3 in 1 soil conditioner

Why and How to Use Soil Amendments

Common Types of Soil Amendments

Many types of soil amendments exist, each with a different role. Some of the most common types include:

  • Organic matter: Substances such as finished compost, well-rotted leaves and other natural materials, worked down into soil, improve the way soil particles fit together and the way air and water move through them. Organic matter improves the soil’s capacity for holding water and nutrients, and increases the activity of beneficial microorganisms. Earthworm castings amends soil with organic matter* and benefits your plants in many other ways.
  • Lime: When lime is used to restore balance to soil pH, lawn grasses and other plants benefit. A source of calcium, lime works to raise soil pH. This is especially important when overly acidic soil (with pH lower than 6.0) interferes with your lawn’s ability to absorb nutrients, including those from fertilizers. Pennington Fast Acting Lime starts working as soon as it’s watered in, and raises soil pH quicker than regular lime.
  • Elemental sulfur: When soil pH becomes too alkaline (with pH over 7.5 to 8.0) or when you want to grow your own blueberries or other plants that need low soil pH -such as Azaleas, Camellias, Hydrangeas and Rhododendron, elemental sulfur is often recommended. Mixed into garden soil or applied in a granular form and watered in, sulfur lowers soil pH slowly over time.
  • Ammonium sulfate: As the numbers on the label show ammonium sulfate is a fast-acting, high-nitrogen, 21-0-0 fertilizer. It also contains sulfur. Lilly Miller Ammonium Sulfate 21-0-0 pairs 21 percent nitrogen with 24 percent sulfur to feed lawns, gardens, shrubs and trees while lowering soil pH more quickly than elemental sulfur. It also keep acid-loving plants, such as azaleas, healthy and happy.
  • Gypsum: When soil pH is right, but other factors are off, gypsum can help. Gypsum modifies soil without any significant change to soil pH as it increases water penetration, loosens compacted clay soils and promotes easier root penetration. Pennington Fast Acting Gypsum works quickly to improve soil structure, maintain soil pH and add calcium to soil. It’s a great for vegetable gardens with plants that have higher calcium needs, such as tomatoes.

Why Soil pH Matters

Plants rely on 17 nutrients for healthy, normal growth, and they depend on soil for most of them. These nutrients aren’t optional; they’re known as “essential nutrients” because plants cannot survive without them. Soil pH plays a vital role in determining whether your lawn grasses, ornamentals and edibles get the nutrients they need. This applies to existing soil nutrients and those that fertilizers add.

Most plants do best when soil pH is in the slightly acidic, near-neutral range of 6.0 to 7.0 pH. In high-alkaline soils, major nutrients become “tied up” so that plants can’t absorb them. The same thing happens in overly acidic soil. Lawn grasses and other plants become pale, lose their vigor and can’t tolerate stresses such as heat and drought. In low-pH lawns, less desirable plants, such as lawn moss, move in where grasses fail and bare lawn spots arise.

What Is Soil Conditioner: Using Soil Conditioner In The Garden

Poor soil can describe a range of conditions. It can mean compacted and hard pan soil, soil with excessive clay, extremely sandy soil, dead and nutrient depleted soil, soil with high salt or chalk, rocky soil, and soil with extremely high or low pH. You can experience just one of these soil issues or a combination of them. Most of the time, these soil conditions are not noticed until you start digging holes for new plants, or even after planting and they do not perform well.

Bad soil can restrict the water and nutrient uptake of plants, as well as restrict the root development causing plants to yellow, wilt, dry up be stunted and even die. Fortunately, poor soils can be amended with soil conditioners. What is soil conditioner? This article will answer that question and explain how to use soil conditioner in the garden.

What’s in Soil Conditioner?

Soil conditioners are soil amendments that improve the soil structure by increasing aeration, water holding capacity, and nutrients. They loosen up compacted, hard pan and clay soils and release locked up nutrients. Soil conditioners can also raise or lower pH levels depending on what they are made of.

Good soil for plants is usually comprised of 50% organic or inorganic material, 25% air space and 25% water space. Clay, hard pan and compacted soils lack the necessary space for air and water. Beneficial microorganisms make up a portion of the organic matter in good soil. Without proper air and water, many microorganisms can’t survive.

