- Brunera keeps dying
- Brunnera Plants: How To Plant Brunnera Siberian Bugloss
- About Brunnera Plants
- How to Plant Brunnera
- Blue in the Shade
- Brunnera macrophylla ‘Silver Heart’ (Siberian bugloss ‘Silver Heart’)
- Create your free Shoot garden
- How to care
- Get access to monthly care advice
- Where to grow
- Jack Frost Brunnera
Brunera keeps dying
Without knowing the disease, I can’t give a definitive answer. However, most (but not all) pathogens are species-specific. So if you plant another species, you are unlikely to have the same disease.
I have searched extensively and this is only problem I can find with this plant. But from the pictures it is hard to see if there is evidence of nematodes.
Is ‘Jack Frost’ Brunnera a perfect plant for the shade? Well, almost—one problem that frequently plagues ‘Jack Frost’ is foliar nematode. Symptoms generally appear in mid-summer. Triangular brownish-black blotches appear between the veins of the foliage, leaving the leaves looking scorched and desiccated. The presence of foliar nematodes can be confirmed by harvesting several leaves, shredding them, and soaking them in a jar of lukewarm water for 12 to 24 hours. The nematodes move into the water and are visible with a compound or dissecting microscope. Look for very small, translucent roundworms swimming in the water. It may take a few minutes to recognize the nematodes because they are clear, but once you do, it is a relatively simple diagnosis. You can also call your local county extension office for information.
Unfortunately, there is no product available to completely control the nematode. Foliar nematodes feed within the plant tissue, and in moist conditions will spread to other nearby herbaceous plants. The best solution is to purge any infested plants from the garden. Since you have replaced this plant multiple times, I would replace again with a different species and see how that goes.
I hope this information is helpful.
Brunnera Plants: How To Plant Brunnera Siberian Bugloss
Blooming, growing brunnera is one of the prettiest plants to include in the shady garden. Commonly called false forget-me-not, petite blooms compliment attractive, glossy foliage. Brunnera Siberian bugloss is also called heartleaf brunnera because of the shape of its leaves. It is an herbaceous perennial, dying back in winter.
About Brunnera Plants
The light blue blooms of brunnera plants rise above the leaves of various cultivars. Brunnera plants have leaves that are glossy green or in variegated hues of gray, silver or white, such as the popular cultivar ‘Jack Frost.’ Brunnera Siberian bugloss blooms in early to mid spring.
When growing brunnera, locate the plant in part to full shade, in well-drained soil that can be kept consistently and lightly moist. Brunnera plants don’t do well in soil that dries out, neither will they flourish in soggy soil.
Plant care for Brunnera macrophylla will include watering to maintain soil moisture and providing good drainage to assure that roots of brunnera plants do not sit in soggy soil. Growing brunnera reaches 1 ½ feet in height and 2 feet across and grows in a small mound.
How to Plant Brunnera
Brunnera blooms may self-seed and readily sprout from seeds dropped the previous year. If so, dig small seedlings and replant into areas where more growing brunnera is desired. You may also collect seeds from brunnera plants and replant them or plant newly purchased seeds or small plants. Division of existing plants is another means of propagation.
The plant easily thrives in USDA Hardiness zones 3-8, when conditions are right. Brunnera plants prefer rich soil. When growing brunnera in the hottest zones, avoid planting where it gets hot afternoon sun. Brunnera, especially the ones with variegated leaves, are sensitive to sun and may burn.
Now that you’ve learned how to plant brunnera and a little about plant care for Brunnera macrophylla, try it in the shady garden or use it to help naturalize a wooded area. You’ll find this easy-care plant is an asset to any shady area.
Blue in the Shade
- By Susan Martin
- April 2018 – Vol.4 No. 4
Studies have consistently shown that blue is the most preferred color the world over. Based on a 30,000 person survey in 2017 canvassing 100 countries, the world’s favorite color was declared to be a particular shade of greenish-blue. In the garden, blue blends pleasingly with different shades of green foliage and can be used effectively in combination with both warm and cool hues.
