- Growing Almonds – How to Grow Almonds
- How to Grow Almonds – A Guide to Growing Almonds
- Further Information on Almonds
- How Almonds Grow
- The Budding
- The Blossom
- The Fruit
- The Harvest
- The Packaging
- Nut Trees
- Growing Almond Trees – Information On The Care Of Almond Trees
- How to Grow an Almond Tree
- Care of Almond Trees
- Harvesting Almond Tree Fruit
Growing Almonds – How to Grow Almonds
How to Grow Almonds – A Guide to Growing Almonds
Almond trees are In the same family as peaches, nectarines and plums, and the nuts grow as kernels within the fruit in the same way. Almonds can be grown from the nut (or seed) but it is more reliable to buy a young tree, either bare root or pot grown, which will fruit in its second or third year.
Almonds are easy to grow but cropping will be light unless the right weather conditions prevail: warm, dry summers and frost-free winters. They have good drought resistance once established.
- Pot grown almond trees can be planted at any time of year, but it is best to plant during the dormant period in winter as long as the soil is not frozen or water-logged; bare rooted trees should be planted late autumn–early spring.
- Almonds are happiest in free draining, deep soil.
- They prefer a sunny position but will tolerate light shade. The nuts will not ripen in shaded areas.
- Always plant your fruit tree so that the grafting union is above the level of the soil.
- Dig a hole large enough to comfortably accommodate the depth and size of the roots and water in well after planting.
- Remove any vegetation around the base of the tree and mulch well, to help keep in the moisture and discourage weeds, etc, growing and competing with the young tree.
- The tree will flower on second year wood – prune after the tree has flowered and set fruit.
- Harvest Almonds late August–September.
- In a warm, dry summer, the fleshy outer hulls or casings will begin to split open, allowing the kernel to dry. If the weather is not co-operative, you will need to cut the outer casing to remove the kernel. Ideally, the almonds will be ready to harvest when three-quarters or so of the hulls are split open.
- Pick the almonds or shake out them out of the tree, laying a net or sheet underneath to catch them. A broom handle is a useful aid to knocking the nuts off the tree.
- Lay out the kernels in a warm place with good air circulation to dry for a few days.
- Almonds can be stored in their kernel, or shelled.
Pests and Problems with Almonds
- Almond trees can suffer peach leaf curl. Read advice on dealing with peach leaf curl, or grow a resistant variety.
Varieties of Almond
- Make sure that you buy a sweet almond tree, not a bitter almond variety grown for its flowers.
- Almond tree Robijn is self-fertile and has good resistance to peach leaf curl.
- In some varieties the fruit flesh is edible in the same way as peaches and nectarines.
- Almonds can be used in many different ways.
Further Information on Almonds
Almond Trees from the Allotment Shop
How Almonds Grow
In the fall, flower parts begin to develop on the edges of the growing bud. By mid-December, pollen grains are present. The tiny bud remains dormant until early January when it grows rapidly.
A good chill during November and December followed by a warmer January and February coaxes the first almond tree blossoms from their buds. Because the almond tree is not self-pollinating, at least two different varieties of trees are necessary for a productive orchard. Bees pollinate alternating rows of almonds varieties. From February onward, orchards should be frost-free, have mild temperatures (55 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and minimal rain so blossoms can flourish and bees can do their job.
After the petals drop and the trees have leafed out, the first signs of the fuzzy gray-green “fruit” appear. The hull continues to harden and mature and in July it begins to split open. Between mid-August and late October, the split widens, exposing the shell, which allows the kernel (nut) to dry. The whole nut and stem finally separate and, shortly before harvest, the hull opens completely.
State of the art technology is used to ensure the highest quality almonds. California’s growing and sanitary standards lead the world, both in the field and in the almond processing plant. To prepare for harvest, orchard floors are swept and cleared. Mechanical tree “shakers” knock unshelled nuts to the ground, where they are allowed to dry before they are swept into rows and picked up by machine. Finally, they are transported to carts and towed to the huller.