Soil conditioners can be organic or inorganic, or a combination of synthetic and natural matter. Some ingredients of organic soil conditioners include:

  • Animal manure
  • Compost
  • Cover crop residue
  • Sewage sludge
  • Sawdust
  • Ground pine bark
  • Peat moss

Common ingredients in inorganic soil conditioners might be:

  • Pulverized limestone
  • Slate
  • Gypsum
  • Glauconite
  • Polysaccharides
  • Polycrymalides

How to Use Soil Conditioner in Gardens

You may be wondering what’s the difference between soil conditioner vs. fertilizer. After all, fertilizer also adds nutrients.

It is true that fertilizer can add nutrients to soil and plants, but in clay, compacted or hard pan soils, these nutrients can become locked up and unavailable to the plants. Fertilizer does not change the soil structure, so in poor quality soil they may help treat the symptoms but they may also be a total waste of money when the plants can’t use the nutrients they add. The best course of action is to amend the soil first, then start a fertilizing regime.

Before using soil conditioner in the garden, it is recommended that you get a soil test so that you know what conditions you are trying to correct. Different soil conditioners do different things for different soil types.

Organic soil conditioners improve soil structure, drainage, water retention, add nutrients and supply food for microorganisms, but some organic soil conditioners can be high in nitrogen or use up a lot of nitrogen.

Garden gypsum specifically loosens up and improves the exchange of water and air in clay soils and soil that is high in sodium; it also adds calcium. Limestone soil conditioners add calcium and magnesium, but also correct highly acid soils. Glauconite or “Greensand” adds potassium and magnesium to the soil.

Gardening season is in full swing as evidenced by all the requests for soil and mulch we receive from our website. As part of these requests we get a common question: How much do I need? We thought it would be helpful to walk through a few real-world examples.

First, some background info on calculations and products.

  • To know the root of calculations, there are 27 cubic feet in a cubic yard (3’ x 3’ x 3’), the common measurement for selling soil and mulch.
  • To get a sense of volumes, a full-size pickup truck holds about 2 cubic yards. A volkswagon beetle is roughly the same volume as 15 cubic yards.

Next, let’s walk through a few real-world examples and calculate how much material is needed for a project.

NOTE: If you want to skip learning the math, then head straight over to our landscape calculator.

EXAMPLE #1: We need soil for two 8′ x 4′ x 18″ raised beds.

(~BD in Windsor Locks, CT)

Okay, BD. Let’s figure this out. So first let’s pretend these two raised beds are stretched end-to-end. They would measure 16’ long x 4’ wide and 18” tall. Now let’s go through the steps

Therefore, you’ll need about 3.5 cubic yards of garden blend for this project. We recommend rounding up to 4 cubic yards since you can almost always use more product top-dressing your lawn, the raised beds, or mixed into potting containers.

EXAMPLE #2: “How much mulch do I need to cover a 20’ x 30’ new garden with 3” of soil amendment?”

(~NM in Surrey, BC)

  1. Convert all dimensions from inches into feet. (3” ÷ 12” = .25 feet)
  2. Multiply the three dimensions together (length x width x height) to find the number of cubic feet needed. (20’ long x 30’ wide x 0.25’ high = 150 cubic feet)
  3. Divide the cubic feet by the number of cubic feet in a cubic yard (27) to find the number of cubic yards (150 ÷ 27 = 5.56 cubic yards)

There you go, NM: You will need about 5-6 cubic yards for your project!

(~KH in Virginia)

Okay, KH. Here we go, with a modified step to convert to bags.

  • Convert all dimensions into feet (2” ÷ 12” = 0.16’)
  • Multiply length x width x height (20’ x 10’ x 0.16’ = 33 cubic feet)
  • FOR CUBIC YARDS, we’d divide (33 ÷ 27 = 1.23 cubic yards). BUT INSTEAD we want to find out how many bags of mulch KH needs. So if she wants 1-cubic foot bags she’ll need to divide by 1 (33 ÷ 1 = 33 1-cubic foot bags). If she wants 2-cubic-foot bags she’ll need to divide by 2 (33 ÷ 2 = 17 2-cubic-foot bags).

Voila, our landscape calculator comes to the same conclusions (see screenshot).

Feeling inspired?

Hopefully this post helps you get a feel for dimensions and how much product you’ll need for your next landscaping project. We offer many quality soil and mulch products in bulk and bagged quantities. Or simply head on over to our contact page to request a quote. Happy landscaping!

Soil Amendments & Garden Mulch

In most cases, the difference between a soil amendment and a mulch is how you use it. Amendments are worked into the soil and mulch is placed on top of the soil. Some soil amendments (compost, soil conditioner) also make great mulches.

