishing. It may not be reproduced for any other use without permission. Purchase this book from our store: Five Plant Gardens.
The Butterfly Garden
Design Tips, Vignettes
The Butterfly Garden Design by Kelly Schroeder.
There is something special about watching a butterfly flit from flower to flower and by selecting the right plants and providing a couple of key things, you can attract these gossamer guests into your garden.
Find a bright, sheltered corner to tuck this garden into and provide a small water feature such as a bird bath or even a decorative bowl of water set into the garden. The plants listed not only attract butterflies, but some have attractive foliage colour providing interest from early spring through autumn.
While you’re at it, include a small bench or chair nearby so that you can dream away sunny hours in your own little meadow.
PLANTS USED FOR THIS GARDEN ARE:
- Echinacea Mango Meadowbrite™ – Zone 4
- Echinacea purpurea Doubledecker – Zone 3
- Saliva nemorosa ‘Caradonna’ – Zone 3
- Tradescantia ‘Blue and Gold’ a.k.a. ‘Sweet Kate’ – Zone 3
- Polemonium reptans ‘Stairway to Heaven’ – Zone 3
- Gaillardia ‘Fanfare’ – Zone 5
- Sedum rupestre ‘Angelina’ – Zone 3
OR SUBSTITUTE WITH:
- Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’ – Zone 3
- Phlox paniculata ‘Sherbet Cocktail’ – Zone 4
- Veronica ‘Purpleicious’ – Zone 3
- Origanum vulgare ‘Aureum’ – Zone 4
- Heuchera ‘Tiramisu’ – Zone 4
- Sedum ‘Xenox’ – Zone 3
- Teucrium chamaedrys ‘Summer Sunshine’ – Zone 4
Brightly colored butterflies can be a welcome addition to your wildlife garden, not only because of their beauty, but also because of their usefulness in pollinating flowers.
Attracting butterflies involves incorporating plants that serve the needs of all life stages of the butterfly. The insects need places to lay eggs, food plants for their larvae (caterpillars), places to form chrysalides and nectar sources for adults.
When you create a pollinator garden and certify it with National Wildlife Federation, it also counts towards the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge.
Butterfly Garden Necessities
- Plant native flowering plants – Because many butterflies and native flowering plants have co-evolved over time and depend on each other for survival and reproduction, it is particularly important to install native flowering plants local to your geographic area. Native plants provide butterflies with the nectar or foliage they need as adults and caterpillars. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center has lists of recommended native plants by region and state.
- Plant type and color is important – Adult butterflies are attracted to red, yellow, orange, pink and purple blossoms that are flat-topped or clustered and have short flower tubes.
- Plant good nectar sources in the sun – Your key butterfly nectar source plants should receive full sun from mid-morning to mid-afternoon. Butterfly adults generally feed only in the sun. If sun is limited in your landscape, try adding butterfly nectar sources to the vegetable garden.
- Plant for continuous bloom – Butterflies need nectar throughout the adult phase of their life span. Try to plant so that when one plant stops blooming, another begins.
- Say no to insecticides – Insecticides such as malathion, Sevin, and diazinon are marketed to kill insects. Don’t use these materials in or near the butterfly garden or better, anywhere on your property. Even “benign” insecticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, are lethal to butterflies (while caterpillars).
- Feed butterfly caterpillars – If you don’t “grow” caterpillars, there will be no adults. Bringing caterpillar foods into your garden can greatly increase your chances of attracting unusual and uncommon butterflies, while giving you yet another reason to plant an increasing variety of native plants. In many cases, caterpillars of a species feed on only a very limited variety of plants. Most butterfly caterpillars never cause the leaf damage we associate with some moth caterpillars such as bagworms, tent caterpillars, or gypsy moths.
- Provide a place for butterflies to rest – Butterflies need sun for orientation and to warm their wings for flight. Place flat stones in your garden to provide space for butterflies to rest and bask in the sun.
- Give them a place for puddling – Butterflies often congregate on wet sand and mud to partake in “puddling,” drinking water and extracting minerals from damp puddles. Place coarse sand in a shallow pan and then insert the pan in the soil of your habitat. Make sure to keep the sand moist.
Common Butterflies and the Plants Their Caterpillars Eat
- Acmon Blue – buckwheat, lupines, milkvetch
- American Painted Lady – cudweed, everlast
- Baird’s Swallowtail – dragon sagebrush
- Black Swallowtail – parsley, dill, fennel, common rue
- Coral Hairstreak – wild black cherry, American and chickasaw plum, black chokeberry
- Dun Skipper – sedges, grasses including purpletop
- Eastern Tiger Swallowtail – wild black cherry, ash, tulip tree, willow, sweetbay, basswood
- Giant Swallowtail – prickly ash, citrus, common rue, hoptree, gas plant, torchwood
- Gray Comma – gooseberry, azalea, elm
- Great Purple Hairstreak – mistletoe
- Gulf Fritillary – maypops, other passion vines
- Henry’s Elfin – redbud, dahoon and yaupon hollies, maple-leaved viburnum, blueberries
- Monarch – milkweeds
- Painted Lady (Cosmopolite) – thistles, mallows, nievitas, yellow fiddleneck
- Pygmy Blue – saltbush, lamb’s quarters, pigweed
- Red Admiral/White Admiral – wild cherries, black oaks, aspens, yellow and black birch
- Silver-Spotted Skipper – locusts, wisteria, other legumes
- Spicebush Swallowtail – sassafras, spicebush
- Sulphurs – clover, peas, vetch, alfalfa, asters
- Variegated Fritillary – passion flower, maypop, violets, stonecrop, purslane
- Viceroy – willows, cottonwood, aspen
- Western Tailed Blue – vetches, milkvetches
- Western Tiger Swallowtail – willow, plum, alder, sycamore, hoptree, ash
- Woodland Skipper – grasses
- Zebra Swallowtail – pawpaw