Although there are many sun-loving blue flowers, it is not as easy to find blue flowers that thrive in shade. The Boraginaceae (borage) family, however, gives us several beauties, four of which are described below. In addition to their striking blue color and shade tolerance, these plants are deer and rabbit resistant as well!
Myosotis sylvatica: Meneerke bloem, Wikimedia Commons
Myosotis, commonly called forget-me-not, has a beautiful sky-blue flower. Native to Europe, this perennial can also be found throughout eastern and western North America, where it is an introduced species. It grows in many types of habitat, including disturbed areas such as roadsides. It flourishes in organically–rich, consistently moist-to-wet soils in full sun to part shade. In fact, this plant grows so easily that it is sometimes considered invasive. M. scorpiodes spreads by creeping roots, but will also self-seed. The common forget-me-not of borders and woodland gardens is M. sylvatica. Although technically a short-lived perennial, this plant is often grown as a biennial by planting seed in the ground in mid-summer for bloom the following year. It is also often grown as an annual by starting seed indoors about 8-10 weeks before the last spring frost date for bloom the same year. Forget-me-not is sometimes subject to mildew and rust. Although this plant offers a beautiful blue, those who want a plant that is not potentially invasive might consider the perennial, Brunnera macrophylla, commonly called false forget-me-not.
Brunnera macrophylla is commonly called Siberian bugloss or, because of its small forget-me-not flowers of light blue with yellow centers, false forget-me-not. The blooms appear in April to May in airy, branched racemes rising well above the foliage on slender stems to 18″tall. The perennial is primarily grown in shady areas for its attractive heart-shaped, dark green, basal foliage. The basal leaves form a foliage mound (1.0’-1.5’ by 1.5’-2.5’) which remains attractive throughout the growing season. Smaller upper leaves are elliptic.
Brunnera macrophylla:Vauban at Polish Wikipedia
B. macrophylla grows easily in average, medium moist, well-drained soil in part shade. The plant prefers cool summers and grows best in USDA Zones 3-7. In Virginia, it needs to be protected from bright sun and does best in part-shade or filtered sunlight. Clumps slowly spread by creeping rhizomes, persistent underground stems that store energy collected during the plant’s brief growing season. Plants may self-seed in optimum growing conditions, but seedlings of variegated forms may not come true (may lose variegation). Remove ragged foliage in late fall and snip off the spent flower stalks in early summer to keep this plant looking its best. Divide plants in spring or start seeds in a cold frame in early spring. Slugs and snails can sometimes be a problem.
- ‘Jack Frost’ grows in a mound (1.0’-1.5’ by 1.0’-1.5’). Its distinctive silvery white leaves have green primary and secondary veins and a thin green rim around the leaf edges. Its bright blue forget-me-not flowers add dazzle to the garden in spring, and the silvery leaf sheen continues to brighten shaded spots throughout the season. This cultivar is the 2012 Perennial Plant Association’s Plant of the Year and is prized for its improved tolerance of heat and sun.
- ‘Looking Glass’ is a sport of the cultivar B. macrophylla ‘Jack Frost’ and grows to a little more than a foot tall and almost as wide. ‘Looking Glass’ is distinguished from ‘Jack Frost’ by having less green-veining on its heart-shaped leaves as they mature to an almost glowing silver color. Delicate blue flowers emerge in spring. Drought tolerant once established, this cultivar requires little watering and is fairly resistant to pests.
B. macrophylla ‘Looking Glass’: Terranova Nurseries
What is a sport?
In the plant world, a sport is a genetic mutation resulting from a faulty chromosomal replication. This causes a segment of the plant to be distinctly different from the parent plant in both appearance (phenotype) and genetics (genotype). The genetic change is not a result of unusual growing conditions; it is an accident, a mutation. In many cases the new trait can be handed down to the organism’s offspring.