Generally, a soil amendment is used to enrich the soil and to help build soil structure. Many people in the Seattle area have either clay soils or sandy soils. With clay soil, the main concern is compaction. With sandy soil, the major concern is moisture retention. Any of our amendments will help both of these issues!

Mulching is most beneficial. It helps keep weeds in check by covering the soil enough so that sunlight can’t penetrate and weed seeds don’t germinate. If new seeds blow in, they will germinate on this nice rich ground surface but removing them will be much easier because of how light and fluffy most mulches are.

Mulch also helps the soil retain moisture and therefore is helpful in keeping your water bill down! The additional loose, nutrient-rich soil allows water to penetrate easily. The soil below the mulch will stay hydrated longer because the mulch is sheltering it from the sun, hence keeping it cooler and slowing evaporation. Approximately two inches of mulch is adequate for the above purposes.

Note: Soil amendments have nutrients, but not sufficient amounts to forego fertilizers altogether. In fact, amendments, mulches, and fertilizers work best in conjunction with one another.

Swansons-Recommended Soil Amendments

For Improving Soil Structure Anywhere

G&B Organics Soil Building Conditioner
This product is engineered to deal with issues of compacted or sandy soil. Larger pieces of bark and recycled forest products help break up compacted soil and create air pockets in the soil, allowing water to better penetrate. This product is also beneficial for sandy soils because organic matter is better at holding onto water, so the soil doesn’t dry out so quickly. We recommend adding conditioner, especially when planting trees, shrubs, and perennials in the garden.

E.B. Stone Organics Planting Compost
This product has a blend of ingredients useful for all soil types: composted wood shavings, redwood compost, mushroom compost, and more. It has a more soil-like texture that the Soil Building Conditioner.

For Vegetable Gardens

Harvest Supreme
If you are planting veggies (and annuals, too) Harvest Supreme is our go-to product. It is very similar to G&B Organics Soil Building Conditioner but has more composted chicken manure, plus rice hulls, bat guano, and kelp meal.

Farmyard Blend
If chicken or cow manure are desired in the amendment, consider Farmyard Blend. Its main ingredients are dairy cow and poultry manures harvested from certified organic farms. It also has rice hulls and recycled forest products, which are both excellent for improving your soil structure.

Before Adding a New Lawn

E.B. Stone Organics Planting Compost
For enriching the soil before sowing or adding sod, we recommend this compost. It will help improve the structure of the lawn while also adding sufficient amounts of fine organic matter. Add about 4 inches of compost and work into the soil 12 inches deep, if possible. If you are unable to work that deeply, add 2 inches of compost for every 6 inches of depth.

For Seeding & Overseeding a Lawn

G&B Organics Soil Building Conditioner
For seeding and overseeding, we recommend using the Soil Building Conditioner. Always follow the instructions on the back label!

Swansons-Recommended Mulch

For Flower Beds

G&B Organics Soil Building Conditioner & E.B. Stone Organics Planting Compost
Mulch preference is largely a question of aesthetics. An excellent and economical option is the Soil Building Conditioner. If you don’t care for the look of the wood chips in the Soil Building Conditioner and prefer a dark, rich-looking soil, then consider the Planting Compost.

For Vegetable Beds

Harvest Supreme
Harvest Supreme is a nutrient-rich mulch to layer over veggie beds. It helps retain moisture in the soil and also slowly adds organic matter and nutrients, with ingredients such as bat guano and kelp meal.

E.B. Stone Organics Planting Compost
A great all-purpose mulch for the garden, this product produces a clean, dark surface covering that helps retain moisture, suppress weeds, and add nutrients to the soil.

Need help on specific garden projects? Ask us on Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram! Just use hashtag #heyswansons and we’ll offer advice and inspiration!

Learn more about mulch and compost in these blog posts:

Mulch: We Have So Mulch To Talk About
Compost, And The Soils That Love It

Soil conditioners and amendments

Soil conditioners and amendments

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY Dr. Radhey Shyam Assist. Professor-cum-Jr. Scientist (Agronomy) Bhola Paswan Shastri Agricultural College, Purnea
  2. 2. soil conditioners/Amendments
  3. 3. Introduction • A soil conditioner, also called a soil amendment, is a material added to soil to improve plant growth and health. • The type of conditioner added depends on the current soil composition, climate and the type of plant. • A conditioner or a combination of conditioners corrects the soil’s deficiencies. • Fertilizers, such as peat, manure, anaerobic digestate or compost, add depleted plant nutrients. • Gypsum releases nutrients and improves soil structure.
  4. 4. Characteristics of soil conditioners • Soil conditioners are natural and earthy. • Absorb water rapidly. • Compost is “Synthetic manure made from decomposing materials, fertilizer and soil. • Leaves and manures are also natural products.
  5. 5. Function of soil conditioners • They help to improve the amount of minerals in the soil. • Soil that is rich in minerals will produce much healthier vegetation. • Leaves work by attracting earthworms which create a healthy soil . • Soil improved by • Physical • Chemical • Biological
  6. 6. Importance of soil conditioners • Soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil quality. • Soil conditioners can be used to rebuild soils which have been damaged by improper management, to make poor soils more usable, and to maintain soils in peak condition. • A wide variety of products can be used to manage soil quality, with most being readily available from nurseries and garden supply stores. • People can also generate their own soil conditioner with materials from home.
  7. 7. Importance of soil conditioners • Many soil conditioners are designed to improve soil structure in some way. • Soils tend to become compacted over time, which is bad for plants, and soil conditioners can add more loft and texture to keep the soil loose. • They also add nutrients , enriching the soil and allowing plants to grow bigger and stronger. • Soil conditioners improve the water retention in dry, coarse soils which are not holding water well, and they can be added to adjust the PH of the soil to meet the needs of specific plants or to make highly acidic or alkaline soils more usable.
  8. 8. Soil physical conditions and soil conditioners • Soil physical condition is one factor that can limit crop production. • Poor soil physical condition can restrict water intake into the soil and subsequent movement, plant root development, and aeration of the soil. • These goals can be accomplished in part through the use of good management techniques. • Producers and researchers alike are interested in improving the physical condition of the soil and, thus, enhance crop production.
  9. 9. Vital role of soil conditioners • Improved soil structure and aeration • Increased water-holding capacity. • Increased availability of water to plants • Reduced compaction and hardpan conditions. • Improved tile drainage effectiveness • Alkali soil reclamation • Release of “locked” nutrients • Better chemical incorporation • Better root development • Higher yields and quality
  10. 10. Role of soil conditioners/Amendments under INM • Soil conditioners may be used to improve water retention in dry, coarse soils which are not holding water well, and they can be added to adjust the pH of the soil to meet the needs of specific plants or to make highly acidic or alkaline soils more usable. Examples of soil conditioners • Peat • Compost • Coir • Manure • Straw • Vermiculite etc.,
  11. 11. Types and use of soil conditioners/amendments
  12. 12. Types Organic soil conditioners Inorganic (Synthetic) soil conditioners Types and use of soil conditioners/amendments
  13. 13. Organic Green Manure Compost Peat Crop Resides Coconut shell mulch Types of Organic soil conditioners
  14. 14. Organic Soil ConditionersOrganic Soil Conditioners • Soil organic matter serves as a reservoir for nutrients; • Improves soil structure , • Drainage, • Aeration, • Cation exchange capacity, • Buffering capacity, and water-holding capacity; and provides a source of food for microorganisms. • Generally soils having higher in organic matter have improved soil physical conditions. • The effectiveness of organic soil conditioners can be partly evaluated by examining several properties of soil organic matter.
  15. 15. Organic Soil Conditioners • Soil organic matter is defined as the organic fraction of the soil and includes plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of organisms, and compounds synthesized by the soil organism population. • Soil organic matter contains a wide array of compounds ranging from fats, carbohydrates, and proteins to high molecular weight humic and fulvic acids.
  16. 16. Green manureGreen manure  • GM is a crop that is grown mainly to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil, this kind of crop is used in rotation with other crops, which is ploughed under to serve the same purposes as animal manure. • The roots of some green manure grow deep into the soil and bring up nutrients that are not present in shallow rooted crops. • Leguminous crops are especially favored as green manures because they add nitrogen to the soil.