At the processing plant, a random sample of almond shells are cracked open and the nuts inside are graded according to size and quality. Almonds are inspected to make sure they are whole, clean, well-dried and virtually free from decay, rancidity, insects, foreign matter, mold and any kind of breakage or blemish. Almonds are then processed and packed to specification in an assortment of sizes and shapes. Stored properly at 40 degrees Fahrenheit with low humidity, almonds have a shelf life of up to three years.
If you have questions about our Nut Trees – or about any of our products throughout our website please contact us.
At Willis Orchard Company it has been our ongoing commitment to always offer the finest selection of nut trees and seedling for sale to our customers. In our experience, the planting, caring for and harvesting of nut trees offers a host of benefits – something that those who have never done it can only imagine. We are lovers of the outdoors – of what nature can supply to us and how, through the tending of the things that we grow, we can reap great rewards, personal satisfaction and growth.
Nutritional Value – Nuts of all varieties offers a wealth of nutritional value; that can’t be disputed. Imagine the value of having all that nutrition right in your backyard, right at your fingertips? The availability of nuts on this level could very well change your day to day eating habits and, as a result, your health.
Economical Value – If you’ve been to the grocery store lately, you know the prices that are garnered for nuts of all kinds. It can be downright unaffordable to eat healthy in this day and age. With the planting of our own nut trees, you free yourself from the economic stress associated with eating well.
Chemical-Free – When you buy your nuts from a store, you have no way of knowing what pesticides or other chemicals they were treated with or exposed to throughout their journey to your kitchen. When you grow your own nuts, you can have the peace of mind that comes with knowing that your nuts are completely and totally chemical free. Not only that, you grew these nuts from your own nut trees!
Feeling of Accomplishment – Theres nothing that can adequately explain the feeling of self-accomplishment that comes with being able to walk right outside your door and pick your own nuts right from your own nut trees. Join in the fun and plant your own home orchard today!
Don’t know what you’re looking for? Our friendly, knowledgeable staff is ready to assist you with all of your needs.
Growing Almond Trees – Information On The Care Of Almond Trees
Cultivated as early as 4,000 B.C., almonds are native to central and southwest Asia and were introduced to California in the 1840’s. Almonds (Prunus dolcis) are prized for use in candies, baked goods and confections, and for the oil processed from the nut. These stone fruits from growing almond trees are also reputed to aid in a number of physical ills and are used in folk remedies for everything from cancer treatment to corns to ulcers. As popular as they are, what about growing them in the home landscape?
How to Grow an Almond Tree
When growing almond trees, it’s helpful to know that the trees don’t tolerate overly wet soil and are extremely susceptible to spring frost. They thrive in mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers in full sun. If your region doesn’t fall within these parameters, it’s unlikely an almond tree will set fruit for you.
Additionally, very few varieties of almond tree are self fertile, and therefore need cross pollination for fruit production, so you’ll need to plant at least two trees. If space is at a premium, you can even plant two in the same hole, wherein the trees will grow together and intertwine, allowing the flowers to cross pollinate.
Almond trees are deep rooted and should be planted in deep, fertile and well-draining sandy loam. Almond trees should be planted 19 to 26 feet apart and irrigated despite the fact that the trees are drought tolerant. An application of nitrogen and organic fertilizer will aid in growth. These trees have high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) requirements.
To plant the almond tree, dig a hole wider than deep and make sure the roots fit easily into the depth of the hole, then water in deeply. You may need to stake the little tree if you live in a windy area, but remove the stakes after a year or so to allow the tree proper growth.
Care of Almond Trees
Almond tree care varies according to the season. In the winter or dormant season, the growing almond trees should be pruned (December/January) to promote growth, allow light, and remove any dead or diseased limbs or suckers. Clean the area of debris around the tree to eliminate overwintering navel orange worms and spray with dormant oil to kill peach twig borer, San Jose scale and mite eggs.