Another beautiful spring bloomer that thrives in shade to part-shade is Pulmonaria, commonly called lungwort. This plant has been christened with a variety of other colorful names including: Bethlehem sage, Jerusalem cow lip, spotted dog, and soldiers and sailors. Hailing from a native range encompassing much of Europe and into Russia, lungwort is sensitive to toxins, and so is typically found in unpolluted areas. Lungworts are promiscuous plants that self-pollinate and hybridize. As a result, there are many named cultivars, often with little to tell them apart. Because so many similarities exist, extending to plants in the wild, botanists’ calculations of the number of species in existence vary from 12-18 species. P. officinalis (the second word indicates medicinal use) has been one of the most commonly used species in cottage gardens. Many of the newer hybrids exclude this species because it is so mildew-prone.
Pulmonaria officinalis: Pharoah Hound at the English language Wikipedia
The rough leaves, covered with hairy fuzz, are spotted, speckled, or blotched with silver. This striking coloration continues to add interest after the spring bloom has ended. Flower buds are usually pink, while the funnel-shaped flowers turn to blue, purple, pink, red or white after they mature, adding a flashy, two-toned color effect to the flower clusters. There are many newer cultivars and hybrids, such as ‘Apple Frost’ (rose-colored flowers that fade to violet-blue), ‘Trevi Fountain’ (large royal-blue flowers), and ‘Raspberry Splash’ (raspberry-pink flowers). Lungwort does best in shady or semi-shady conditions, requiring more moisture as the light increases. It tends to wilt in afternoon sun and may even go dormant during a drought. Ideally, it enjoys a moist, well-drained spot in the garden, with a little early morning sun but protection from hard, afternoon sun. Amending the garden soil with compost increases moisture retention and improves plant growth. When happy, lungwort spreads easily through rhizomes. It will also self-seed, although as is typical of hybrid origins, seedlings are not always similar in appearance to the parents. Plants can be divided in early spring or in fall. The leaves attract slugs, who apparently don’t mind a little rough fuzz on their salad greens! Powdery mildew might also be a problem in hot, humid conditions. Cut off the flowers after they’re done blooming, and trim back the leaves as they begin to decline. It is good practice to dispose of the leaves rather than adding them to the compost heap due to their susceptibility to mildew. This pruning will help revive the plant as it flags in the heat of midsummer.
How did such a beautiful plant acquire such an unusual name? The genus Pulmonaria comes from the Latin word for lung, pulmo. In the 16th century, a theory known as the Doctrine of Signatures purported that plants resembling certain human physical attributes were beneficial to the part of the body they resembled. This was a widely accepted theory, and people thought that the leaves of the lungwort resembled diseased lung tissue. The leaves were boiled like a tea and used to treat bronchial infections and pulmonary diseases.
Mertensia virginica, Virginia bluebells, is a hardy, early spring-flowering perennial native to North American moist woodlands. Other common names include: Virginia-cowslip, Roanoke-bells, and oysterleaf.
Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells: Catie Drew
This erect, clump-forming plant grows 1-2’ tall and has delicate, terminal clusters of light pink buds that open to flared, trumpet-shaped blue flowers. As early as 1776, Thomas Jefferson noted in his garden book “a bluish colored, funnel-formed flower in lowgrounds in bloom.” The flowers contain five petals fused into a tube, five stamens, and a central pistil (carpel). The stamens and stigma are spaced too far apart for self-fertilization. The funnel-shaped flower attracts long-tongued bees, sphinx moths, butterflies and ruby-throated hummingbirds. Both the stems and the leaves of Virginia bluebells are smooth, while most borage family members have hairy leaves. The gray-green, oval, somewhat floppy leaves grow 6-8” long and die back to the ground when the woodlands start to leaf out. Because the plant goes dormant, it should be overplanted with annuals or used in conjunction with ferns and hostas and other shade-loving perennials that will expand as the growing season progresses.