  17. 17. The green manure crop should possess the following desirable characteristics : • have profuse leaves and rapid growth early in its life cycle. • have abundance and succulent tops • be capable of making a good stand on poor and exhausted soils. • have a deep root system. • be legume with good nodular growth habit
  18. 18. Green manuring • Supply Organic Matter • Green manure supplies organic matter to the soil. • The organic residues from green manure also help to provide the stability of soil structure needed for optimum plant growth. • Humus formed from green manure increases the absorptive capacity of soil, promotes aeration, drainage and granulation, which help the plant growth. • Green manuring improves the structure of the soil. Organic matter stimulates the activity of soil micro-organisms. • The ability to bind contaminants is exhibited when using organic soil mulches in construction of filter germs.
  19. 19. Addition of Nitrogen: •The green manuring crop supplies additional nitrogen to organic matter, if it is a legume crop, which has the ability to fix nitrogen from the air with the help of its root nodule bacteria (e.g. Rhizobium). •The legume crop adds nitrogen for the succeeding crop. •So all the legumes crop leave the soil in better physical condition and richer in nitrogen content. •They return the plant nutrients of deeper layers to the upper top soil Nutrient and Soil Conservation •Green manuring crops act as cover crop.
  20. 20. • They protect the soil from erosion and nutrient loss by taking up soluble nutrients which might otherwise have been lost in drainage water or due to erosion. • Green manuring crops make available phosphorous and other nutrients fort he succeeding crops. • Green manure has a marked residual effect also. • Increases the biochemical activity. • The organic matter added to soil by way of green manure acts as food for micro-organisms. • The organic matter stimulates the activity of micro-organisms and they stimulate the biochemical changes accordingly.
  21. 21. Green manuring increases crop yield: • Green manure increases the organic matter and nitrogen content (in case of leguminous green manuring crop) of the soil. • It is proved that if green manuring is done properly, it always results in increased yields of the succeeding crops.
  22. 22. Compost • Composting is comes naturally to plant materials. • They return to the earth to supply nutrients for the next cycle of seeds. • kitchen scraps can be recycled and yard waste composting them. • Instead of throwing out produce scraps, egg shells and coffee grounds, can be compost of along with the leaves raked up and the dead plants cleared out of the garden.
  23. 23. Importance of composting • Improve the soil quality to reap their benefits and vitality by releasing the rich nutrients in the compost into the soil • Prevent greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging the aerobic breakdown of organic material and reduces the amount of garden and kitchen waste going to Landfill. • Recycle valuable nutrients and reduce the use of artificial fertilizers
  24. 24. Importance of composting • Adding raw material to compost • Vegetable and food scraps • Fallen leaves (in layers) • Tea leaves and tea bags Sawdust • Coffee grounds , Egg shells, Weeds, Wood ash • Compost and organic soil mulches instead of more conventional methods sediment control are numerous. • Probably the two greatest benefits of using compost as a soil mulch in sediment control • immediate effectiveness • its ability to bind and degrade specific contaminants.
  25. 25. CompostCompost • Compost is made by forming alternate layers of organic matter and soil, commercially made fertilizer can also be added to the compost.
  26. 26. Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Water Components needed during CompostingComponents needed during Composting
  27. 27. Components needed during CompostingComponents needed during Composting • Decomposition can take place even without these ingredients, but the process can be slow and unpleasant. • Vegetables, if decomposed in plastic bag, will develop a foul smell
  28. 28. Home compost • Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic material such as leaves, twigs, grass clippings, and vegetable food waste. • Compost is the soil amendment product that results from proper composting. • composting helps to keep the high volume of organic material out of landfills and turns it into a useful product
  29. 29. Compost
  30. 30. Application • General application rates for compost or other organic soil amendments are based on the salt content of the materials and soil and on the depth to which it is cultivated into the soil. • Ideally, cultivate the soil amendment into the top six to eight inches of the soil. • On compacted/clayey soils, anything less can lead to a shallow rooting system with reduced plant growth, lower vigor, and lower stress tolerance. • Compost, which includes manure or biosolids as a component, has a potential for high salts • Excessive salt levels are common in many commercially available products sold in Colorado.
  31. 31. • Compost needs to be thoroughly mixed into the upper six to eight inches of the soil profile. • Do not leave compost in chunks, as this will interfere with root growth and soil water movement. • As the soil organic content builds in a garden soil, the application rate should be reduced to prevent ground water contamination issues. • A soil test is suggested every four to six years to establish a base line on soil organic matter content If using a green manure cover crop, till the cover crop in before it reaches four inches in height. • In the vegetable garden do not plow in woody materials such as bark or woodchips. • They may interfere with seedbed preparation and may result in soil nitrogen depletion.