During the spring bloom season, care of almond trees should include fertilization of mature trees with urea or manure, watered in or small doses of nitrogen for young trees. Drip irrigation should be initiated daily for those newly planted, with the trees needing at least 2 to 3 inches of water. Established trees can get by on 2 to 3 inches of weekly watering in the absence of rain and may require additional watering during times of drought. Also, if the tree is planted in shallow or sandy soil, it will need more water.
During the summer, continue to irrigate and fertilize at the same rate as the spring application up until harvest.
Harvesting Almond Tree Fruit
The harvesting of almond tree fruit occurs after the hulls split and the shell becomes dry and brown in color. Almonds need 180 to 240 days for nuts to mature wherein the nut (embryo and shell) has dried to minimum moisture content.
To harvest the almonds, shake the tree, then separate the hulls from the nut. Freeze your almond nuts for one to two weeks to kill any residual worms and then store in plastic bags.
Lastly, when caring for almond trees, spray the trees during or after the leaves drop in the fall before the winter rains. This will reduce the damage from shot hole fungus in the spring.
Almond, (Prunus dulcis), tree native to southwestern Asia and its edible seed. A member of the family Rosaceae (order Rosales), Prunus dulcis is an economically important crop tree grown primarily in Mediterranean climates between 28° and 48° N and between 20° and 40° S, with California producing nearly 80 percent of the world’s supply. There are two varieties, sweet almond (P. dulcis variety dulcis) and bitter almond (P. dulcis variety amara). Sweet almonds are the familiar, edible type consumed as nuts and used in cooking or as a source of almond oil or almond meal. The oil of bitter almonds is used in the manufacture of flavouring extracts for foods and liqueurs, though prussic acid must first be removed. Almonds may be eaten raw, blanched, or roasted and are commonly used in confectionery baking. In Europe almonds are used to make marzipan, a sweet paste used in pastries and candy, and in Asia almonds are often used in meat, poultry, fish, and vegetarian dishes. While more than 25 types of almonds are grown in California, Marcona and Valencia almonds come from Spain, and ferragnes are imported from Greece.
Almond trees are deciduous with a hardy dormancy. Typically growing 3–4.5 metres (10–15 feet) tall, the trees are strikingly beautiful when in flower; they produce fragrant, five-petaled, light pink to white flowers from late January to early April north of the Equator. The flowers are self-incompatible and thus require insect pollinators to facilitate cross-pollination with other cultivars. The growing fruit (a drupe) resembles a peach until it approaches maturity; as it ripens, the leathery outer covering, or hull, splits open, curls outward, and discharges the pit. Despite their common label, almonds are not true nuts (a type of dry fruit) but rather seeds enclosed in a hard fruit covering.
tree shakerA tree shaker harvesting pecans. The same method is employed to harvest almonds.DaleJohnson/Pond5.comSee all videos for this article
The sweet almond is cultivated extensively in certain favourable regions, though nut crops are uncertain wherever frosts are likely to occur during flowering. The Old World almond cultivation was characterized by small plantings mainly for family use; trees interplanted with other crops; variability in age, condition, and bearing capacity of individual trees; and hand labour, often with crude implements. Modern almond growers are typically more industrial, with vast orchards of at least three types of trees the same age. Mechanized tree shakers are often used to expedite harvesting, and many growers must rent honeybees during flowering season to pollinate their trees. Indeed, the annual pollination of the almonds in California is the largest managed pollination event in the world, with more than 1.1 million beehives brought to the state each year. Colony collapse disorder (CCD), which has led to a global decline of honeybee populations, threatens the multibillion dollar industry.
Bitter and sweet almonds have similar chemical composition. Both types contain between 35 and 55 percent of fixed oil (nonvolatile oil), and both feature the enzyme emulsin, which yields glucose in the presence of water. Bitter almonds have amygdalin, which is present only in trace amounts in sweet almonds, and the oil of bitter almonds contains benzaldehyde and prussic (hydrocyanic) acid. Almonds are high in protein and fat and provide small amounts of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, B complex, and E.
Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today