Virginia bluebells grow and spread from rhizomes; the plants will also self-sow in spots where they are growing well. For introducing the plant in your garden, sow seed in either spring or fall, or plant nursery transplants in early spring. Plants can be divided after the leaves start to die back in the spring, or they can be divided in fall if you remember to mark their location before they go dormant. As in their native habitat, they need a humus-rich soil, adequate moisture in spring, and sun before the trees leaf out. A dry habitat in summer suits them fine since they go dormant. Their fleshy rhizomes will rot in a poorly drained soil that stays boggy year-round. Although bluebells don’t attract rabbits, deer sometimes browse on the foliage.
Hyacinthoides hispanica: Wikimedia Commons
NOTE: There is another early-spring plant called bluebells, Hyacinthoides hispanica, also known as wood hyacinths or Spanish bluebells, of the family Asparagaceae. Grown from bulbs, these plants produce clumps of strappy leaves and very pretty blue bell-shaped flowers along tall, sturdy stems. These perennials are not native, and multiply rapidly, sometimes into unplanned or undesired places. The plant has been categorized as an invasive by the Exotic Management Team of the National Park Service.
DWARF CRESTED IRIS
Iris Cristata; Kid Cowboy, Wikimedia Commons
Now we’ll leave the Boradacineae family and consider Iris Cristaa, commonly called Dwarf Crested Iris, of the family Iridiceae. This low-growing, rapidly spreading plant is native to North America. It typically grows to 3-6” tall and features pale blue, lilac, or lavender iris flowers with gold crests on the falls. Flowers are borne on very short stems, often appearing nearly stemless. Narrow, sword-shaped, yellowish-green to medium green leaves about 6” long provide an attractive ground cover. The plant spreads quickly through a network of branching rhizomes and forms dense colonies in optimum growing conditions. This is an excellent plant for early spring bloom in a shaded area of the rock garden, perennial border or woodland garden. Conditions should mimic its native setting: somewhat acidic, well-drained, humusy, most soil in shade to partial shade. Although it can also tolerate some sun, more moisture is required in that setting. Soil that is too rich will promote excessive vegetative growth. When in flower, a well-developed bed can produce a spectacular drift of violet-blue color. It is easily grown from bulbs planted in the fall, or it can be divided in the fall once the foliage turns yellow. As with other bulb plants, dividing the rhizomes every few years will reduce overcrowding and help to invigorate the plants. The plant is a good nectar source for bees and hummingbirds. It is deer resistant, but monitor for damage from slugs and snails.
The Boraginaceae family offers several blue-flowered, spring-blooming perennials that thrive in shade and are deer and rabbit resistant (with the exception of Virginia bluebells). Some also offer interesting foliage after the flowers fade. Iris cristata of the Iridiceae family offers a striking blue flower, deer resistance, and shade tolerance. With such desirable characteristics, any or all of these specimens could be excellent additions to brighten the spring shade garden!
“Brunnera microphylla,” www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/
“Why Blue Is the World’s Favorite Color,” www.artsy.net/editorial
“Shade Gardening with Colorful Foliage,” www.chicagobotanic.org/colorful_foliage
“Pulmonaria officinalis,” www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder
“Plant Sport Mutations – What Does It Mean When A Plant “Throws A Sport,” www.gardeningknowhow.com/plant-sport-mutations
“Mertensia virginica, “www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder
“Iris cristata,” www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/iris cristata
“Iris Cristata,” Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, wildflower.org/ iris cristata
“Iris cristata, dwarf crested iris,” Northern Virginia Master Gardeners, mgnv.org/plants/ground-cover/iris-cristata
Brunnera macrophylla ‘Silver Heart’ (Siberian bugloss ‘Silver Heart’)
Brunnera macrophylla ‘Silver Heart’
Variety or Cultivar
‘Silver Heart’ _ ‘Silver Heart’ is a compact, mound-forming, rhizomatous perennial, bearing thick, heart-shaped, silvery-grey leaves, dark green at the margins and veins, and broad, airy panicles of small, deep blue flowers in spring.
Cushion or Mound Forming, Compact
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Deep-blue in Spring
How to care
Watch out for
Generally pest free. The fact that slugs don’t like the leaves gives this plant an edge over hostas for shade planting. These two plants work well interplanted together.