  32. 32. Benefits of composting • Compost that are stable in nature, possessing significant amounts of humic acids, have the ability to bind nutrients and heavy metals, as moisture passes through the product layer. • Organisms found within compost have the ability to degrade organic contaminants such as hydrocarbons found in petroleum based materials. • Green manure: • The practice of ploughing or turning into soil under-composed green plant tissue for the purpose of improving physical condition as well as fertility of the soil is referred to as green manuring and the manure obtained is known as green manure.
  33. 33. Peat Consists of plant remains; it improves soil structure
  34. 34. Crop Residues •Crop residues contain substantial quantities of plant nutrients. Recycling of plant nutrients •Soil moisture temperature regimes, enhancement of soil structure, erosion control
  35. 35. Crop Residues • Leaves make dark, rich compost that add nutrients to your soil and help keep your plants strong and disease free. • Fall cleanup is a great time to start a compost pile and put those leaves to work.
  36. 36. Approximate C: N ratios of organic material and soil microbes.Approximate C: N ratios of organic material and soil microbes. SI.NO Crop Residues C:N Ratio 1 Alfalfa (young) 13:1 2 Bluegrass 30:1 3 Maize Straw 40:1 4 Straw (small grain) 80:1 5 Sewage Sludge 10-12:1 6 Cattle Manure 30:1 7 Peat Moss 58:1 8 Sawdust Hardwood 295: 1 9 Hardwood 295: 1 10 Pine 729:1 Soil Microbes 11 Bacteria 5:1 Source: Tnau agritech portal
  37. 37. Coconut shell mulch • The mulching made from the grinding up of coconut shells. • its is extremely long lasting since it comes from a tropical plant and decomposes very slowly;
  38. 38. Coconut shell mulchCoconut shell mulch • It has a very strong but pleasant odor which is suppose to keep bugs and animals (dogs and cats) away from the plants it is mulching. Other Organic Fertilizers • Include bird and bat droppings, blood meal, bone meal, and fish meal.
  39. 39. Coconut shell mulchCoconut shell mulch • All these substances contain nitrogen and other essential elements • Bone meal is an excellent source of the element phosphorus. • But blood meal, bone meal, and fish meal is seldom used on farms as fertilizers, because it is too expensive.
  40. 40. Types of Inorganic soil conditionersTypes of Inorganic soil conditioners Inorganic Synthetic Binding Agents Mineral Conditioners Gypsum Types of Inorganic soil conditioners
  41. 41. Synthetic Binding Agents • New polymers applied at much lower rates have been promoted as soil conditioners. • These polymers include Natural polysaccharides, Anionic Cationic polymers, polyacrylamides.
  42. 42. Synthetic Binding AgentsSynthetic Binding Agents • The compounds are very high • molecular weight, • long-chain polymeric, • organic compounds, • which bind particles together and form stable aggregates
  43. 43. Mineral Conditioners • Gypsum has long been recognized for its benefits on high sodium-containing soils. • Gypsum is a mineral with the chemical composition CaSO4 * 2H2O. • It occurs in nature as soft crystalline rock and varies in purity.
  44. 44. Mineral ConditionersMineral Conditioners • Gypsum has been shown to displace exchangeable sodium from the cation exchange sites of soils high in sodium • With irrigation or dryland, gypsum can be used to reclaim saline areas or slick spots, soften and crumble alkali hard pans, supply calcium on low exchange capacity soils, and improve infiltration for some puddled soils.
  45. 45. Mineral ConditionersMineral Conditioners • Gypsum is not recommended on soils containing native gypsum or areas irrigated with water containing abundant amounts of calcium and magnesium • The amount of gypsum to apply depends on the purity of the gypsum and the quantity of sodium present in the soil. • Actual rates should be based on a salt-alkali soil test.
  46. 46. GypsumGypsum • Lowers bulk compactness of soil • Prevents water run-off and eroding • Betters Soil Composition • It affords root growth and air and water movement. • Converts Salty Soils
  47. 47. GypsumGypsum • An economical method to resolve salty soils. • Ties Organic Matter to Clay • The importance of organic matter is magnified when it is dispensed with gypsum. • Soil crusting is impossible and then helps seed emersion.
  48. 48. GypsumGypsum • No crust formation allows more and faster seed emergence and a couple days earlier to harvest and market. • Betters low dissolved matter Irrigation Water • Develops water use efficiency
  49. 49. GypsumGypsum • Gypsum helps the efficiency use of water for the crops. In periods of drought, this is exceedingly important. • Helps moist soils to be tilled easier • Less energy is required for the tillage
  50. 50. Quantity of gypsum applied in mineral soil conditionersQuantity of gypsum applied in mineral soil conditioners • 10 tons/acre. • Gypsum applied at less than 500 pounds per acre • Limestone, crushed rock, and other products high in calcium and/or magnesium which improve the physical condition of some soils, when applied at several tons per acre.
  51. 51. Let Us Sum Up • Soil conditioners to improve agricultural land and increase productivity. • Types of soil conditioners and their role , importance , function and usage are described. •Farmers can adopt this technology to improve the crop production.

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