Cut stems and leaves down to the ground in spring rather than autumn to protect the crown during winter.
Divide and replant roots of crowded clumps in early spring. Grow from root cuttings in a cold frame and plant the rooted cuttings in a nursery bed in early summer and replant the hardier plants later in the year.
Division, Root cuttings
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Where to grow
Brunnera macrophylla ‘Silver Heart’ (Siberian bugloss ‘Silver Heart’) will reach a height of 0.3m and a spread of 0.5m after 2-5 years.
Cottage/Informal, Flower Arranging, Beds and borders, Containers
Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in a cool site in full or partial shade. More tolerant of heat and humidity than other Brunnera cultivars.
Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Sandy (will tolerate most soil types)
Moist but well-drained
Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Partial Shade, Full Shade
North, East, West
UK hardiness Note: We are working to update our ratings. Thanks for your patience.
Zone 7, Zone 6, Zone 5, Zone 4, Zone 3
Silvery heart-shaped leaves form dense clumps of foliage with a beautiful moonlight shimmer. Brunnera macrophylla ‘Silver Heart’ bears delicate sprays of bright blue flowers in late spring that make a particularly eye-catching display. This is a choice collector’s plant, but an easy-to-grow perennial that performs well in all but the driest of shady conditions. Excellent for the woodland garden, provided there is sufficient moisture, plants can tolerate full sun; as the leaves are so thick, little or no scorching occurs. For decorative ground cover, Siberian Bugloss is hard to beat, particularly in those dull, shaded corners of the garden. Bred by Spitsbergen-Willemsen of the Netherlands.
Sun Exposure: part to full shade. This variety can tolerate full sun if kept moist. (although would do best if only full morning sun)
Soil type: most,
Soil PH: all
Soil Moisture: average to moist
Care level: Easy
Flower color: Deep blue (the colour of forget me nots)
Bloom time: mid to late spring
Foliage Color: Silver with green edging and veining
Uses and Characteristics: Accent: Good Texture/Form, Alpine & Rock, Border, Containers, Deer and Rabbit Resistant, Edging, Ground Cover, Massed, Specimen, Woodland
Flower head size: small
Height: 30cm (12″)
Spread: 60 cm (24”)
Growth Rate: mediumPropagation: By division in early fall or spring. Divide when center of clumps dies out.
Jack Frost Brunnera
Fall Roots Upon Arrival:
It is very important to plant these dormant perennials as soon as possible after you receive them. If it is absolutely necessary to store them for a short time before planting them, open the cartons and any plastic that is around the roots. If the roots appear dry, soak them for a few hours in warm water. Thereafter store in slightly moist peat moss in a cold, but not freezing location until you can plant. They can also be placed in pots of soil if planting will be delayed for more than 2 weeks. Use any packaged, peat-based potting soil and pots with drainage holes. Most Bulbs, Perennials and many other garden plants require ‘well-drained’ soil in order to thrive. Areas that often have ‘sitting’ water or constantly soggy soil can quickly cause roots to rot and deteriorate, especially over winter.
Planting Roots General Info:
It is a good idea to soak any bare-root perennials in water for a few hours, but not more then a day, before planting. Add organic matter to the area and provide good drainage unless the plant variety enjoys wet roots. Unless otherwise specified, bare-root perennials are usually planted with the crown (where the shoots meet the roots) an inch below the soil surface. Firm soil gently to eliminate air pockets and water in well. Mark the area clearly since it may be awhile before the plant shows itself. Pay particular attention to watering any new plants during the first season. Once established plants generally have some drought tolerance and will only need to be watered if the season is hot and dry.
Planting Brunnera: Plant so that crowns are just below soil surface, 12-18” apart. Prefers fertile, organic, moist, well-drained soil and partial shade. Remove any all-green shoots from variegated plants. White leaf edges may scorch from hot sun or wind exposure.
Growing: Little care is needed once Brunnera is established. Cut back the old foliage in the spring rather than in the fall; it will help to protect the crown during the winter. A winter mulch is also recommended.